terça-feira, 18 de novembro de 2014

 Under the jurisdiction of the Miaoli County Cultural Bureau, this wood sculpture museum was opened to public on 9th April 1995. It is the only public museum in Taiwan that is based on wood sculpture.



The tradition of Taiwan wood sculpture derived from the same origins as the Fujianese and Cantonese during the dynasties of Ming and Ching. 
Tainan, Lugang and Dasi had once been in prosperity. Until the periods of Japanese occupation, there was increasing trend in the wood sculpture industry in Tungsiao and Sanyi of the Miaoli County, Fongyuan of Taichung and Wanhua of Taipei. Later, during the 60As, after Taiwan return to the Republic of China, owing to abundant resource of camphor, Sanyi has become internationally famous as The City of Wood Sculpture. Originally regarded as Sanyi Wood Sculpture Arts Gallery, this museum was built by the Construction Department, Taiwan Provincial Government in March 1990 in its aim to promote the arts of wood sculpture.


  Under the jurisdiction of the Miaoli County Cultural Bureau, this wood sculpture museum was opened to public on 9th April 1995. It is the only public museum in Taiwan that is based on wood sculpture.


  The exhibition halls of the museum are found on Level 2,3 and 4 of the second building ,and Level 1,Level 2,and Basement of the mainbuilding. The 9 themes of exhibition include The Introduction of Wood Sculpture, the Styles of Each ChineseDynasty, Austronesian Tribe Wood Sculpture, The Origins of Sanyi Wood Sculpture, Wood Sculpture Exhibition Hall, Temples Deities, Architecture & Furniture, Exhibition of Mix Media, and Invitational Exhibition. Each of the themes is carefully divided into different contents, each with concrete presentation of the beauty of wood sculpture for the publics first-hand experience on the application and arts of the wood sculpture.
history photo

  In order to achieve sustainable operations and to materialize the bringing into full play of the museumAs educational function, in May 2003 the expansion on the storeroom for permanent collections and preservation of wood sculpture was completed. In addition, the spaces for education, exhibition and information on wood sculpture were increased in the aim to bring into full play of the museumAs functions in research and promotion, which in turn would enhance development of the art of wood sculptures in Taiwan.

history photo 

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
http://wood.mlc.gov.tw/english/board/board01_02.asp?m2=4&id=13419

El Museo Pobre - · en CULTURA, INSTITUCIONES, MUSEOGRAFÍA, MUSEOLOGÍA, OPINIÓN. ·

“Hay una guerra de clases, de acuerdo,
pero esa es mi clase, la clase rica,
la que hace la guerra y la acaba ganando.”
Warren Buffett

Hay muchos museos pobres; de hecho, la mayoría de los museos del mundo son museos pobres. No disponen de presupuesto para programar exposiciones temporales, ni pueden pagar a diseñadores, tampoco pueden poner en marcha una campaña publicitaria. El retrato robot de uno de estos museos sin recursos, es el de un edificio vetusto – en ocasiones nuevo – que antaño fue un inmueble importante y que al día de hoy lucha contra las goteras. Se almacenan en sus salas una gran cantidad de objetos de todo tipo; muchos de estos objetos pueden provenir del legado de un coleccionista erudito, muebles retirados de los consistorios municipales, pinturas y tallas religiosas que provienen de la desamortización de las parroquias; armas obsoletas, máquinas que ya no funcionan, colecciones de fósiles, viejas maquetas, abundante colección de grabados, fotografías, dibujos, etcétera.

 
Imagen: Archivo EVE

A toda esta dispersión le debemos añadir un personal muy escaso, casi inexistente, muy voluntarioso, en muchos casos con escasa formación, muy mal pagado, multifunción y en situación precaria. El museo pobre no tiene programación educativa, pero algunos tienen voluntarios dispuestos a todo, personas vinculadas a escuelas locales o institutos de enseñanzas medias. Este tipo de museos no siempre pueden abrir sus puertas; hay días a la semana que cierra o incluso hay que pedir la llave de la puerta para poder visitarlo.

 
Imagen: Mitra Farmand

Estos museos pobres nunca son visitados por autoridades locales ni por supuesto estatales. Es posible que si es el museo pobre es algo nuevo estuvieran el día de la inauguración y nunca más. La máquina administrativa política no tiene interés alguno por estos museos, no ayudan pero tampoco no se atreven a cerrarlos, no fuera que alguien fuera a reprochárselo manchando sus nombres en un periódico local. A ellos, los que deciden, no les cuesta casi un penique mantenerlos.

