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sábado, 31 de janeiro de 2015

Museu da Gastronomia Baiana - MGBA. Baianas do acarajé são Patrimônio Imaterial da Bahia - Brasil

Parte importante da cultura baiana, a culinária típica faz parte dos elementos que explicam a essência, a história e o sincretismo religioso da Bahia. Para celebrar e apresentar ao mundo essa culinária tão peculiar, em agosto de 2006, o SENAC inaugurou o Museu da Gastronomia Baiana - MGBA, o primeiro do gênero na América Latina.O MGBA faz parte do complexo SENAC Pelourinho, que ainda tem em sua estrutura um teatro, uma arena, uma loja de souvenir e um restaurante, todos devidamente "musealizados", como define o curador Raul Lody.


Museu Gatronomia


 link tour http://www.ba.senac.br/museu/tour/Museu/museu/index.html



O museu já é um espetáculo só por sua arquitetura. Ao entrar, cumpre-se um circuito que começa nas Muralhas de Santa Catarina, o mais antigo e importante marco arqueológico de Salvador, que estão destacadas com projeto luminotécnico e painel apresentando as referências iconográficas e textuais. Seguido pela exposição permanente, vêem-se grandes painéis assinados por fotógrafos renomados que abordam temas culturais diversos, como as comidas sagradas do candoblé. As fotografias ampliadas compõem os cenários humanos, reunindo maneiras de comer, as festas de largo, as baianas de acarajé e outros temas que mostram a diversidade de comer na rua, na casa, na festa e em cerimônias religiosas.

Além da exposição permanente, o MGBA possui ainda instalações específicas sobre o acarajé e a mandioca e vitrines rotativas, alternadas periodicamente, com homenagens a personalidades que ajudaram a construir a história da gastronomia baiana.

Funcionamento: de segunda a sábado, das 09h às 17h.
Entrada Gratuita.

 fonte: @edisonmarioti #edisonmariotti    http://www.ba.senac.br/museu/default.asp

sexta-feira, 30 de janeiro de 2015

RISD Museum

Diana Mantuana, Renaissance engraver






Diana Mantuana, Attilius Regulus in a Barrel, ca. 1570. Georgianna Sayles Aldrich Fund


An engraving recently acquired by the Museum is a work by one of the few female engravers of the Italian Renaissance, Diana Mantuana (ca. 1547–1612), also known as Diana Scultori and, erroneously, Diana Ghisi. This shocking print depicts a moment of cruel anticipation, when the heroic Roman consul, Marcus Atilius Regulus, is about to be rolled down a hill within a nail-studded barrel by an angry mob. Regulus is already captive within the barrel as a man pound nails into the side, aided by another with a full basket of nails and a third at the ready to close the lid. Around the barrel a group of men and women dressed in military and classical costumes watch the action with intent gazes and theatrical gestures. A raised flag indicates a sanctioned event, one that no one in the image attempts to prevent. Polybius (2nd century BCE), and Horace (1st century BCE) both relayed the story of Regulus, telling us that his torturers were the Carthaginians, who captured Regulus during the First Punic War (3rd century BCE). After his capture, the Carthaginians sent Regulus on a forced embassy to the Roman Senate to plead for negotiations favorable to Carthage. In Rome, Regulus refused to alter his loyalty, and then returned to Carthage because he had given his word to do so, despite certain death (Wallace, 395).

The Latin verses below the print (which have been cut from the Museum’s impression) give some guidance for its interpretation:
Et patriae, et fidei dum Regule consulis unus/Non dubitas diris ipse perire modis (While you alone take thought for your fatherland and your honesty, Regulus, you do not hesitate to die in a horrible manner). [translated by Wallace, 296]

Emphasized here is Regulus’s honesty, faithfulness, and willing self-sacrifice, which is reinforced by the placid look on his face even as he is about to die a painful death. Regulus was held up as the embodiment of noble and civic virtue by the ancient writers, including the Roman orator Cicero, who heralded the consul as an example of fearlessness, tranquility, dignity, and honor. These qualities aligned with Stoic philosophy, which emphasized self-control of emotions and human actions, over words, as the best indicator of individual virtue. (Wallace, 395–96) When Diana Mantuana made the engraving during the Renaissance, Stoicism, like other classical philosophies, was in the midst of an important revival in Europe.

The engraving by Diana—the single name by which she signed many of her copperplates—(Lincoln, 1102–03) is a reproductive engraving after the composition of Giulio Romano (1492/1499–1546), the celebrated pupil of Raphael and the artist to the Duke Federico Gonzaga of Mantua in the second quarter of the 16th century. From about 1525 to 1535, Romano and a host of assistants decorated the Duke’s country estate, the Palazzo del Te, with mythological, historical, and allegorical subject matter.
The Appartamento del Giardino Segreto (Apartment of the Secret Garden) was the duke’s private study, decorated in fresco with episodes from ancient history, including the Atilius Regulus story.

It was from this composition that Diana made her print, crediting Romano for the invention by inscribing Julius Romanus inuentor (Giulio Romano inventor) in the plate at the lower left of the composition. According to Cicero, Regulus was bound to a machine and his eyelids cut off, thus dying from lack of sleep. The manner of death in Romano’s composition (and thus Diana’s) differs from Cicero’s account, and it is possible that the boundlessly inventive Romano conceived of the idea for the diabolical nail-studded barrel himself (Wallace, 396).




Diana Mantuana, Attilius Regulus in a Barrel (detail), ca. 1570. Georgianna Sayles Aldrich Fund





Diana Mantuana was raised at the Mantuan court, the daughter of the artist Giovanni Battista Mantovano, also called Scultori (1503–1575), who was employed as a court sculptor and engraver at the same time as Giulio Romano. Female artists were scarce in the Renaissance, female printmakers even more so, given the public nature of the art (Lincoln, 1110). Diana’s exposure to printmaking was due to her father’s profession as an artist and undoubtedly his willingness to train her in the craft of engraving. The Italian artist and biographer Giorgio Vasari described meeting the artisan family with some admiration on a trip to Mantua in 1566 when Diana was 19. He wrote in his journal:

All in all, from what I saw last time I was in Mantua to this year, 1566, when I returned, the city is so much more ornamented and more beautiful that, if I had not seen it, I would not have believed it. What is more, the number of artisans has multiplied and keeps on multiplying. Inasmuch as this, to Giovanni Battista Mantovano (engraver of prints and excellent sculptor, whose story I related in the Lives of Giulio Romano and Marcantonio Bolognese) there were born two sons who engrave copper plates divinely, and what is more marvelous, a daughter named Diana also engraves so well that it is a wonderful thing: and when I saw her, a very well-bred and charming young lady, and her works, which are most beautiful, I was stunned. (Vasari, 6:490, quoted in Lincoln, 1105)

The sons mentioned were Adamo Scultori (ca. 1530–1585) and another artist, Giorgio Ghisi (1520–1582)— erroneously identified as a son by Vasari—, the latter who would become one of the most innovative engravers of his time (Lincoln, 1105). Mantua presented a vibrant atmosphere from which to learn the art of engraving, with the endless supply of ready compositions, via fresco and drawings, from which to work.

While her male counterparts were probably trained in a variety of drawing techniques as well as in life drawing and the rules of perspective (called disegno), Diana would not have been given the same access. As a woman, she was restricted to the technical craft of engraving rather than tutored in the inventive processes that comprised a full artistic training. Thus Diana’s engravings follow carefully their source designs and reflect, to some extent, her lack of training in drawing. Diana made necessary revisions to the Regulus in order to convert Giulio’s five-sided fresco cartouche to the rectangular format of a copperplate, filling the rectilinear space with ruins and a tree in the background of the composition and adding two groups of civilian spectators on the sides. She employed a hard outline to her forms, relying on cross-hatching and dotting for the creation of light and shadow, an engraving technique much like that of Marcantonio Raimondi, the highly influential engraver of the previous generation. If the implementation of the scene is a bit stiff—keeping in mind that Diana had probably never sketched from a real human body—she negotiated the changes to the format with a great deal of skill, creating a balanced composition that is full of variety with a range of figural positions and gestures. Diana’s foreground rock formations and her relegation of the action to the middle ground create a staged detachment between the viewer and the event, emphasizing the gruesome event’s stylized theatricality over its visceral horror.





