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domingo, 23 de novembro de 2014

Han Purple: A 2,800-year-old artificial pigment that quantum physicists are trying to understand shareThis

Han purple is an artificial pigment created by the Chinese over 2,500 years ago, which was used in wall paintings and to decorate the famous terracotta warriors, as well as ceramics, metal ware, and jewelry. The pigment is a technological wonder, made through a complex process of grinding up raw materials in precise proportions and heating to incredible temperatures. So intricate was the process, that it was not reconstructed again until 1992, when chemists were finally able to identify its composition. But this was just the beginning. According to a news report on, research since then has discovered amazing properties of Han purple, including the ability to emit powerful rays of light in the near-infrared range, as well as being able to collapse three dimensions down to two under the right conditions.

Detail of a mural from an Eastern Han tomb with artificial pigment

The production of Han purple, otherwise known as Chinese purple, dates back as far as 800 BC, however it appears that it was not used in art until the Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC – 220 AD), when it was applied to the world famous terracotta warriors, as well as ceramics and other items.

“Prior to the nineteenth century, when modern production methods made synthetic pigments common, there were only hugely expensive purple dyes, a couple of uncommon purplish minerals, and mixtures of red and blue, but no true purple pigment – except during a few hundred years in ancient China,” writes Samir S. Patel in ‘Purple Reign: How ancient Chinese chemists added color to the Emperor’s army’.

For an unknown reason, Han purple disappeared entirely from use after 220 AD, and was never seen again until its rediscovery by modern chemists in the 1990s.

Traces of Han purple can still be seen on many of the terracotta warriors

Traces of Han purple can still be seen on many of the terracotta warriors (

The Synthesis of Han Purple

Unlike natural dyes, such as Tyrian purple (from c. 1500 BC), which are organic compounds and typically made from plants or animals, like the murex snail, Han purple was a synthetic pigment made from inorganic materials.

Only two other man-made blue or purple pigments are known to have existed in the ancient world – Maya blue (from c. 800 AD), made from a heated mixture of indigo and white clay, and Egyptian blue, which was used throughout the Mediterranean and the Near and Middle East from 3,600 BC to the end of the Roman Empire. [Read similar: Egyptian Blue – The Oldest Known Artificial Pigment].

Scientist Elisabeth FitzHugh, a conservator at the Smithsonian, was the first to identify the complex synthetic compound that makes up Han purple – barium copper silicate, a compound that differs from Egyptian blue only through its use of barium instead of calcium.

"Egyptian blue" tripodic beaker

"Egyptian blue" tripodic beaker (Wikimedia). The composition of Han purple differs from Egyptian blue only in the use of barium instead of calcium.

The similarities between Han purple and Egyptian blue led some early researchers to conclude that the Chinese may have learned to make the pigment from the Egyptians. However, this theory has been largely discounted as Egyptian blue was not found further East than Persia.

“There is no clear reason why the Chinese, if they had learned the Egyptian formula, would have replaced calcium with barium, which necessitates increasing the firing temperature by 100 degrees or more,” writes Patel.

So how exactly did the Chinese stumble upon the intricate formula to make Han purple, which involved combining silica (sand) with copper and barium in precise proportions and heating to about 850-1000 °C? A team of Stanford physicists published a paper in the Journal of Archaeological Science (summary here), which proposes that Han purple was a by-product of the glass-making process, as both glass and the purple pigment contain silica and barium. writes that barium makes glass shinier and cloudy, which means this pigment could be the work of early alchemists trying to synthesize white jade.

Fluorescent properties

Since its composition was first discovered, scientists have continued to investigate this unique pigment. Researchers at the British Museum discovered that, when exposed to a simple LED flashlight, Han purple emits powerful rays of light in the near-infrared range. According to their study, published in the journal Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, the Han purple pigments show up with startling clarity under the right conditions, meaning that even faint traces of the color, which are invisible to the naked eye, can be seen with infrared sensors.

A Western Han ceramic bowl from Hebei or Hanan province

A Western Han ceramic bowl from Hebei or Hanan province (Avery Brundage Collection,, which contains traces of Han purple. The purple pigment becomes strongly fluorescent under infrared sensors (right).