 
Imagen: Forgotten de Igor Ovsyannykov

La exposición del museo pobre, lo que podríamos denominar el discurso museográfico es pobre también; no ha sido modificado en muchos años y se ha quedado obsoleto. Sus vitrinas siguen en el mismo sitio durante años; se limpian circunstancialmente, con mucho cuidado, pero tampoco hay mimosa que el museo es muy poco visitado. La vida transcurre lánguida y monótona para estos museos pobres. No hay novedades, no se adquieren piezas nuevas – no pueden permitirse una política de adquisiciones -. Cuando alguien dona al museo pobre lo que fuere, se convierte en una celebración, una fiesta para los que luchan por él. La investigación no existe, aunque puede que haya iniciativas a título individual para ayudar a generar un contenido puntual o revisar la historia local en el ámbito de su competencia o afición. No hay restauración; los objetos están al pairo del tiempo y finalmente, en muchos casos, del drama del inevitable olvido.

 
Imagen: Maria Zaikina

¿Dinero? Algo tendrán. ¿De dónde procede? Aquí se dan situaciones muy diversas. La más popular es la subvención municipal, el dinero que proviene de una fundación – en muchos sitios la donación desgrava impuestos – o de un patronato. A veces el personal del museo es funcionario o patrono, muchos están pluriempleados. Nosotros debemos destacar aquí la inmensa labor de los agentes de desarrollo local de los ayuntamientos pequeños, para nosotros auténticos héroes. Hemos sido testigo de cómo estas personas han luchado, bregado, movido cielo y tierra para conseguir el dinero suficiente para abrir un nuevo museo o para renovar uno existente. Muchos de ellos se han dado de narices contra la maquinaria administrativa que no atiende a razones de índole cultural, la mayoría. El neoliberalismo que se nos impone desde los lobbies está devastando la cultura para subir a don dinero a los altares de la élite. Los museos pobres, por tanto, suelen seguir funcionando mal que bien gracias al esfuerzo individual de anónimos, hombres y mujeres entregados a la causa de difundir conocimiento, salvaguardando la memoria histórica de la comunidad.



Gif: Forgotten Nobility

Esto es una visión general a nivel planetario. Hay museos locales ricos, los hay, pero son un grupo minoritario en el gran conjunto del equipamiento global. No nos vamos a detener en ellos porque están a salvo, aunque algunos horrorizan. Nos quedamos con el retrato del museo pobre, que es el que necesita ayuda urgente. Nos fijamos en el museo pobre cuya base de apoyo siempre es inestable, siempre en el filo del cierre y, si finalmente cierran, para todos nosotros sería un verdadero drama, una grandísima pérdida.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA:

MÁRTINEZ GIL, T. - SANTACANA MESTRE, J.
La cultura museística en tiempos difíciles
Editorial TREA, 2013.







Dia Mundial da Gentileza 13/11 pratique todos os dias!


“Dia Nacional da Cultura Brasileira”
visite um dos 200 museus de São Paulo.

 Museu da Magia

Faça um passeio diferente. 
Agrade toda família e aproveite para
conhecer um pouco da arte mágica.
CONVITE (grátis para uma pessoa).

Homenagem aos 30 anos do Museu da Mágica Show de Mágicas de Salão com o Mágico Mister Basart, Mágico do Bambalalão TV2 Cultura Todas as quartas-feiras DESTE MÊS, às 13 horas. 


Local: Museu de Arte Mágica, Prestidigitação, Ilusionismo,Ventriloquia "João Peixoto dos Santos" 

Rua Waldomiro Moreno Rodrigues,136 Vila Nova
20687-000 e 99746-3000 vivo



fonte : @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti www.museumagico.com.br

Visitez les ateliers du musée de l’Air

Pour mieux faire connaître son département, le conseil général de Seine-Saint-Denis a mis en place des offres de « tourisme » pour permettre au grand public de découvrir différents acteurs localisés dans le nord parisien. Parmi ceux-ci figure le musée de l’Air et de l’Espace au Bourget.

Ainsi, tout au long de l’année, à des dates fixes et sur inscription, il est possible de visiter non pas le musée, dont l’accès est gratuite, mais les ateliers de restauration implantés à Dugny, de l’autre côté de la piste 03 par rapport aux halls d’exposition du musée.