Diana Mantuana, Attilius Regulus in a Barrel (detail), ca. 1570. Georgianna Sayles Aldrich Fund





While Diana was too young to have known Giulio Romano personally, she made several engravings after compositions he created for the Palazzo del Te. The Museum’s engraving was printed later in her life, probably after she had moved to Rome in 1575 in the company of her husband, the architect Francesco da Volterra. Evidently, she sold the copperplate to the publisher Antonio Lafreri, whose name appears on the plate, although we have no archival record to confirm the sale. Lafreri was one of the first publishers of reproductive prints in Europe. Between the 1550s and 1570s, he commissioned and bought copperplates that he then published and ordered in various groupings, usually by topic, under the general title Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae (Mirror of Roman Magnificence). Reproductive engravings were a key mode by which artistic motifs and styles as well as major monuments and antiquities were disseminated and interpreted in early modern Europe. In this context, Diana’s print may have appeared in succession with prints of ancient Roman subject matter at the publisher’s—or purchaser’s—choosing (Parshall, 12), providing a record of a work at the Palazzo del Te as well as a story from antiquity with contemporary philosophical implications.

By a rare female artist, Diana Mantuana’s engraving of Atilius Regulus in a Barrel plays an important role in the history of the practice of printmaking and its reception in Renaissance Italy. The acquisition therefore adds in a significant way to the history of art as told through the Museum’s collection.

Emily Peters
Associate Curator of Prints, Drawings, and Photographs




Works Cited
Evelyn Lincoln, “Making a Good Impression: Diana Mantuana’s Printmaking Career,” Renaissance Quarterly 50/4 (Winter 1997): 1101–147.

Peter Parshall, “Antonio Lafreri’s Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae,” Print Quarterly XXIII, 1, 2006: 3–28.

Giorgio Vasari, Le vite de’ piu eccellenti pittori, scultori ed architettori, ed. G. Milanesi. 9 vols. Florence, 1906.

Richard W. Wallace, “Salvator Rosa’s ‘Death of Atilius Regulus,” Burlington Magazine 109/772 (July 1967): 393–97.


Further Reading
Michael Bury, The Print in Italy, 1550–1620 (London: The British Museum Press, 2001).

Evelyn Lincoln, The Invention of the Italian Renaissance Printmaker (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000).

Speculum Romanae Magnificentae digital collection, http://speculum.lib.uchicago.edu/.

Emily, Peters, et al. The Brilliant Line: Following the Early Modern Engraver, 1480–1650 (Providence: RISD Museum, 2010).
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Our Mission and History

The RISD Museum acquires, preserves, exhibits, and interprets works of art and design representing diverse cultures from ancient times to the present. Distinguished by its relationship to the
Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), the Museum educates and inspires artists, designers, students, scholars, and the general public through exhibitions, programs, and publications.

The development of the Rhode Island School of Design and the RISD Museum is tied to Rhode Island’s emergence after the Civil War as the most heavily industrialized state in the Union, and to the growing desire for better design in manufacturing. With the region’s prosperity based on the production of silverware, jewelry, machine tools, steam engines, files, screws, and textiles, leading manufacturers and civic leaders felt the need for industrial-arts education and exposure to examples of fine art.

Even before the war, the Rhode Island Art Association, chartered in 1854, determined “to establish in Providence a permanent Art Museum and Gallery of the Arts and Design.” In the absence of either state funding or private donations, however, the creation of a design school and art museum in Rhode Island did not occur until 1877. Faced with a choice between erecting a drinking fountain in Roger Williams Park or founding a school of design—the latter proposed by Helen Adelia Rowe Metcalf (1830–1895)—the Rhode Island Women’s Centennial Commission in that year voted to establish the Rhode Island School of Design by allocating to it the modest $1,675 remaining from its fund-raising for the Women’s Pavilion at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.
Our Collection

The Museum’s collection is composed of seven departments.

Ancient Art
The Ancient Art collection includes bronze figural sculpture and vessels, an exceptional collection of Greek coins, stone sculpture, Greek vases, paintings, and mosaics, as well as Roman jewelry and glass. Highlights include an Etruscan bronze situla (pail), a fifth-century B.C. Greek female head in marble, and a rare Hellenistic bronze Aphrodite. Among the Greek vases are works by some of the major Attic painters, including Nikosthenes and the Providence, Brygos, Pan, Lewis, and Reed Painters. The Egyptian collection includes a Ptolemaic period coffin and mummy of the priest Nesmin; a rare New Kingdom ceramic paint box; a relief fragment from the Temple at Karnak, and a collection of faience.

Asian Art
The Asian Art collection spans a period of almost 5,000 years and covering the geographic areas of East Asia, South and Southeast Asia, and the Islamic world. The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller collection of Japanese bird-and-flower prints (Kacho-ga), spans the development of this category of material during the Edo period (1603-1868). The Asian sculpture collection ranges from Indian Buddhist and Hindu materials to Chinese and Japanese including the later twelfth-century wooden Dainichi Nyorai Buddha, the largest (about nine feet tall) seated Japanese figural sculpture in the United States. The collection of three-dimensional objects includes ceramics; carved jades and hardstones; ivory, wood, stone, and metal sculpture; and bronze, brass, and other metalwork. The Islamic and Indian collections together include works of art in all media that celebrate the artistic heritage of the Arab, Indian, Persian, and Turkish cultures.

Contemporary Art
Created in 2000, the Contemporary Art collection includes painting, sculpture, video, mixed media, and interdisciplinary work, dating from 1960 to the present. Represented in the collection are significant paintings by Richard Anuskiewicz, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Mangold, Agnes Martin, Sam Francis, Cy Twombly, Wayne Thiebaud, Larry Rivers, and Andy Warhol, among others. The collection also includes important sculptural work by Richard Artschwager, Louise Bourgeois, Louise Nevelson, Lucas Samaras, and Robert Wilson. The museum’s video collection features experimental works by such pioneers in the field as Vito Acconci, Lynda Benglis, Bruce Nauman, Martha Rosler, Richard Serra, and William Wegman.

Costume and Textiles
The RISD Museum has one of the finest collections of historical textiles and items of dress in this country, with a range that spans the centuries from at least 1500 BCE to the present and that includes representative cloth and clothing from as many geographic areas as possible. Starting with items such a pair of Native American moccasins and a Hawaiian bark cloth acquired in the Museum’s early history, the collection has grown to include more than 26,000 objects today. Our earliest piece is an ancient Egyptian tomb fragment, and a major focus of our present collecting agenda is the acquisition of contemporary fashion and textiles from all over the world. The richness of the Costume and Textiles collections extends from examples of Elizabethan needlework, Italian Renaissance textiles, French printed toile de Jouey, Navajo chief’s blankets, and fashions from the most celebrated European and American designers of the 19th and 20th centuries to a world-renowned group of Japanese Noh theater robes and Buddhist priest robes donated by Lucy Truman Aldrich, the greatest single donor to the Museum’s textile collection.Works not on view can be accessed by appointment during open for study hours.


Decorative Arts and Design
The Decorative Arts and Design department’s collections encompass European and American furniture, silver, metalwork, wallpaper, ceramics, glass, and plastics from the medieval period to the present. The Charles L. Pendleton Collection includes furniture made by 18th-century Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and the Townsend-Goddard circle of Newport cabinetmakers. The Gorham Manufacturing Company collection of silver pieces and design drawings from the mid-19th through the mid-20th century is the cornerstone of the American silver collection. Other highlights include Chinese export porcelain; French Empire furniture; European porcelain figures; 18th- and early 19th-century French wallpaper; 20th-century and contemporary design.