Han Purple and the collapsing of dimensions

The fluorescent properties of Han purple were not the only surprise. Quantum physicists from Stanford, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Institute for Solid State Physics (University of Tokyo) reported that when Han purple is exposed to extreme cold and a high magnetic field, the chemical structure of the pigment enters a new state called the quantum critical point, in which three-dimension material ‘loses’ a dimension.

"We have shown, for the first time, that the collective behavior in a bulk three-dimensional material can actually occur in just two dimensions," Ian Fisher, an assistant professor of applied physics at Stanford said in the Stanford Report. "Low dimensionality is a key ingredient in many exotic theories that purport to account for various poorly understood phenomena, including high-temperature superconductivity, but until now there were no clear examples of 'dimensional reduction' in real materials."

The scientists have proposed that this effect is due to the fact that the components of barium copper silicate are arranged like layers of tiles, so they don't stack up neatly. Each layers' tiles are slightly out of sync with the layer below them. This may frustrate the wave and force it to go two dimensional.

The researchers have said the discovery may help understand the required properties of new materials, including more exotic superconductors.

The strange collapsing of dimensions may be due to the mismatched layers of its components

The strange collapsing of dimensions may be due to the mismatched layers of its components. (John D. Griffin, Michael W. Davidson, Sara Vetteth and Suchitra E. Sebastian, Stanford)

Fisher said, “Han Purple was first synthesized over 2500 years ago, but we have only recently discovered how exotic its magnetic behavior is. It makes you wonder what other materials are out there that we haven't yet even begun to explore."

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

Saturday Art and Archaeology: Mayan Dynasty of Copán

The Maya ceremonial center of Copán contains numerous accounts about the rulers who reigned over the many years it was home to the Mesoamerican royal family dominant in this part of the world.  Its many memorials and stelae as well as the writings on them tell us details about their history and legends.

Altar Q shows succession of kings of Copán

We know that the reign of a particular house was established by the many depictions of succession, like Altar Q showing the passing of the baton from early rulers to the king who had the altar built, Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat, the 16th ruler. While the stories of the rulers are laid out in the hieroglyphic stairway at Copán, a few stand out in its history. The city had been important but little is known about the ruling house before it returned from obscurity, not well interpreted from early writings, and was re-established in A.D. 426.
The city was refounded by K’inich Yax K’uk’ Mo’, establishing it as the capital of a new Maya kingdom.[2] This coup was apparently organized and launched from Tikal. Texts record the arrival of a warrior named K’uk’ Mo’ Ajaw who was installed upon the throne of the city in AD 426 and given a new royal name, K’inich Yax K’uk’ Mo’ and the ochk’in kaloomte ”Lord of the West” title used a generation earlier by Siyaj K’ak’, a general from the great metropolis of Teotihuacan who had decisively intervened in the politics of the central Petén.[23] K’inich Yax K’uk’ Mo’ was probably from Tikal and was likely to have been sponsored by Siyaj Chan K’awill II, the 16th ruler in the dynastic succession of Tikal. K’inich Yax K’uk’ Mo’ may have legitimized his claim to rulership by marrying into the old Copán royal family, evidenced from the remains of his presumed widow. Bone analysis of her remains indicates that she was local to Copán.[24] After the establishment of the new kingdom of Copán, the city remained closely allied with Tikal.[25]The hieroglyphic text on Copán Altar Q describes the lord being elevated to kingship with the receipt of his royal scepter. The ceremonies involved in the founding of the Copán dynasty also included the installation of a subordinate king at Quiriguá.[26]
Probably the best known because of his disastrous end is Uaxaclajuun Ub’aah K’awiil. His decapitation at the hands of one he had appointed as a member of his court, K’ak’ Tiliw Chan Yopaat, showed the passing of the reign into another capital, Quiriguá.
Although the exact details are unknown, in April 738 K’ak’ Tiliw Chan Yopaat captured Uaxaclajuun Ub’aah K’awiil and burned two of Copán’s patron deities. Six days later Uaxaclajuun Ub’aah K’awiil was decapitated in Quiriguá.[44] This coup does not seem to have physically affected either Copán or Quiriguá; there is no evidence that either city was attacked at this time and the victor seems not to have received any detectable tribute.[45] All of this seems to imply that K’ak’ Tiliw Chan Yopaat managed to somehow ambush Uaxaclajuun Ub’aah K’awiil, rather than to have defeated him in outright battle. It has been suggested that Uaxaclajuun Ub’aah K’awiil was attempting to attack another site to secure captives for sacrifice in order to dedicate the new ballcourt when he was ambushed by K’ak’ Tiliw Chan Yopaat and his Quiriguá warriors.[46] In the Late Classic, alliance with Calakmul was frequently associated with the promise of military support. The fact that Copán, a much more powerful city than Quiriguá, failed to retaliate against its former vassal implies that it feared the military intervention of Calakmul. Calakmul was far enough away from Quiriguá that K’ak’ Tiliw Chan Yopaat was not afraid of falling directly under its power as a full vassal state, even though it is likely that Calakmul sent warriors to help in the defeat of Copán. The alliance instead seems to have been one of mutual advantage: Calakmul managed to weaken a powerful ally of Tikal while Quiriguá gained its independence.[47] The disaster for Copán had long-lasting consequences; major construction ceased and no new monuments were raised for the next 17 years.[48]
The reign returned to Copán later, and continued on until what shows to have become a less prosperous time when the strain on the countryside of retaining its powerful in splendor appears to have offset its riches.  That is when throughout the area, and Mesoamerica in general, the Maya ceremonial centers began to be drained of the influence and central rule they had enjoyed. The complete account of ruling elites at Copán is contained, and has been interpreted from, the Heiroglyphic Staircase there as well as on the monuments to rulers who succeeded their earlier kings, and built onto the structure that had been modified by those earlier royal heirs. The story is long and elaborate, and shows the motivation behind the many sculptures and writings of legitimizing each ruler in turn.
(Picture below courtesy of Michael Swigart at
Hieroglyphic Staircase tells history of rulers at Copán, Stela M (K’ak’ Yipyaj Chan K’awiil.) in front of staircase