Ces ateliers ne sont généralement visitables qu’une fois dans l’année, à l’occasion des Journées du Patrimoine par exemple. Avec Seine-Saint-Denis Tourisme il est ainsi possible de les visiter en petit groupe (âge minimum de 16 ans), durant deux heures et pour 8 euros. La prochaine visite aura lieu le jeudi 18 décembre à 10h00. ♦♦♦

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti Accès au site de Tourisme 93

L'artiste et le musée (revue Culture & Musées)

Appel à proposition d’articles pour un numéro thématique de la revue

Culture & Musées, sous la direction de Julie Bawin et de François Mairesse

L’artiste et le musée

La question de la relation entre l’artiste et le musée se pose aujourd’hui en bien des termes. Passé le temps de la contestation et des incompréhensions mutuelles, balisant l’histoire de l’art (Altshuler 2008 et 2010, Glicenstein 2009), il semblerait que la création vivante entretienne désormais avec l’institution des relations qui ne soient ni de sujétion, ni d’opposition ou d’ambivalence, mais de conciliation, voire de connivence. Une revue de détail des expositions organisées par ou pour des artistes dans les musées les plus divers du monde occidental en révèlerait l’apparente complicité, ce que confirmeraient par ailleurs le nombre toujours croissant d’institutions dédiées à l’art contemporain et l’influence d’un marché où galeristes, curators, art advisors et collectionneurs semblent marcher de concert en faveur de l’art vivant.

Une telle présentation des faits apparaît sans doute comme trop simplificatrice en regard des stratégies artistiques actuelles et, surtout, elle ne nous dit pas ce que représente encore aujourd’hui le musée pour l’artiste. On peut par ailleurs s’interroger sur les enjeux d’une relation qui, aussi étroite soit-elle en apparence, n’est ni fluide, ni perméable dans sa compréhension. Le sujet a déjà fait l’objet de plusieurs investigations ces dernières années (Mnam, 1989, Gob et Montpetit, 2010), mais il demande à être interrogé et réévalué à l’aune des débats et des crises qui ont traversé le paysage artistique et institutionnel récent (Bawin, 2014). Ce numéro de Culture & Musées a donc pour ambition d’analyser les rapports entretenus de nos jours entre le musée et l’artiste à partir des multiples stratégies que ce dernier peut développer – en partenariat ou en confrontation – envers l’institution.
L’artiste toujours consacré par le musée ?

À l’heure où centres d’art, galeries, fondations privées, biennales et foires internationales d’art contemporain se multiplient et constituent pour l’artiste des espaces privilégiés de visibilité, une question se pose : le musée se présente-t-il encore comme un réel enjeu en matière de consécration de la carrière artistique ?
L’artiste contestataire du musée

La figure de l’artiste contestataire, si prégnante dans les années 1960-1970, est-elle encore d’actualité ? Quels seraient, dans cette perspective, les nouveaux Duchamp, Broodthaers, Asher et autres Haake, s’emparant de l’entité muséale pour en questionner ou en critiquer le fonctionnement ?
L’artiste sampleur ou archiviste du musée

Le musée semble avoir donné lieu, depuis quelques années, à une utilisation qui n’est pas sans rappeler la culture du sampling, en musique. La collection et les réserves semblent ainsi se présenter comme une archive ouverte et un réservoir d’inspirations, sorte de discothèque où l’artiste pourra déployer son savoir-faire en « mixant » les œuvres. Le musée rejoindrait-il ainsi les mondes de la musique et de la nuit pour donner à l’artiste un rôle proche de celui des DJ stars ?
L’artiste collaborateur (commissaire et scénographe)

L’organisation ou la scénographie d’expositions par des artistes se présente aujourd’hui comme une opération à laquelle se prêtent les institutions les plus diverses, des plus modestes musées de beaux-arts ou de société aux collections d’art les plus réputées au monde. Quels sont les enjeux, les objectifs et les modes de collaboration de telles invitations et autres « cartes blanches » ?
L’artiste en travailleur (animateur, médiateur, régisseur ou gardien)

Les musées ne constituent pas seulement des lieux où l’artiste est susceptible de montrer ses œuvres ou de concevoir des expositions ; l’artiste ne vit pas toujours de son art. Certains d’entre eux sont employés par l’institution, mais pour y jouer d’autres rôles : animateur, médiateur, régisseur, voire gardien de collections et d’expositions. Que révèlent ces nouveaux profils ? L’artiste – en travailleur (Menger, 2002) – serait-il devenu pour le musée l’idéaltype du professionnel intermittent multi-usage ?
L’artiste en directeur

Le passage d’une carrière d’artiste au métier de conservateur ou de directeur est relativement peu connu. Pourtant, depuis longtemps déjà, des artistes, comme Wim Sandberg ou Jan Hoet, ont interrompu leur pratique pour organiser des expositions et/ou gérer des collections à plein temps. Qui sont-ils aujourd’hui ? Adoptent-ils dans leur fonction une position d’artiste commissaire (ou de commissaire artiste) ou cherchent-ils au contraire à gommer leur passé de créateur ?
L’artiste en fondateur de musée

La donation d’œuvres à un musée, voire la création d’un musée ou d’une fondation se sont longtemps présentées pour l’artiste comme un moyen de contrôler la pérennisation de ses œuvres. Qu’en est-il de nos jours ? Les visées de Soulages à Rodez ou de Bernar Venet au Muy s’inscrivent-elles à la suite (et avec les mêmes avantages) de Donald Judd et de sa fondation créée dans les années 1980 à Marfa ?