Painting and Sculpture
The Painting and Sculpture collection includes works of European and American art from the 12th through the mid-20th century. Highlights include Renaissance and Baroque works by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Lippo Memmi, Tilman Riemenschneider, Hendrick Goltzius, and Salomon van Ruysdael; 17th- and 18th-century paintings by Nicolas Poussin, Angelica Kauffmann, and Joshua Reynolds; 18th- and 19th-century American paintings by John Singleton Copley, Gilbert Stuart, Thomas Cole, Winslow Homer, William Merritt Chase, Martin Johnson Heade, Mary Cassatt, and John Singer Sargent; 19th and 20th century European paintings and sculpture by Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Paul Cézanne, Auguste Rodin, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Henri Matisse, Fernand Léger, and Oskar Kokoschka; 20th century American works by George Wesley Bellows, Robert Henri, Charles Sheeler, Maxfield Parrish, Georgia O’Keeffe, and Nancy Elizabeth Prophet; and a Latin American collection including paintings by Joaquín Torres-Garcia, Wifredo Lam, and Roberto Matta Echuarren.

Prints, Drawings, and Photographs
The Prints, Drawings, & Photographs collection comprises more than 25,000 works including prints, drawings, and photographs, and dating from the 15th century to the present. The holdings include a large group of Old Master engravings and etchings, and particular strengths in prints and drawings of 18th-century Italy, 19th-century France, and 19th- and 20th-century America. The department also holds one of the largest collections of late 18th- and early 19th-century British watercolors in the United States. Both the Nancy Sayles Day Collection of Modern Latin American Art and the Richard Brown Baker collection of contemporary British art have depth in works on paper. Contemporary works on paper in all media are the fastest growing segment of the collection.Works not on view can be accessed by appointment in the Minskoff Center for Prints, Drawings, and Photographs.
Our Buildings

The Museum is composed of five buildings
located on the historic East Side of Providence.
Waterman Building

The first public galleries were created in 1893 in the Waterman Building.
Pendleton House

Pendleton House, the country’s first museum wing devoted to the display of American decorative arts, was built in 1906 as a replica of the Federal-style residence of Charles L. Pendleton.
Radeke Building

The Eliza G. Radeke Building was added in 1926, houses permanent-collection galleries, from Egyptian and Ancient art through Impressionism to 20th-century art and design.
Farago Wing

The Daphne Farago Wing, erected in 1993, exhibits contemporary art and provides the Benefit Street entrance to the Museum.
Chace Center

In 2008, the Chace Center opened with 6,000 square feet for special exhibitions and a new entrance on Main Street.

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For the love of Books...Book, ca 1500-1550, Germany, Unknown Artist, RISD Museum.
For the love of Books...Book, ca 1500-1550, Germany, Unknown Artist, RISD Museum.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://risdmuseum.org/support/membership

Al-Andalus (The Lost Civilization)


The Lost Civilization

History

 
 
Muslim Expansion

 
 
Al Andalus

In the late 7th century, Muslim tribes defeated the Byzantines under the leader Musa ibn Nusair in Kairouan, in an area of northern Africa which is now Morocco. In 710, the Visigoth Roderick became a king in Spain. A great commander from the Byzantines named Julian had a daughter who was raped by Roderick. From that day, Julian wanted his revenge by killing Roderick. During that time, and because of the conflict, Musa hesitated to enter Spain, but another leader, Tarif ibn Malluk, crossed the Mediterranean to reach southern Spain, and the area now is called after him, Tarifa. Now Musa was more motivated and got support from “the Governer of Tangier”, the Berber Tarik ibn Ziyad, and, accompanied by Julian claimed Al-Andalus. Muslims entered Spain in 711 and continued to expand into that region and northern Africa.



Culture: The mix of cultures in Al-Andalus, from Jews, Christians and Muslims between the 8th to the 15th century is brought to life as one of the most influential cultures in the areas of music, architecture, and education. 
 
 


Education: Many people came from all around the world to Al-Andalus seeking knowledge from the famous libraries and universities that they had in that time. Al-Andalus and Bagdad were competitors in the best civilization of that age. 


Water Theory



Sustainability:

In Al-Andalus, Muslims have always considered architecture to be related to nature. Water, as the most important element of life, was a priority when they built and constructed buildings, gardens and landscaping. It is the symbol of providence in the country.

Al-Andalus explored and demonstrated new techniques in agriculture, developing botany and irrigation in their cities. Automatic watering of plants through the gardens was run between the channels as well as fountains, and collected into ponds. Water has always provided a great sensation of refreshment. Making water available to as an art form brings tranquility. 



 
 
Agriculture



Al Hambra Castle

Architecture: Engineers in Al-Andalus used the best materials to construct their castles and mosques. Alhambra castle is one the best examples of art in buildings. In 889 the Alhambra was originally constructed as a fortress and later, in 1333, it was converted to a royal palace. The palace is amazingly beautiful. It has a perfect combination of original colors around the column arcades, fountains with running water, and reflecting pools were used to add to the aesthetic and functionality. In the middle of the palace there is a fountain surrounded by lion sculptures whose mouths spout water as if speaking a prayer in time with the changing times for call to prayer at different times of the year. 



Water Channel





Lions Fountain




Muslims and Christian


Music: Music in Al-Andalus had great culture. In that time, musicians had invented and or developed the musical instruments and written the music itself. In that age, they added the fifth string to the oud, and later on they invented the guitar. Unfortunately, in the 16th century the Muslim’s power collapsed and speaking, singing in Arabic was officially banned. The Al-Andalus name has been changed to Andalucía.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.museumofthecity.org/al-andalus-the-lost-civilization/

References: http://islamic-arts.org/2011/al-andalus-the-alhambra/
http://www.afropop.org/Alandalus/Alandalus.
html http://www.fountainmagazine.com/Issue/detail/Al-Andalus-The-Lost-Civilization http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/201104/listening.for.al-andalus.htm
http://www.islamicspain.tv/Arts-and-Science/The-Culture-of-Al-Andalus/Architecture.htm http://home.earthlink.net/~lilinah/Library/HistoryAndalus.html

Le Musée suisse du jeu de La Tour-du-Peilz va être repensé


RénovationLe Château de La Tour-de-Peilzva être rénové, puis transformé pour offrir plus de place au jeu. Montant estimé: 8 millions de francs.
Le Château de La Tour-de-Peilz abrite le Musée suisse du jeu depuis 1987.


 Le Château de La Tour-de-Peilz abrite le Musée suisse du jeu depuis 1987.
Le Château de La Tour-de-Peilz abrite le Musée suisse du jeu depuis 1987. Image: Gérald Bosshard


Monument importance nationale, le Château de La Tour-de-Peilz, propriété de la commune, abrite depuis 1987 le Musée suisse du jeu. Sur l’impulsion notamment de son directeur, Ulrich Schädler, ses collections n’ont eu de cesse de s’enrichir au fil des ans.

La dernière dotation en date est celle des Grand d’Hauteville qui ont légué à l’institution plus de 120 objets ludiques («24 heures» du 21 janvier) .

Les espaces d’exposition se révélant désormais insuffisants, la Municipalité de La Tour-de-Peilz, en accord avec la fondation qui gère le musée, a décidé de rénover le corps du bâtiment et son annexe, la Maison du jardinier; laquelle héberge le café-restaurant Le Domino et les locaux administratifs du musée.

Mais encore les aires de verdure en périphérie. «L’idée est de donner plus de place au musée, de repenser les espaces, et rendre l’ensemble encore plus attractif. Rayonnant, il attire 20 000 visiteurs par an. Après les transformations, nous espérons passer à 25 000», résume le syndic, Lyonel Kaufmann.