Stela A, in field of Stela at Copán, erected by Uaxaclajuun Ub’aah K’awiil in 731 AD

Stela A places Uaxaclajuun Ub’aah K’awiil ‘s rulership among the four most powerful kingdoms in the Maya region, alongside Palenque, Tikal and Calakmul.[18]

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

'Old cousin' of German art hoarder claims right to $1bn Nazi-era trove left to museum

The alleged cousin of late German Nazi-era art hoarder Cornelius Gurlitt is challenging his will, which aims to donate the entire stash of rare masterpieces to a Swiss museum. This comes a mere two days before the museum is to give its answer.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmarioltti

Uta Werner, 86, is reportedly appealing the legal document on the grounds that her 81-year-old relative’s sanity had allegedly been “seriously questioned” by a doctor.

Gurlitt, who died in May, had in his possession more than 1,000 paintings, drawings and sketches, which came to light in February 2012, when his homes in Munich and Salzburg were raided by the police. He inherited the collection from his father - an art dealer who dealt with the Nazis.

The works, many of them by masters such as Picasso and Chagall, had apparently lain in his apartment for decades undiscovered, until the $1 billion-worth of Modernist and Renaissance art once looted by the Nazis became the subject of a trial.

Gurlitt accepted a Swiss court’s decision to return the works to their rightful owners, or their successors, and enlisted the help of the German government.

Before the will was made public, Gurlitt’s team of lawyers was working out a restitution policy, with offers of contact details on the website for any potential claimants.

Now, however, the situation is different and no one appears to know what happened: even the museum in Bern says, according to The Local, that it was taken by complete surprise when it suddenly turned out it was to inherit the entire stash. This transpired a day after Gurlitt’s death.

Werner is seeking a court decision to contest the will. The museum has announced it will be making its decision public on Monday, at a news conference in Berlin.

All-In-One Treatment For Conserving Archaeological Wood Artifacts

Supramolecular polymer network attacks multiple sources of damage to waterlogged wood simultaneously

A new polymeric material could help with the conservation of large archaeological wood artifacts, like the Mary Rose, a salvaged 16th-century English warship.

Conservators trying to preserve historic sunken ships have their work cut out for them.

Not only have the vessels been damaged by water, but marine organisms—microbes, fungi, and other critters—have chowed down on the wood. Oftentimes, iron trapped in the wood has also catalyzed the formation of acid that’s eaten at the ship from the inside.

But help might be on the way: A new preservative material fights all those types of damage simultaneously.