Références :

Altshuler, Bruce. 2008. Salon to Biennial – Exhibitions That Made Art History, London: Phaidon.

Altshuler, Bruce. 2013. Biennials and beyond – Exhibitions That Made Art History, London: Phaidon.

Bawin, Julie. 2014. L’artiste commissaire : entre posture critique, jeu créatif et valeur ajoutée, Paris : Editions des archives contemporaines.

(Mnam). 1989. Les Cahiers du Musée national d’art moderne, hors-série : L’art contemporain et le musée.

Glicenstein, Jérôme. 2009. L’art : une histoire d’expositions, Paris : PUF.

Gob, André & Montpetit, Raymond. 2010. Culture & Musées : La révolution des musées d’art, n° 16, Actes Sud.

Menger, Pierre-Michel. 2002. Portrait de l’artiste en travailleur. Métamorphoses du capitalisme, Paris : Seuil.



Merci d’adresser vos propositions d’articles (5000 signes) par courriel avant le 15 janvier 2015 à Julie Bawin (jbawin@ulg.ac.be) et à François Mairesse (francois.mairesse@univ-paris3.fr).

Les résumés comporteront un titre, 5 références bibliographiques ainsi que les noms, adresse électronique et qualité de leur auteur.

Calendrier :
15 janvier 2015 : réception des propositions (résumés)
15 février 2015 : réponses aux auteurs
Juin 2015 : réception des textes
Septembre 2015 : réponses définitives aux auteurs et propositions éventuelles de modifications
Novembre 2015 : réception des textes dans leur version définitive
Juin 2016 : publication
Contacts :
Julie Bawin
jbawin@ulg.ac.be
Université de Liège
Histoire de l’art contemporain
1B, Quai Roosevelt (Bât. A4)
4000 Liège
et
François Mairesse
francois.mairesse@univ-paris3.fr
Université Sorbonne Nouvelle- Paris 3
Médiation culturelle
13, rue de Santeuil
75005 Paris

Responsable : @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.fabula.org/actualites/appel-proposition-d-articles-pour-un-numero-thematique-de-la-revue-culture-musees-l-artiste-et_65637.php  Culture & Musées

Ouro Preto comemora o bicentenário da morte de Aleijadinho

Entre os dias 17 e 21 de novembro, a cidade mineira de Ouro Preto irá celebrar o bicentenário da morte de Francisco Antônio Lisboa, o Aleijadinho. O Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional (Iphan) preparou uma programação especial que inclui seminário com palestras temáticas sobre o mestre, suas obras e barroco brasileiro, oficina de educação patrimonial, exposição, restauração da matriz entre outras. 

Semana_Aleijadinho





No dia 18, o Seminário Aleijadinho e os próximos 100 anos, promovido pelo Instituto acontecerá na Matriz de Nossa Senhora de Antônio Dias, será aberto pelo Diretor do Departamento do Patrimônio Material e Fiscalização (DEPAM/Iphan), Andrey Schlee, juntamente com o presidente do Instituto Brasileiro de Museus (IBRAM), Ângelo Oswaldo, o Conego da Diocese de Mariana, Luis Carlos Ferreira, e representante da Prefeitura Municipal de Ouro Preto.

A Programação conta também com os temas: novos campos de estudo da obra de Aleijadinho – primeiras notas da Comissão de Assessoramentoe o PAC Cidades Históricas e a proteção da obra de Aleijadinho em Minas Gerais – intervenções programadas e em curso, palestra do diretor do PAC Cidades Históricas, Robson Almeida. As experiências de restauração e documentação da obra de Aleijadinho; as Tecnologias Computacionais, e as expressões contemporâneas e o barroco brasileiro também serão assuntos de palestra nos dias 18 e 19 do Seminário a ser realizada na Matriz de Nossa Senhora de Antônio Dias.

Oficina
Com o objetivo de promover o conhecimento e valorização da arte barroca ouro-pretana e despertar nos participantes o interesse e sentimento de apropriação do patrimônio cultural de Ouro Preto, em especial àquela de autoria do mestre Aleijadinho, o Iphan realizará nos dias 14, 18 e 19, a Oficina Olhares sobre Aleijadinho, iniciativa de educação patrimonial que contemplam um conjunto de bens culturais, móveis e imóveis do artista.