L’accueil sera déplacé au rez du château, de même que le restaurant. Ce qui permettra de libérer aussi des espaces dans la Maison du jardinier, dont le premier étage n’est actuellement pas exploité.

Tout sera mis en œuvre pour que l’institution ne ferme pas durant ce laps de temps. «Ou tout au moins de manière réduite. Nous allons jongler avec les deux bâtiments et en profiter pour refaire complètement notre exposition permanente», révèle Ulrich Schädler.

Les travaux, devisés à hauteur de 8 millions, sont prévus d’avril 2017 à juillet 2019. Mais, auparavant, le Conseil communal se déterminera très prochainement sur l’octroi d’un crédit de 451 000 francs en vue de l’organisation d’un concours relatif aux rénovations et transformations du château. (24 heures)


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.24heures.ch/vaud-regions/riviera-chablais/musee-suisse-jeu-tourdupeilz-repense/story/22402583

Agendas Mundi LXXII – Museos de Nepal - · en MUSEO, RELATO, VIAJES. ·

Para muchos viajeros, Nepal, lugar de nacimiento de Buda, es el paraíso terrenal, o al menos se le parece mucho. Flanqueado por el cordón montañoso del Himalaya y las húmedas junglas de las llanuras indias, es una tierra de yaks y yetis, monasterios y mantras, cumbres nevadas y sherpas, templos y tigres, magia y misterio. Desde que abriera sus fronteras a los forasteros en la década de 1950, esta diminuta nación montañosa ha seducido con un encanto casi místico a los viajeros. Exploradores y alpinistas llegaron para conquistar las cimas más altas, los senderistas para adentrarse por algunos de los senderos más desafiantes del mundo, y los hippies para vagar colocados de sus buenas raciones de canutos por poblaciones repletas de templos al final de su periplo por tierra.

El país ha experimentado grandes cambios. Para empezar, ya no es un reino. Una década de alzamientos maoístas y guerra civil terminó con la elección del Partido Comunista y la declaración de Nepal como República Federal el 28 de mayo del 2008. Desde entonces, el último rey nepalí, Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, ha desalojado el Palacio Real de Katmandú y se ha trasladado a una modesta casa en Nagarjún. Además, el adjetivo “real” se ha eliminado de los rótulos de la compañía aérea Royal Nepal Airlines y del Real Parque Nacional de Chitwan. Después de años de conflicto, ha vuelto la paz a las montañas y un aire de optimismo domina la nación. El mayor problema que se les plantea a los visitantes es encontrar tiempo para todo. Muchos llevan toda la vida explorando los senderos de montaña del Himalaya y las evocadoras ciudades templo del valle de Katmandú y los montes medios, pero vuelven en busca de más. Se aconseja seleccionar algunas experiencias esenciales y dejar el resto para otro viaje. Pero vamos con los nuestro sin más rodeos.

1. Museo Nacional de Historia de Nepal | Katmandú



El Museo Nacional de Nepal (Rashtriya Sangrahalaya) es una atracción muy popular de la capital, Katmandú. Con alrededor de un siglo de antigüedad, el museo se erige como un destino turístico y símbolo histórico para el país. Siendo el museo más grande de Nepal, desempeña un papel trascendental en los trabajos arqueológicos en todo el país y el desarrollo de los demás museos. Para los residentes de Katmandú, además es un monumento que sirve para revivir las batallas libradas en Nepal. Los principales atractivos son la colección de obras de arte históricas (esculturas y pinturas) y una exposición histórica de las armas utilizadas en las guerras en el siglo XVIII-XIX. El museo cuenta con galerías independientes dedicadas a estatuas, pinturas, murales, monedas y armas. El museo dispone de tres edificios: el Juddha Jayatia Kala Shala, Galería de Arte de Buda y el edificio principal, que consiste en una sección histórico-natural (colección de especies de animales, mariposas y plantas), una sección cultural y una sección filatélica. El Museo Nacional está adscrito al Ministerio de Cultura, Turismo y Aviación Civil. El museo tiene la misión de poner en práctica la docencia de la historia del país, y también en la documentación de toda clase de información para intentar comprender las tradiciones del pasado y presente del pueblo de Nepal.

2. Museo Nacional de Arte de Nepal (no dispone de website) | Katmandú



La Galería Nacional de Arte de Nepal es uno de los sitios más interesantes, visita obligada en Nepal, os avisamos. Esta galería se encuentra en precioso palacio en Bhaktapur, en medio de pintoresco valle de Katmandú. El palacio se dice que es el más antiguo existente en todo el valle de Katmandú. La instalación dispone de más de 50 ventanas que se abren a sus cuatro lados. Aparte de esto, los arcos y motivos escultóricos que están por todas partes, merecen mucho la pena. Dentro de la galería se puede ver una impresionante colección de pinturas y murales de la época de la “dominación budista”. Hay algunas pinturas muy antiguas que se conocen como Thangakas. Los monjes budistas utilizan estas pinturas para llegar a la máxima concentración en el momento de la oración. Estas pinturas están hechas al óleo sobre lienzos que son muy antiguos remontándose a la era Mallas. También se pueden ver las figuras talladas en piedra que data de la época Licchhavis y Mallas. La mayoría de estas figuras son representaciones de deidades hindúes y budistas y, como es típico de aquella época, tiene connotaciones sexuales, no se aburrían. El segundo piso está enteramente dedicado a las crónicas históricas y manuscritos del país. Estos documentos están relacionados con varios monarcas de la dinastía Rana y Shah, proporcionando una visión detallada de las condiciones políticas, culturales, sociales y económicos de la historia de Nepal. Algunos de los documentos se encuentran archivados y no están disponibles en exhibición pública. Si eres estudiante de historia o un investigador, entonces este lugar te encantará. Sin embargo, hay que tener en cuenta que los investigadores deben obtener un permiso previo del Ministerio de Cultura para conseguir el acceso a los preciosos documentos clasificados.

3. Museo de las Estatuas de Bronce y Latón de Nepal (no dispone de website) | Bhaktapur – Katmandú



Este museo se encuentra en la famosa y popular zona – atestada de turistas – de Pujari Maths en el barrio de Bhaktapur. Se encuentra frente al Museo Nacional de Artesanía en madera a las afueras de Katmandú. El museo es el más nuevo para que aparezca en Nepal. Este museo se dedica principalmente a la forma de vida Newarí. Los Newarís son los habitantes originarios de Nepal siendo naturales principalmente de las regiones centrales del país alrededor de Katmandú. El museo de bronce se encuentra en un edificio recientemente reformado de de estilo puramente local. La mayor parte de los objetos artísticos de la exposición están realizados en bronce o latón, evidentemente. La mayoría de ellos han sido restaurados y están en excelentes condiciones. Entre los más interesantes son los que están hechos como artículos de uso diario. Hay galerías separadas para las materias primas utilizadas por los artistas y artesanos. La mayoría de estos objetos se remontan al periodo Mallas. Se pueden ver figuras para la adoración religiosa, lámparas, ollas de agua, cuernos y otros artículos exhibidos sin demasiada información ya que se prohíbe al pueblo informar acerca de su humilde vida. La familia real ha cedido al museo un tintero ornamentado y una estantería que formaba parte de la tribuna real. En cualquier caso, lo más importante del museo, es la visión que ofrece al visitante sobre los Newarís que han contribuido tanto a la evolución de la sociedad nepalí.

4. Museo Complejo del Palacio Interior de Hanuman Dhoka (no dispone de website) | Katmandú



El complejo del palacio interior del Hanuman Dhoka fue fundado originalmente durante el período de Licchavi (del siglo VI al VIII d. de C.), pero, tal y como se muestra hoy en día, la mayor parte visitable fue construida por el rey Pratap Malla en el siglo XVII. El palacio real ha sido renovado muchas veces a lo largo de los años. Las partes más antiguas son las pequeñas edificaciones de Sundari Chowk y Mohan Chowk en la parte norte del palacio (ambas cerradas al público). El complejo era la sede del gobierno, con 35 chowks (patios), pero el terremoto de 1934 redujo el palacio de hoy a 10 chowks. Solo se permite fotografiar en los patios, nada dentro de los edificios del complejo. Más que un museo, en realidad se trata de un grupo de edificios como su nombre define.