One historic ship that’s gotten a lot of attention from conservators is the Mary Rose,an English warship that sank in battle in 1545. It was discovered in 1971 and raised from the seafloor in 1982.

The conservation process for the Mary Rose has been similar to that used for other historic wooden vessels, such as the Vasa in Stockholm. For nearly 20 years, the Mary Rose was sprayed with solutions of polyethylene glycol containing a broad-spectrum biocide. And it’s been treated separately with chelating agents to remove iron.

“The main problem with archaeological ships like the Vasa and the Mary Rose is it’s hard to avoid wood degradation after excavation,” says Lars Berglund, a polymer scientist at the Royal Institute of Technology who has been involved with conservation of the Vasa. “With the Vasa, iron present in the wood leads to significant and continuing chemical degradation as the ship is standing in the museum,” Berglund says. “At present, there are no practical preservation methods that can solve the problem.”

A new preservative could be the material conservators have been looking for (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2014, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1406037111). It was designed by Zarah Walsh and Oren A. Scherman of England’s University of Cambridge and coworkers in collaboration with Mark Jones, head conservator at the Mary Rose Trust, in Portsmouth, England.

The new material is a supramolecular polymer network made from four components, each of which has a specific job to perform. The biopolymer chitosan, which has antibacterial properties, is functionalized with both naphthol and catechol. A second biopolymer, guar, is decorated with a viologen derivative, which also has antibacterial properties. A macrocyclic host molecule, cucurbit[8]uril, links the polymer chains together. The fourth component—iron—comes from the wood itself and also helps connect the network.


A four-component system made of functionalized chitosan and guar, a macrocyclic host molecule, and iron forms a supramolecular polymer network that treats multiple types of damage sustained by waterlogged wood.
Credit: Adapted from Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

To form the network, the viologen moiety acts as the first guest in a ternary host-guest complex with cucurbituril. Naphthol or catechol can act as the second guest. If iron is present in its +3 oxidation state, catechol lets go of the cucurbituril and binds iron instead.

“We made a two-tier system,” Walsh says. “We add enough naphthol that the structural stability of the material will always be at a certain minimum level. But it can get stronger if iron is present.” That extra strength is important because iron often signals the presence of acid, which weakens the wood.

So far, the material has been tested as a surface treatment with small pieces of wood from the Mary Rose. “The next stage is to scale up and use these new polymers on large ship timbers,” Jones says.

One hoped-for benefit is that it will speed up conservation, “so it won’t take 20-plus years, like it’s taken to conserve the Mary Rose,” he says. “It will speed things up, and it will solve a number of problems, all with one form of treatment.”
Chemical & Engineering News
ISSN 0009-2347
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

Primeiro museu feminista do mundo será inaugurado na Suécia

Para sacramentar a importância e o crescimento das mulheres em sociedade, neste sábado (22), será inaugurado, em Estocolmo, na Suécia, o museu da História da Mulher, considerado e apresentado como o primeiro museu feminista do mundo. As informações são da agência de notícias AFP.


Maria Perstedt, diretora do local, contou à agência que este é "o único museu do mundo dedicado ao lugar ocupado pela mulher na história, no presente e no futuro", e que é esta orientação que o diferencia dos demais museus dedicados às mulheres e sua história ao redor do globo. Ela explica mais:

"Nós queremos explorar diversas perspectivas: em larga escala, tratando as relações entre os sexos e o poder; e numa escala individual, dando protagonismo aos objetos e às narrativas."

Sonho realizado!

Segundo a agência, o museu sonha em trazer 'para fora' as vozes das mulheres e "descrever e provocar ideias, normas e estruturas que limitam, hoje, as escolhas e as possibilidades de mulheres e homens". Perstedt afirma que a ausência da perspectiva feminista em outros museus da Suécia impossibilitou que o público refletisse sobre tais questões.

A iniciativa pretende envolver pesquisadores e criar "um museu vivo", um local de encontros e de debates. Totalmente financiado pela prefeitura de Estocolmo, o local não tem coleção permanente e irá oferecer duas exposições paralelas permanentes. A entrada é gratuita e a diretora não informou estimativas sobre o número de visitantes.