As atividades serão desenvolvidas em dois encontros para cada oficina. As comemorações do Bicentenário da Morte do Mestre Aleijadinho acontecerão no período de 11 a 19 de novembro. Desenhos, ilustrações e fotografias, inspirados nas obras do mestre do Barroco, produzidas durante as oficinas pelos alunos da Escola Municipal Professora Juventina Drummond Mendes farão parte da Exposição Olhares sobre Aleijadinho, a ser montada na plataforma da Estação de Ouro Preto, no dia 22 de novembro, culminando as celebrações.

Lançamento
Para finalizar as atividades do Seminário comemorativo da Semana do Aleijadinho, a publicação Antônio Francisco Lisboa: Moldagens de gesso como instrumento de preservação da sua obra, patrocinada pelo Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional (Iphan) será lançada na próxima quarta-feira, dia 19.

O livro apresenta informações históricas, teóricas e práticas envolvidas na proteção, preservação e perpetuação da Aleijadinho por meio dos moldes e moldagens confeccionados entre as décadas de 1930 a 1960, encomendados pelo então diretor do Sphan Rodrigo Melo de Franco Andrade para o acervo do futuro Museu de Moldagens.

A publicação originária de tese de Doutorado defendida em 2013 no Departamento de Pós-Graduação da Escola de Arquitetura (UFMG), em parceria com a Faculdade de Arquitetura da Universidade de Lisboa, aborda a origem e a história das coleções de gesso; do desenvolvimento do uso da técnica dos moldes e moldagens ao longo dos séculos e de sua importância na história da arte e da arquitetura.

Restauração da Matriz
Construída entre 1727 e 1746 com projeto e execução de Manuel Francisco Lisboa, pai de Aleijadinho, a paróquia, que é uma das mais antigas de Minas Gerais e caracteriza-se como um dos elementos de maior representatividade da arquitetura barroca brasileira, receberá recursos do PAC Cidades Históricas e passará os próximos dois anos por sua maior intervenção restaurativa estrutural e arquitetônica.  

Entre as ações da primeira etapa está a implantação de reservatório de água para a inserção de quatro hidrantes no entorno da matriz, o que amplia sua rede de segurança ao seu entorno imediato e bairro Antônio Dias. O investimento previsto para as três fases da restauração são de aproximadamente R$ 6,5 milhões.


Sobre a Semana do Aleijadinho
Criada em 1968, mesmo ano da fundação do Museu Aleijadinho, em uma iniciativa da Paróquia de Nossa Senhora da Conceição em Ouro Preto, a Semana do Aleijadinho tem a finalidade de homenagear o grande ícone do Barroco Mineiro, contribuindo para a preservação da memória artística, histórica e cultural do estado e para a valorização dos artistas contemporâneos. “O Brasil é um país rico em diversidades culturais e artísticas. A obra do Aleijadinho se revela neste cenário pela grandiosa contribuição na formação histórica e artística nacional”, afirma o cônego Luiz Carlos Cesar Ferreira Carneiro, presidente do Museu Aleijadinho, também pároco e reitor do Santuário de Nossa Senhora da Conceição. A 37ª Semana do Aleijadinho é uma realização da Livraria e Editora Graphar e o Museu Aleijadinho de Ouro Preto, em parceria com Claquete Comunicação e diversos apoiadores.

Confira aqui a íntegra da Programação fonte:

Mujeres promotoras de arquitectura





En la Universidad de Granada, los días 21 y 22 de noviembre, se celebra el Seminario Internacional “Mujeres promotoras de arquitectura: matronazgo cívico y religioso de la Antigüedad a la Edad Moderna”, que reúne a destacadas investigadoras en este campo. La relación entre la arquitectura y las ciudades con los estudios de género constituye una novedosa y fértil línea de investigación en el ámbito internacional con una relevante producción científica en distintos campos del saber, desde la Historia, la Historia del Arte, la Arqueología y la Antropología o la Sociología.

Este Seminario Internacional, que inaugura Margaret Woodhull (College of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado), con la conferencia “Women Building Rome: Gender and the Built Environment in the Imperial City from the Augustan to Antonine Eras”, tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre dicho fenómeno histórico con una perspectiva innovadora desde el punto de vista de la arquitectura y diseño de las ciudades y la construcción de su memoria desde la perspectiva de género.