5. Museo de Patán (no dispone de website) | Patán



El museo se encuentra bajo la protección del Patrimonio de la Humanidad de la UNESCO. El Museo Patán, que es un verdadero tesoro de la arquitectura tradicional nepalí, fue inaugurado en 1997 por el ya difunto rey Birendra Bir Bikram Shah. El museo expone lo que podría denominarse como una muestra artes sagradas tradicionales de Nepal en un entorno con una larga historia. Se trata de casa es una antigua de corte residencial de Ptan Darbar, uno de los palacios reales de los antiguos reyes Malla del valle de Katmandú. Las exposiciones del museo abarcan un largo período de la historia cultural de Nepal y muestra algunos objetos raros como algunos de sus tesoros. La mayoría de los objetos son de bronces dorados y cobre, además de una muestra de las famosas artesanías tradicionales por las que la villa de Patán es famosa en el país.

6. Museo Pujarimath (no dispone de website) | Monasterio de Pujarimath – Bhaktapur



Situado en el edificio restaurado del siglo XV conocido como el Monasterio de Pujarimath, en Dattatraya tole, Bhaktapur, siendo el edificio en sí una exposición única. . Muy curiosa es la famosa (allí) ventana del pavo real situada frente cara al monasterio. El museo expone los utensilios de bronce y latón Newarí típicos, además de objetos rituales, con más ollas y sartenes utilizadas desde la época medieval hasta nuestros días.

7. Museo Centro Arqueológico de Kapilavastu | Tilaurakot



Situado en Tilaurakot , cerca de las ruinas arqueológicas de Kapilavastu, complejo del palacio hogar ancestral de Buda. Este museo se encuentra aproximadamente a 29 kilometros al oeste de Lumbini, que es el lugar de nacimiento de Buda. La instalación cuenta con una interesante colección de monedas perforadas, cerámica, juguetes de arcilla y otros objetos que datan desde el siglo VII a. de C. hasta el siglo IV a. de C. Lo importante en realidad, tanto el museo como los alrededores, incluido el sitio arqueológico, funcionan como lugar de peregrinación para budistas y turistas curiosos que se acercan al territorio donde nació y creció Buda.

Pues hasta aquí el maravilloso viaje a Nepal. La semana que viene nos adentraremos en la enorme China, por lo que este país lo trataremos en diferentes capítulos, en uno solo es imposible. Intentaremos hacerlo por amplias zonas pero es que hay mucho, sobre todo nuevo en materia de museos, aunque solo podamos hacer referencia al edificio en muchos de ellos. Pues nada, hasta entonces, que todos tengáis una felicísima semana.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA:

SUBIRANA, V.
Una maestra en Katmandú
Editorial Punto de Lectura, 2013.
Resumen del libro: La historia inacabada de Vicki Subirana arranca con el relato de las ilusiones de una joven maestra solidaria con una misión entre ceja y ceja, y culmina con la consolidación de un proyecto educativo universal para los mas pobres y marginados en Nepal, para los que ha conseguido la enseñanza que cualquiera desearía para sus hijos en nuestro privilegiado mundo.En su empeño por llevar a cabo sus ideales Vicki tuvo que lidiar con dificultades de todo tipo, y para evitar que la deportaran de Nepal acepto incluso un matrimonio de conveniencia con un sherpa que termino convirtiéndose en un gran amor.

SAMBHAVA, P. y TSOGYAL, Y.
La leyenda del Gran Stupa
LA LLAVE, 2002
Resumen del libro: El presente volumen contiene dos textos tradicionales tibetanos. La Leyenda de la Gran Stupa relata el proceso de edificación de la Stupa de Bodanath (Nepal), que tiene su paralelismo interno en la búsqueda de la iluminación. El texto también recoge algunas profecías que recabarán la atención del lector. La historia de la liberación del Gurú nacido del loto es una narración de carácter ritual y que contiene los eventos esenciales de la vida de Padma Shambava.

DIAZ, J.
Dibujando sonrisas: mi vida al pie de los Himalayas
Anroart Ediciones, 2012
Resumen del libro: Dibujando sonrisas es un relato que cuenta las vivencias de José Díaz desde que éste decide irse al Nepal en el año 2000. Aquí, se recogen los hechos más significativos de su lucha por poder ofertar una infancia más digna a miles de niños que encontró picando piedras, recogiendo basura por vertederos o trabajando en cantina s con apenas seis años. Así mismo, nos describe un Nepal rural donde reconoce que comienza a sentirse más cerca de la vida, de la tierra y otros seres humanos. Las vivencias del día a día le llevan a una percepción completamente nueva de la vida. La vida se simplifica, la vida es este momento y solo la aprecia cuando presta atención al presente. Entonces surge la inteligencia creadora de vida que se haya en todos nosotros. Entonces surgen la libertad y el amor. Este libro es un homenaje a las sonrisas de tantos niños que han acompañado todas estas vivencias, pues José ha querido sonreír como ellos, acercarse a su ingenuidad, a su inocencia y a vivir el presente como si fuera el tesoro más grande al que podemos acceder.

VATER, T.
Katmandú, camino al infierno
Editorial Xplora, 2013.
Resumen del libro: Katmandú, camino al infierno es una historia frenética y desgarradora repleta de humor negro. Un intenso relato que entremezcla de forma brillante la vida de dos generaciones de viajeros con la mítica ruta hippie como telón de fondo.Es 1976 y tres amigos, emprenden un alocado viaje en un desvencijado autobús desde Europa h asta Nepal a través del Irán previo a la revolución, la Pakistán feudal y la sorprendente India. Pero pronto todo se tuerce y se verán envueltos en un enredo de sexo, drogas y muerte en la carretera que une Londres con Katmandú. Un cuarto de siglo después regresaran a la capital de Nepal en busca de todo aquello que dejaron atrás, pero ni la ciudad, ni ellos mismos son lo que eran. Tom Vater, escritor y periodista experto en el Sur y Sureste asiático, consigue que el lector se sumerja en un alucinante viaje por la ruta hippie de los años 70, poniendo en relación a los primeros viajeros con los actuales a través de escenas que llevan a sus personajes al limite.

Foto principal y redes sociales: ‘The National Geographic Collection: The Art of Exploration” – Edmund Hillary y Tenzing Norgay en la cima del Everest

 

Nacionaliniame muziejuje Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės valdovų rūmuose galima apžiūrėti dvi nuolatines ekspozicijas, atspindinčias istorinės rezidencijos funkcijas.