A Suécia é feminista

Na Suécia, o feminismo faz parte do cotidiano. Segundo uma pesquisa encomendada pela rádio estatal SR em agosto de 2014, cerca da metade dos eleitores do país se apresentam como feministas. O partido Iniciativa Feminista, contudo, não conseguiu integrar o parlamento - após obter menos de 4% dos eleitores, limite para eleger um representante.

"Os outros partidos dizem ser feministas para atrair eleitores", garante Maud Eduards, professora de ciência política da Universidade de Estocolmo. O primeiro-ministro sueco, Stefan Löfven, ganhou a opinião pública após ter afirmado, em 2012, ser feminista: "sou feminista e ponto final".

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

Arte Russa em destaque no Museu Castro Guimarães em Cascais - "Очарование русского искусства: Встреча Земли с неба"

A partir desta sexta feira, 20 de Novembro o Museu Condes Castro Guimarães em Cascais acolhe uma exposição de Arte Russa, uma legado de Pedro Vieira da Fonseca, um diplomata natural de Cascais e amante da cultura e civilização russas.

Arte Russa em destaque no Museu Castro Guimarães em Cascais

Parte do vasto espólio legado por Pedro Vieira da Fonseca, 17 ícones russos datados do século XIX, vai dar corpo à exposição "O fascínio da arte russa: Encontro da terra com o céu", que a partir de hoje, 20 de Novembro estará patente ao público no Museu Condes Castro Guimarães em Cascais.

Testemunho do fascínio que Pedro Vieira da Fonseca, diplomata e munícipe de Cascais, nutria pela cultura e civilização da Rússia, os 17 ícones russos do século XIX vão estar expostos em três conjuntos temáticos: "Cristo Pantocrator", "Theotokos - Imagens da Mãe de Deus" e os "Santos Intercessores", apresentados nas respectivas caixas onde são expostos nos ambientes tradicionais das casas russas.
Em "O Fascínio da Arte Russa: Encontro da terra com o céu" pretende-se recriar o ambiente de uma "câmara do tesouro", na sequência da alusão à viagem e ao exótico, podendo assim o público apreciar ainda os diários das duas viagens realizadas à Rússia em 2000 e 2001 e um pequeno número de objectos de memorabilia trazido dos locais que o diplomata visitou.

"Nestes diários sucedem-se interessantes descrições e imagens das cidades, catedrais, palácios, jardins, mosteiros, rios e florestas por onde passou, assim como da história, da maneira de ser e do quotidiano de um povo que o fascinava, dando-se, assim, a conhecer uma arte apreciada, mas ainda bastante desconhecida do público em geral", diz a nota de imprensa.
Pedro Vieira da Fonseca, homem culto e bibliófilo, era diplomado em Sociologia Geral e Relações Internacionais pela Faculdade de Ciências Económico-Sociais da Universidade de Genebra.
Exerceu funções de Adjunto do Protocolo de Estado no Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros durante largos anos.

Os ícones russos agora em exposição têm uma história:
Cristo Pantocrator é a imagem icónica do Pantocrator, adjectivo de origem grega (Παντοκράτωρ) que significa "todo-poderoso" ou "omnipotente", e foi uma das primeiras imagens de Cristo desenvolvidas na Igreja Primitiva e continua a ser um ícone central na Igreja Ortodoxa Oriental.
O Cristo pantocrator é um Cristo em glória, a representação artística de Jesus Cristo no seu corpo glorioso por oposição às representações mais humanas do Cristo sofrendo a Paixão na cruz ou do Menino Jesus.

"Theotokos – Imagens da Mãe de Deus" é uma imagem do culto cristão ortodoxo, onde a Virgem Maria é designada Theotokos, termo grego (Θεοτοκος) que significa "Mãe de Deus", ou "A que dá à luz Deus", a mãe de Jesus Cristo, o Filho e a Palavra de Deus.
Teologicamente, os ícones da Theotokos representam o primeiro ser humano que alcançou o objetivo da Encarnação - a divinização do homem.

"Santos Intercessores" significa que na Igreja Ortodoxa russa, tal como na Igreja Católica ocidental, se acredita na intercessão dos santos.