El Día 20, intervienen: Mª Dolores Mirón Pérez (Universidad de Granada): “Por la gracia de las diosas: la actividad edilicia de la reina Apolonis en Pérgamo”. Cándida Martínez López (Universidad de Granada): “La memoria de las mujeres en la arquitectura del occidente romano. Acciones y transformaciones cívicas de matronazgo”. Almudena Domínguez (Universidad de Zaragoza): “Entre mujer y diosa: propaganda y evergetismo de la emperatriz romana en las ciudades”. Amparo Pedregal (Universidad de Oviedo): “Discurso caritativo para prácticas evergéticas. Algunas manifestaciones de matronazgo cristiano tardo antiguo”. Sara Galletti (Duke University): “The art patronage of Maria de Medici”. Ángela Muñoz Fernández (Universidad de Castilla la Mancha): “Beatriz Galindo: perfiles de matronazgo femenino en los albores de la Modernidad”. Begoña Alonso Ruiz (Universidad de Cantabria): “El papel artístico de Isabel, princesa de Castilla y reina de Portugal”. Miguel Ángel Zalama Rodríguez (Universidad de Valladolid): “Juana I y la arquitectura. El palacio real y el monasterio de Santa Clara de Tordesillas”. Emma Cahill Marrón (Universidad de Cantabria): “La promoción artística y cultural de Catalina de Aragón en la Inglaterra Tudor”.

El Día 21, intervienen: Almudena Pérez de Tudela y Gabaldón (Patrimonio Nacional): “La III duquesa de Alba y la arquitectura religiosa y palaciega entre 
Italia y España”. Consuelo Lollobrigida (University of Arkansas, Rome Center): “Anna di Francia e Plautilla Bricci: relazioni e committenze”. Felipe Serrano Estrella (Universidad de Jaén): “Mujeres promotoras de la arquitectura mendicante durante la Edad Moderna”. Mª José Redondo Cantera (Universidad de Valladolid): “La emperatriz Isabel de Portugal y la arquitectura palatina”. Mercedes Simal López (Instituto Universitario La Corte en Europa): “Fantasía trasladada al papel. Isabel de Farnesio y el Real Palacio de La Granja de San Ildefonso”. Rosario Camacho Martínez (Universidad de Málaga): “Isabel de Braganza y el Museo del Prado”.

Las Jornadas concluyen con la Visita al Monasterio de San Jerónimo y a Santa Isabel la Real en Granada.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.mastermuseos.es/actualidad/eventos/mujeres-promotoras-de-arquitectura/

Mapping the World's (Few) Protected Seas

Gabon and the U.S. have new marine reserves, but just a fraction of the seas is protected.


The nation of Gabon recently created a first-of-its-kind network of marine protected areas in central Africa, putting 18,000 square miles (46,600 square kilometers) of coastal water off-limits to commercial fishing. The area is home to threatened species such as great hammerhead sharks, manta rays, and whale sharks, and comes shortly after the Obama Administration said the U.S. will establish the largest marine reserve in the world.


The announcements from each nation were substantially supported by research and documentation from National Geographic's Pristine Seas expeditions. Working with key partners, Pristine Seas aims to explore, survey, and protect some of the last wild places in the world's oceans.

The project "looks for the wildest places in the ocean, to inspire leaders to save them before it's too late," Enric Sala, who leads the initiative, said after last week's Gabon announcement. "Gabon was probably the only such place left in West Africa." (See pictures of Gabon's new marine sanctuary.)

Map of protected seas
 
NG STAFF. SOURCES: WORLD DATABASE ON PROTECTED AREAS; MARINEREGIONS.ORG; MPATLAS
 
Still, just over 2 percent of the world's oceans fall under some sort of official protection. "Although 71 percent of our planet is covered with salt water, we have protected much more of the land than the ocean," says David Helvarg, founder of the oceans advocacy group Blue Frontier Campaign.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti  Dan Stone National Geographic

1,300-year-old fortress-like structure on Siberian lake continues to mystify experts shareThis




It is one of the most mysterious archaeological sites in Russia – an ancient complex engulfing a small island in the center of a remote lake in the mountains of southern Siberia. At first glance, it appears to be an ancient fortress, its perimeter of high walls constructed to keep out enemies. However, others have proposed the 1,300-year-old structure may have been a summer palace, monastery, memorial complex, ritual center, or astronomical observatory. According to the Siberian Times, more than a century after its rediscovery, experts are no closer to understanding the secrets of these enigmatic ruins.






The archaeological site is known as Por Bajin (also spelt Por-Bazhyn), meaning ‘clay house’. It is located on an island in the middle of Tere-Khol Lake in Tuva, Siberia, just 20 miles (32 km) from the Mongolian border. First explored in 1891, the site was not excavated until 1957-1963. However, it was not until 2007-2008 that the first large-scale research was undertaken, carried out by the Por Bajin Cultural Foundation.

What they discovered presented a conundrum – the structure is located in a very remote place on the outskirts of what was the Uighur nomad empire, built with Chinese features, but with no sign of permanent habitation, and abandoned after only a short period of use.

Why was it built? How was it used? And why was it abandoned? These are the questions that have continued to both fascinate and frustrate experts ever since its discovery.