Lietuvos didžiųjų kunigaikščių rūmų vietoje gyventa jau IV–VIII a. Medinė įtvirtinta gyvenvietė XIII–XIV a. virto galinga ankstyvojo mūro pilimi. XV–XVI a. sandūroje prasidėjo viduramžiškos gotikinės pilies rekonstrukcija. XVI a. ji paverčiama ištaiginga renesansine Naujųjų laikų rezidencija. XVII a. pradžioje rūmai rekonstruoti ankstyvojo baroko stiliumi. Vilniaus rūmuose tuo metu gyveno Lietuvos ir Lenkijos valdovai, sukaupę garsių meno ir kitų rinkinių bei skleidę naujas kultūrines idėjas visam kraštui. Čia buvo sprendžiamas ne tik Lietuvos, bet ir viso Vidurio, Rytų ir Šiaurės Europos regiono likimas. XVII a. vidurio karo su Maskva metu nusiaubti ir apgriauti rūmai nebebuvo suremontuoti ir nebetarnavo kaip valdovų rezidencija. XVIII–XIX a. sandūroje carinės Rusijos administracijos iniciatyva rūmai nugriauti (išskyrus rytų korpuso dalį). Valdovų rūmų atkūrimo idėja gimė kartu su Lietuvos išsilaisvinimo sąjūdžiu XX a. pabaigoje. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nuo 1987 m. prasidėjo nuoseklūs kompleksiniai tyrimai, kurie tapo rūmų atstatymo pagrindu. 2000 ir 2001 m. Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas ir Vyriausybė priėmė sprendimus dėl rūmų atkūrimo. Atkūrimo darbai pradėti 2002 m. 2009-ųjų (Lietuvos vardo tūkstantmečio minėjimo metais) liepos 6 d. įvyko atkurtų, tačiau iki galo neįrengtų Lietuvos didžiųjų kunigaikščių rūmų simbolinis atidarymas, kuriame dalyvavo net 15 valstybių valdovai ir vadovai. Atkurtieji rūmai vėl turėtų tapti ilgaamžės Lietuvos valstybingumo tradicijos ir tautinio pasididžiavimo simboliu, reikšmingu pilietinio auklėjimo, istorinės savimonės ugdymo bei kultūrinio paveldo pristatymo centru.
 
 
 
 

„Kaip tai atsitiko Didžiajame mūšyje... Žalgirio atodangos“

2014 m. gruodžio 18 d.–2015 m. sausio 31 d.
Rietavo Oginskių kultūros istorijos muziejus
 


fonte:_ edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.valdovurumai.lt/rumu-istorija#.VMrlkyw7e1s

quinta-feira, 29 de janeiro de 2015

The Literary museum of A.Pushkin - Lithuanian



The strongest wish and concern of Varvara Pushkina (1855-1935) after her husband Grigiry’s (1835-1905) death was to preserve the present poet A. Pushkin’s relics, and to turn the house of the Markuchiai estate into a centre of cherishing the poet’s memory in Vilnius. She expressed such a will in her testament executed in the year 1935 that became a pretext of establishing the museum.


In the testament, she demised the central farmstead of the Markuchiai estate with its entire inventory to a trusteeship of the Vilnius Russian society and charged the Society to establish and run A. Pushkin’s museum at the farmstead.

Since the whole Markuchiai estate, including the part left to the Vilnius Russian society, was already wallowing in debts even when V. Pushkina was still alive, the executor of the testament was obliged to liquidate indebtedness by selling the remaining parts of the estate and to hand over the part of the estate left to the the Vilnius Russian society to its ownership without any liabilities.
After Markuchiai owner Varvara Pushkin’s death in 1935, Vladimir Nazimov the testament executor, started carrying out the will: solving questions of settling debts and ensuring appearance of other conditions, stipulated by the testator for the establishment of the museum at the central estate house.
However, V.Nazimov had not succeeded in fulfilling the part of Varvara Pushkin’s testament, by which he was entrusted to liquidate the whole Markuchiai estate, to pay off debts and to hand over the bequeathed by the will part to the Vilnius Russian society for the establishment of the museum: a state system and forms of ownership in Lithuania changed, organisations, that were acting till that time terminated their activities - among them the Vilnius Russian society, most of its members were arrested and deported or imprisoned. Landed estates in Lithuania, the Markuchiai estate including, were nationalised.

Later the questions of immortalising the memory of A. Pushkin in Vilnius took over under its care a government of the formed Lithuanian SSR that in the fourth decade established a museum in memory of the poet.

In 1940-1949, the museum worked as one of Culture and Education institutions at the Council of Ministers of the Lithuanian SSR, in 1949-1955, it belonged to Lithuanian SSR Science Academy, in 1955-1984 - to the Ministry of Culture of the Lithuanian SSR. In 1984-1986, the museum, for a period of major repairs was attached to the Culture Administration of the Vilnius City Executive Committee, later, in the yeas 1986-1990, it was reorganised into a sub-unit of Vilnius writers’ memorial museum.

From the year 1990, the museum is an independent culture institution of Vilnius Municipality.

An intensive cultural life is going on in the museum: literary-musical evening parties, concerts, exhibitions and other events are arranged there, memorable dates are commemorated. The museum collaborates with other Lithuanian and foreign museums, education and culture institutions, nongovernmental organisations, carries out enlightening and educating activities.

Exhibitions on Pushkin‘s life and creative work, cherishing his memory, his contemporaries, Markuchiai district are arranged at the museum‘s room from time to time. Catalogues of such exhibitions are issued.

The most famous Lithuanian actors and soloists – V. Jefremov, N.Ambrazaityte, V.Prudnikov, V.Noreika, A.Berba, S.Janchaite, L.Nazarenko, R.Alechnovich, and others, actors from Latvia L.Lencas and S.Vidiakina were on a visit to the museum‘s sitting-room.

Since the year 2001, the Literary museum of A.Pushkin‘s and the Society of Admirers of the Poet A. Pushkin are organising a contest of amateur art activities “My Alexander Pushkin” on the poet‘s personality, episodes of his life, personages of his works, as well as Markuchiai or the Literary museum of A.Pushkin in Vilnius had to be depicted. The aim of the contest is to interest pupils in the creative work and personality of one of the greatest poets of the world, to encourage them to take pride in the fact, that Lithuania, Vilnius is one of non-abundant places related with Pushkin‘s name not only by literary but also by biographical connections. The contest is very popular among Lithuanian pupils. Visitors of the museum are delighted with unlimited children‘s fantasy, inventiveness and talents.

The museum has close contacts of cultural collaboration with A. Pushkin‘s museums in Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the Russian Literary Institute „Pushkinskyj Dom“ of the Academy of Sciences of Russia, the poet‘s museum in Michailovskoje, the Society of Admirers of the Poet A.Pushkin in Vilnius, the Societies of A. Pushkin in Riga and Tallinn, organisations of national minorities in Lithuania, the Embassy of Russian Federation, and other embassies. Great attention is paid to work with companies engaged in developing tourism.

We are waiting for your suggestions for collaboration on the phones (8-5) 2600080, 2600415, fax (8-5) 2600080, E-mail info.puskino@vilniausmuziejai.lt. We will make every effort to realize the most interesting projects.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.vilniausmuziejai.lt/a_puskinas/index.htm

Ministério Público investiga obras do Museu Pelé




Inquérito foi aberto para apurar eventual improbidade administrativa na execução do contrato entre a Prefeitura de Santos e a Oscip AMA Brasil




O Museu Pelé está sob a mira do Ministério Público Estadual (MPE). O promotor de Justiça, Eduardo Antonio Taves Romero, não se deu por satisfeito com as respostas da Prefeitura de Santos e a Organização da Sociedade Civil de Interesse Público AMA Brasil, e determinou a instauração de inquérito para apurar irregularidades na reforma e na gestão do empreendimento.

A Promotoria de Justiça Cível de Santos aponta eventual improbidade administrativa decorrente de falhas e superfaturamento na contratação e na execução do contrato entre a AMA Brasil e a Administração Municipal para as obras de recuperação do Casarão do Valongo onde está abrigado o Museu Pelé. A reforma custou R$ 50 milhões.

Romero já notificou o prefeito Paulo Alexandre Barbosa (PSDB) sobre o inquérito e solicitou o cronograma de prestação de contas do contrato para as obras e gerenciamento do Museu Pelé. A denúncia partiu de representação do vereador Antonio Carlos Banha Joaquim (PMDB) ao MPE, baseado em uma reportagem do Diário do Litoral, publicada em setembro de 2014, denunciando um deficit de mais de R$ 70 mil por mês.

O empreendimento contou com grande destinação de verbas do Município, Estado e União, além da doação de empresários e empresas de grande porte para a consecução da reforma e gestão do museu. Na representação, o vereador ressalta que requereu informações à Prefeitura e não obteve resposta.