Cada pessoa, ao ser baptizada, é nomeada em honra de um santo específico, considerando-se que este santo é um patrono para toda a vida.
Há santos padroeiros de ocupações e actividades, de doenças, perigos e lugares. A santidade é um dom (carisma) dado por Deus ao homem, através do Espírito Santo. Os ortodoxos veneram os santos para expressar o seu amor e gratidão a Deus.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

Antiga moagem vira Museu da Farinha de Santiago do Cacém ( .pt )

Uma antiga moagem de Santiago do Cacém, um edifício de 1925, foi transformada no Museu da Farinha. 

  • Foto: Museu da Farinha
    Foto: Museu da Farinha
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    Foto: Museu da Farinha
  • Foto: Museu da Farinha
    Foto: Museu da Farinha
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    Foto: Museu da Farinha
  • Foto: Museu da Farinha
    Foto: Museu da Farinha
  • Foto: Museu da Farinha
    Foto: Museu da Farinha
  • Foto: Museu da Farinha
    Foto: Museu da Farinha
  • Foto: Museu da Farinha
    Foto: Museu da Farinha
  • Foto: Museu da Farinha
    Foto: Museu da Farinha
  • Foto: Museu da Farinha
    Foto: Museu da Farinha
  • Foto: Museu da Farinha
    Foto: Museu da Farinha
Foi um sonho tornado realidade, "só possível com muito boa vontade", diz o presidente da União de Freguesias de São Domingos e Vale de Água, Joaquim Gonçalves. 

O local "será de referência" no município do litoral alentejano, garante o autarca. O projecto iniciou-se há cinco anos, com o empenho da família Mateus Vilhena, proprietária da antiga fábrica.

"Foi um projecto na ordem dos 180 mil euros, com uma comparticipação pública de 107 mil euros. O financiamento foi para obras, recuperação das peças e algumas publicações e material promocional", explica Maria João Pereira, coordenadora geral da Associação de Desenvolvimento do Litoral Alentejano (ADL).

Maria João Pereira destaca a importância do novo espaço em duas vertentes: "Por um lado, recupera um edifício que era a fábrica da moagem, que, no fundo, é património rural que estamos a recuperar; por outro lado, permite divulgar a temática do ciclo do pão e realçar o saber fazer, a recuperação de uma tradição, dando a conhecer aos mais novos e também aos turistas."

Construída em 1925, a fábrica de moagem de José Mateus Vilhena é constituída por equipamentos construídos em madeira. Na moagem todo o movimento era feito por correias de transmissão, ligadas a quatro eixos horizontais, com vários tambores de diferentes dimensões, que recebiam o movimento de um motor a gasóleo.

Apesar de inactiva, toda a maquinaria está em bom estado de conservação. Todo o edifício mantém-se na sua forma original e, se necessário, pronto a laborar.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

Projeto “Museu de Rua” Relembra Memórias de Catanduvenses

Informações sobre os principais locais da cidade podem ser vistas no Terminal

O aposentado Aparecido Franco de Godoy procurava a história do bosque

fonte:@edisonmariotti #edisonmariotrti

Cada local em Catanduva tem a sua própria história para contar. Lembranças de uma antiga praça da República, da Igreja São Domingos e das mudanças nas ruas, sejam pelos carros que passaram por ali ou pelas lojas que abriram e deram lugares a outros negócios traz conhecimentos a novas pessoas e atrai lembranças daqueles que já viveram décadas atrás.
O projeto Museu de Rua, uma ação da Prefeitura, por meio da Secretaria de Cultura, trouxe quinze totens que estão em exposição no Terminal Urbano Gerson Gabas. Os totens trazem informações dos principais pontos da cidade.
Na abertura da exposição na última sexta-feira (14), contou com a presença do Prefeito Geraldo Vinholi (PSDB) e de autoridades. O diretor do Museu Padre Albino, Sérgio Bolinelli destaca a importância de aproximar a população da história de Catanduva. “Quanto mais a população puder ter contato com fatos que fizeram parte do nosso cotidiano, mais subsídios pode-se oferecer à população para manter viva a história de Catanduva”.
De caráter itinerante, o local foi o primeiro escolhido para receber a exposição. “Vamos resgatar imagens do Carnaval, comércio e do teatro, além de fatos como a Revolução Constitucionalista de 1932 e a Ditadura”, explica Nelson Lopes Martins, secretário de Cultura.
A consolidação de museus itinerantes segue recomendação do Conselho Internacional de Museus. “O objetivo é proporcionar um ambiente saudável, voltado ao estudo e à educação”.