Inside the complex of Por Bajin

Inside the complex of Por Bajin. Credit: Por Bajin Cultural Foundation
The Construction of Por Bajin

Believed to have been constructed in 757 AD, the ancient complex has outer walls that still rise to 40 feet (12 meters) in height and inner walls of 3-5 feet (1 – 1.5 meters), some still covered with lime plaster painted with horizontal red stripes. A main gate was discovered, opening into two successive courtyards connected by another gate.

The walls enclose an area of about seven acres containing the remains of more than 30 buildings, but with a two-part central structure linked by a covered walkway, which once had a tiled roof and was supported by 36 wooden columns resting on stone bases.

Laser mapping of the site prior to the first major excavation in 2007 helped experts build a 3D model of what the complex might have looked like.





Por-Bajin reconstruction seen from the east

Por-Bajin reconstruction seen from the east. Credit: Por Bajin Cultural Foundation

Only a small number of artifacts were ever recovered from the site – if it had been permanently inhabited one would expect to find a much greater number of items. There was also no evidence of any kind of heating system, which would have made it impossible to stay there, at 2,300 meters above sea level, in winter conditions.

The main finds include clay tablets of human feet, faded coloured drawings, fragments of burnt wood, roof tiles, an iron dagger, a stone chalice, one silver earring, and iron construction nails. None of the artifacts provide a definitive answer as to why the structure was built, and how it was used.



One of the tiles found at Por Bajin

One of the tiles found at Por Bajin. Credit: Por Bajin Cultural Foundation
The Origins and Purpose of Por Bajin

Since the end of the 19th century, Por-Bajin has been linked to the Uighur Khagante nomadic empire (744 – 840 AD), composed of nomadic Turkic-speaking people held together by forces of warriors on horseback. The empire spanned Mongolia and southern Siberia, however, the location of Por Bajin was still well away from settlements and trade routes. Why would they build in such a remote location? Could it have been the site of a palace or a memorial for a ruler? The unique layout, more ornate than that of other Uighur fortresses of the period, has led some scholars to suggest that it might have had a ritual role.

Still, there are some other puzzling features. The architecture reflects a distinctive Chinese style, as evidenced by the use of Chinese building materials, such as certain types of roof tiles, and the use of Chinese construction methods. The layout, with its axial planning, dominant central building, and residential quarters is consistent with styles seen in other Buddhist monasteries. But Por-Bajin shows no evidence of religious practice.





Small yards (left) running along Por-Bajin's walls each had a building in the center

Small yards (left) running along Por-Bajin's walls each had a building in the center. A digital reconstruction (right) based on excavations shows that each building could have functioned as a dwelling, perhaps for monks if the site were a monastery. Credit: Por Bajin Cultural Foundation
Why was it abandoned?

Not only has Por Bajin presented a mystery regarding its purpose, but archaeological evidence suggests it was abandoned after only a short period of use.

No evidence has been found to suggest the complex came under attack from an opposing force. Political changes in the region may offer one possible explanation, although nothing concrete has been presented to support this theory. According to Dmitriy Subetto, from the Department of Physical Geography RGPU, the structure may have been abandoned prior to completion due to the builders' lack of familiarity with the permafrost.

For now, Por Bajin remains one of Russia’s enduring mysteries.

Featured image: Aerial view of Lake Tere-Khol and Por-Bajin island. Credit: Por Bajin Cultural Foundation
Sources

Who built this Siberian summer palace… and why? By Derek Lambie. Siberian Times.

Por Bajin: An Enigmatic Site of the Uighurs in Southern Siberia (2011) – Arzhanstseva et al. The European Archaeologist, 35.

Letter from Siberia: Fortress of Solitude by Heinrich Harke. Archaeology magazine, Vol 63 (6).


By April Holloway
- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/1300-year-old-fortress-structure-siberian-lake-013323#sthash.FY4zSeLH.dpuf  ---  fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

1,300-year-old fortress-like structure on Siberian lake continues to mystify experts

shareThis
It is one of the most mysterious archaeological sites in Russia – an ancient complex engulfing a small island in the center of a remote lake in the mountains of southern Siberia. At first glance, it appears to be an ancient fortress, its perimeter of high walls constructed to keep out enemies. However, others have proposed the 1,300-year-old structure may have been a summer palace, monastery, memorial complex, ritual center, or astronomical observatory. According to the Siberian Times, more than a century after its rediscovery, experts are no closer to understanding the secrets of these enigmatic ruins.
The archaeological site is known as Por Bajin (also spelt Por-Bazhyn), meaning ‘clay house’. It is located on an island in the middle of Tere-Khol Lake in Tuva, Siberia, just 20 miles (32 km) from the Mongolian border.  First explored in 1891, the site was not excavated until 1957-1963. However, it was not until 2007-2008 that the first large-scale research was undertaken, carried out by the Por Bajin Cultural Foundation.
What they discovered presented a conundrum – the structure is located in a very remote place on the outskirts of what was the Uighur nomad empire, built with Chinese features, but with no sign of permanent habitation, and abandoned after only a short period of use.
Why was it built? How was it used? And why was it abandoned? These are the questions that have continued to both fascinate and frustrate experts ever since its discovery.
Inside the complex of Por Bajin
Inside the complex of Por Bajin. Credit: Por Bajin Cultural Foundation