O MPE acatou as irregularidades apontadas por Banha e questionou a Administração e a Oscip sobre questões como parte da execução da obra assumida pela própria Prefeitura decorrente da aproximação do prazo para entrega da reforma; a isenção de impostos da organização social; e má execução da reforma.

Sobre a ajuda de funcionários da Prefeitura para agilizar as obras e entregar no prazo estabelecido, a Administração Municipal nega. “Em nenhum momento a Oscip se utilizou de funcionários, equipe técnica ou equipamentos da Prefeitura de Santos para realizar obras de restauro e reforma do museu”, explicou ao MPE.

Na representação, Banha também assinala que mesmo diante de tantos recursos públicos e privados, a AMA Brasil atrasou a finalização das obras. Segundo a Oscip respondeu ao MPE, várias dificuldades motivaram o atraso na entrega, como o “solo considerado o pior do Brasil, preocupação com preservação das ruínas durante as obras dificultando a entrada de máquinas e equipamentos, condições climáticas ruins (chuvas excessivas) no período do restauro, mudanças funcionais nos projetos executivos de arquitetura, instalações, estrutura e fundações, demorar na liberação dos recursos”.

Sobre o pagamento de impostos, o vereador alega que a Oscip “é isenta do pagamento de impostos por seu uma entidade sem fins lucrativos”. No entanto, Prefeitura e AMA Brasil se contradizem. Segundo a Administração santista, a organização “não goza de imunidade ou isenção tributária”. Já a Oscip respondeu que “o artigo 150, IV da Constituição Federal veda à administração pública instituir impostos sobre patrimônio, renda ou serviços das entidades sindicais dos trabalhadores, das instituições de educação e de assistência social sem fins lucrativos mediante o cumprimento de requisitos, razão pela qual os tributos não incidem sobre a organização”.

O museu foi inaugurado no dia 15 junho do ano passado, com a presença de Edson Arantes do Nascimento, Pelé, e do vice-presidente da República, Michel Temer, que representou a presidente Dilma Rousseff. Logo após a inauguração surgiram problemas que comprometeram a pintura externa, justificado pela AMA Brasil como fungos das paredes devido ao estado de arruinamento. A Oscip se comprometeu a resolver o problema após a temporada de verão.

Apesar das apurações preliminares, o promotor Romero determinou a instauração do inquérito para se apurar com mais profundidade as alegações das partes envolvidas, a fim de identificar a transparência da execução da obra. O promotor disse que é preciso também apurar a situação regular, ou não, da gestão da AMA Brasil.

Como providências iniciais, além de notificar o prefeito, o promotor requisitou ao Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional (IPHAN) a realização de nova vistoria no museu. E pediu ao Tribunal de Contas do Estado (TCE) informações sobre a verificação na execução do contrato sobre a obra.



Prefeitura e AMA Brasil terão que prestar mais esclarecimentos ao MP (Foto: Matheus Tagé/DL)

Ainda operando no vermelho

Na representação, Banha também cita o caráter privado, tendo em vista a cobrança de ingresso (R$ 18), depois reduzido, lembrando que diversas parcelas da população não tinham como arcar com o valor.

Quanto ao custo do ingresso, AMA Brasil e Prefeitura disseram que não se busca a obtenção de lucro, mas tornar viável a manutenção do museu. Acrescentaram que a cobrança de ingresso não significa que o museu tenha natureza privada. “O que configura como tendo natureza pública é a sua vinculação ao poder público e a elaboração de um plano anual prévio”.

Mesmo assim, o valor arrecadado com os ingressos não está mantendo o empreendimento. Segundo a assessoria da AMA Brasil, em dezembro, o Museu teve um deficit de R$ 97.354,63, parte disso em decorrência de encargos com 13º salário. “Estamos buscando uma solução para equilibrar a relação entre receita e despesa”.

Este deficit já foi destaque nas páginas do Diário do Litoral e resultou na denúncia ao MP-SP. Em setembro, quando a primeira reportagem sobre o assunto foi publicada, a própria Prefeitura afirmou que R$ 200 mil seriam necessários para manter o equipamento funcionando.

As partes se explicam

Questionada sobre a abertura do inquérito pelo MP pela Reportagem do Diário do Litoral, a Prefeitura de Santos explicou que a abertura de inquérito é um procedimento com pedido de informações. “No caso em questão, a Prefeitura já presta esclarecimentos ao Ministério Público”, informa.

A Administração também explica que, pelos instrumentos jurídicos firmados com a AMA Brasil, as receitas auferidas revertem à própria gestão do Museu. “A Prefeitura não recebe nenhum dinheiro e também não é responsável por eventuais resultados negativos. O ganho municipal é a importância do Museu Pelé como atrativo jurídico, que já foi notícia em mais de 45 países e recebeu quase 65 mil visitantes. Toda receita obtida obrigatoriamente é reaplicada no próprio museu”.

O Executivo santista ainda ressalta que tanto o imóvel quanto as instalações do museu são e continuarão sendo patrimônio público municipal. “A Prefeitura não repassa dinheiro para a AMA Brasil. Todos os tributos incidentes na obra municipais incidentes, como o Imposto Sobre Serviços, foram recolhidos pelas empresas contratantes”.
Também questionada, a Oscip informa que já foi notificada sobre a instauração do inquérito civil. “Todos os serviços que foram prestados para a AMA Brasil em relação ao museu e que, por Lei caberia a AMA Brasil a retenção do ISS, foram devidamente retidos e pagos”.

Sobre a destinação do valor arrecadado com os ingressos, a organização explica que o termo de parceria para gestão do museu prevê que a AMA Brasil, a título de taxa administrativa (assessoria jurídica, captação de recursos, contabilidade, administração, entre outros serviços), tem direito a 15% do valor arrecadado na bilheteria. E a título de pagamento dos direitos para a empresa detentora da marca Pelé, outros 15%. O restante é destinado para as despesas operacionais do Museu. “Ressaltando que a referida taxa não leva em consideração nenhum valor destinado à construção e restauração da obra, e sim somente a gestão”.

A AMA Brasil acrescenta ainda que “é a responsável pela prestação de contas do que tem sido feito conforme procedimento determinado no Termo de Parceria assinado entre a AMA e Prefeitura de Santos”.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariottiMinistério Público investiga obras do Museu Pelé

Musée Angladon, Avignon.






UNE FONDATION POUR CREER ET GERER UN MUSEE





Les derniers héritiers de la collection du mécène Jacques Doucet, son petit neveu Jean Angladon-Dubrujeaud (1906-1979) et son épouse avignonnaise Paulette Martin (1905-1988), souhaitèrent transformer leur demeure d’Avignon en musée.

C’était aussi le souhait de Jean Dubrujeaud qui, depuis la mort de son oncle en 1929, gérait les biens de Jeanne Roger-Doucet très âgée. Malgré des dons et des ventes (un lot de tableaux de Braque et Picasso en 1937) il subsistait dans la famille, à Paris et Neuilly, des œuvres d’artistes de la période 1874-1925, de Van Gogh à Modigliani, mais aussi des meubles et tableaux de la première collection du 18e siècle dont Chardin, Boucher et Hubert Robert.

En 1970, une partie de cet ensemble parvint à Avignon. Sans enfant, le couple voulut organiser la création, au centre d’Avignon, d’un musée qui porterait leur nom.

Paulette Angladon-Dubrujeaud qui survécut neuf ans à son mari, choisit la Fondation de France comme légataire universelle, à charge pour elle d’obtenir le décret d’utilité publique et de remettre la totalité de l’héritage à la Fondation avignonnaise.

Reconnue d’utilité publique – par décret du 9 février 1993 - la Fondation Angladon-Dubrujeaud a organisé les travaux de mise aux normes de l’hôtel particulier des Fondateurs en vue de son ouverture au public. Le musée a ouvert en novembre 1996.