The Construction of Por Bajin

Believed to have been constructed in 757 AD, the ancient complex has outer walls that still rise to 40 feet (12 meters) in height and inner walls of 3-5 feet (1 – 1.5 meters), some still covered with lime plaster painted with horizontal red stripes. A main gate was discovered, opening into two successive courtyards connected by another gate.
The walls enclose an area of about seven acres containing the remains of more than 30 buildings, but with a two-part central structure linked by a covered walkway, which once had a tiled roof and was supported by 36 wooden columns resting on stone bases.
Laser mapping of the site prior to the first major excavation in 2007 helped experts build a 3D model of what the complex might have looked like.
Por-Bajin reconstruction seen from the east
Por-Bajin reconstruction seen from the east. Credit: Por Bajin Cultural Foundation
Only a small number of artifacts were ever recovered from the site – if it had been permanently inhabited one would expect to find a much greater number of items.  There was also no evidence of any kind of heating system, which would have made it impossible to stay there, at 2,300 meters above sea level, in winter conditions.
The main finds include clay tablets of human feet, faded coloured drawings, fragments of burnt wood, roof tiles, an iron dagger, a stone chalice, one silver earring, and iron construction nails. None of the artifacts provide a definitive answer as to why the structure was built, and how it was used.
One of the tiles found at Por Bajin
One of the tiles found at Por Bajin. Credit: Por Bajin Cultural Foundation

The Origins and Purpose of Por Bajin

Since the end of the 19th century, Por-Bajin has been linked to the Uighur Khagante nomadic empire (744 – 840 AD), composed of nomadic Turkic-speaking people held together by forces of warriors on horseback. The empire spanned Mongolia and southern Siberia, however, the location of Por Bajin was still well away from settlements and trade routes. Why would they build in such a remote location? Could it have been the site of a palace or a memorial for a ruler? The unique layout, more ornate than that of other Uighur fortresses of the period, has led some scholars to suggest that it might have had a ritual role.
Still, there are some other puzzling features. The architecture reflects a distinctive Chinese style, as evidenced by the use of Chinese building materials, such as certain types of roof tiles, and the use of Chinese construction methods. The layout, with its axial planning, dominant central building, and residential quarters is consistent with styles seen in other Buddhist monasteries. But Por-Bajin shows no evidence of religious practice.

For now, Por Bajin remains one of Russia’s enduring mysteries.
Featured image: Aerial view of Lake Tere-Khol and Por-Bajin island. Credit: Por Bajin Cultural Foundation

Sources

Who built this Siberian summer palace… and why? By Derek Lambie. Siberian Times.
Por Bajin: An Enigmatic Site of the Uighurs in Southern Siberia (2011) – Arzhanstseva et al. The European Archaeologist, 35.
Letter from Siberia: Fortress of Solitude by Heinrich Harke. Archaeology magazine, Vol 63 (6).
By April Holloway
- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/1300-year-old-fortress-structure-siberian-lake-013323#sthash.FY4zSeLH.dpuf

Mosaics Revealed at Ancient Greek City of Zeugma in Turkey

The ancient city of Zeugma was originally founded as a Greek settlement by Seleucus I Nicator, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, in 300 BC. The population of the city at its peak was approximately 80,000 inhabitants.


Archaeologists discovered three unique mosaics at the Ancient Greek city of Zeugma, in south Turkey, near the borders of Syria.


Zeugma is 80 percent underwater, after it was flooded with the waters of a nearby artificial lake. The mosaics, which were recovered in excellent condition, belong to the 2nd century B.C.


The first mosaic depicts the nine Muses in portraits. This mosaic was originally in a large room of a house that archaeologists have named “House of Muses.” In the center of the mosaic is Muse Calliope and she is surrounded by her sisters. According to ancient Greek poet Isiodos, Calliope was the greatest and finest of the nine Muses, the protector of Epic poetry and arts.


The second mosaic depicts Ocean and Tithys. What is really striking about this mosaic is the wonderful and vivid colors used as well as the beauty of the heroes’ faces. Experts say that special glass mosaic pieces have been created for this mosaic alone.

Another, smaller in size mosaic, depicting a young man was also revealed and in very good condition.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://thetrendythings.com/read/12990