Depuis cette date, un Conseil d’administration gère les biens de la Fondation et donne au Conservateur les moyens d’assurer la sécurité du musée et de développer des animations régulières et des expositions temporaires. A ce jour, ce musée privé n’a reçu aucune aide publique.


Le Musée Angladon

abrite une collection d’oeuvres d’art d’importants artistes des 18e, 19e et 20e siècles, conservées par un couple de peintres et graveurs, Jean et Paulette Angladon-Dubrujeaud, héritiers du célèbre couturier et collectionneur parisien Jacques Doucet.

Grâce aux acquisitions de cette personnalité exceptionnelle, le public peut découvrir des œuvres de Degas, Daumier, Manet, Sisley, Forain, Van Gogh, Cézanne Picasso ou Modigliani.

Selon la volonté des fondateurs avignonnais, leur hôtel particulier a conservé au premier étage, le charme d’un intérieur d’amateurs d’art : salle médiévale et Renaissance, atelier d’artistes, salon chinois et salons du 18e siècle présentant de nombreux tableaux, dessins, meubles estampillés et objets d’art.






Historique

Le musée a ouvert au public en novembre 1996. Les collections proviennent pour l’essentiel d’un grand mécène parisien : le couturier Jacques Doucet (1853-1929) qui fonda deux bibliothèques parisiennes – la Bibliothèque d’art et d’archéologie et la Bibliothèque littéraire- et collectionna les œuvres du 18e siècle avant de choisir l’avant-garde de son temps.

Ses derniers héritiers, Jean Angladon-Dubrujeaud (1906-1979) et son épouse avignonnaise Paulette Martin (1905-1988), sans descendance, organisèrent la création d’un musée dans leur hôtel particulier du centre d’Avignon pour les oeuvres importantes conservées par la famille. Ils firent eux-mêmes quelques acquisitions de tableaux du 16e au 18e et des meubles « haute époque ».


Parcours

Rez-de-chaussée : collections des 19e et 20esiècles et salle de documentation

Un escalier du 18e siècle dessert les deux niveaux consacrés à la visite. Il introduit à la suite de salons gardant l’aspect d’une maison habitée.

Premier étage : demeure des Fondateurs et collections anciennes, du 16e au 18e siècle

La visite peut être complétée par une vidéo présente en 15 mns l’histoire des collections en plusieurs langues.

PERIODE 1900-1920

Principales œuvres exposées

– La Blouse Rose de Modigliani et plusieurs oeuvres de Picasso : Rêverie, Le Couple, Autoportrait de 1904, Arlequin assis devant un tableau cubiste (1915) et deux Natures mortes de 1919 et 1920

– Fleur dans un vase de Derain, sculpture et estampes de l’artiste

– Autoportrait et portrait de Foujita sur feuilles d’or

– Tabouret « art déco » de Pierre Legrain créateur de nombreux cadres

– Masques africains achetés à Paul Guillaume, grand amateur d’art africain




PERIODE 1850-1890

– Sancho Pançha, superbe étude de Daumier, pour Don Quichotte dans les montagnes

– Paysage de Diaz, illustrant l’Ecole de Barbizon

– Le Lapin de Manet, nature morte évoquant une œuvre de Chardin

- Neige à Louveciennes de Sisley, bel exemple de recherche impressionniste en 1874. Le cadre doré rappelle la présence de ce tableau dans la collection du XVIIIe siècle de Jacques Doucet.

- Nature morte au pot de grès de Cézanne

– Wagons de chemin de fer de Van Gogh, peint à Arles en août 1888

– Danseuses et Repasseuse de Degas

– La Porte entrebâillée de Vuillard, œuvre pointilliste d’un artiste Nabis

Œuvres d’Eugène Carrière, Jean-Louis Forain, Niederhaüsen…



Premier étage
UN INTERIEUR D’AMATEURS D’ART

tel que le souhaitaient les fondateurs, Jean et Paulette Angladon-Dubrujeaud.

Salon rouge : ensemble de peintures du XVIIe siècle acquises par les fondateurs. Buffet sculpté sur le thème des saisons dans un état exceptionnel, Taureau de bronze

Salle médiévale et renaissance : deux sculptures médiévales Vierge (XIIIe s) et Saint Jean-Baptiste (XVe s) parmi un bel ensemble de portraits du 16e siècle

L’atelier des deux artistes : dessins et gravures des années 1930-1960, signés Paulette Martin et Jean Angladon. Les expositions temporaires peuvent modifier la présentation.

Salle Doucet : documents familiaux et tableaux présentant les salons du collectionneur

Bibliothèque présentant des œuvres du 18es, Tempête de Joseph Vernet, célèbre peintre né à Avignon, Marines de Lacroix de Marseille et Galerie en ruines et Maternité œuvres d’Hubert Robert ayant fait partie des collections Doucet. Pour des raisons de conservation, les dessins de Boucher, Lancret et Greuze ne sont pas exposés toute l’année.

Les salons du 18ème siècle : remarquable ensemble de tableaux « souvenirs » de la première collection de Jacques Doucet.
– Portrait de femme de Sir Thomas Lawrence
– Coin d’office de Chardin

Parmi le mobilier estampillé, les sculptures et objets d’art caractéristiques des salons français au 18e siècle: – Duchesse brisée de Tillard – Chaise-voyelle de Lelarge – Sièges de Jacob – Commodes de Schey et de Garnier – Pendule à l’éléphant – Porcelaines anciennes – Miniatures (Autoportrait de Mme de Pompadour).

Salon d’Extrême-Orient : Danseuse de l’époque Tang (7e s), Amida (représentation bouddhique sur soie), porcelaines chinoises des 17-18e siècles

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.angladon.com/

Vatican mummies are FAKES: Bones inside two of the collection's 'ancient' Egyptian caskets date back to the Middle Ages

Experts claim two of the nine mummies in the collection are forgeries
Resin used on one of the mummified bodies dates to the mid-19th century
While scans revealed male and female bones in the same mummy
One of these bones was a tibia that is thought to date to the Middle Ages
A ‘modern nail’ was also found among the skeletal remains
Experts are due to present their findings at the museum on Thursday
Mummy forgeries have previously been used to scam people out of Money








Experts said resin used on one of the 'mini mummies' (pictured) was made in the 19th century


They may look like the real thing, but at least two of the mummies in the Vatican Museums' collection have been found to be fakes.


Using CT scans, X-rays and carbon dating, experts said the resin used on one of the ‘Ancient Egyptian’ mummified bodies was actually made during the mid-19th century.


While a scan of another revealed a mixture of male and female bones, as well as a ‘modern nail.’


The experts, led by Alessia Amenta, are due to present their findings at the museum on Thursday.


The Department of Antiquities of Egypt and the Near East of the Vatican Museums set up the Vatican Mummy Project in 2007 with the aim of cataloguing, studying and restoring its collection of mummies.


The Vatican collection holds nine complete Egyptian mummies, and eighteen body parts made up of heads, hands and feet.


Led by Ms Amenta, the team used X-rays and electron microscopes to study chemical elements in the bandages, as well as CT scans to create 3D images of the contents inside.


This involved carbon dating the mummies to determine their age, plus infrared and ultraviolet scans to show markings that would traditionally be hidden to the naked eye.







The two so-called ‘mini mummies’ were originally believed to date back to Ancient Egypt, and contain a child or animal.


During the tests, the researchers discovered that the wrappings around the 23-inch (60cm) long mummies were from approximately 3,000 BC, which suggested they could be real, but the bones found inside were from the Middle Ages.





The two so-called ‘mini mummies’ were originally believed to date back to Ancient Egypt, and contain a child or animal. During tests, the researchers discovered the wrappings around the 23-inch (60cm) long mummies were from 3,000 BC, which suggested they could be real, but bones found inside were from the Middle Ages





There was a mix of male and female bones, as well as various body parts, including an adult tibia and fibula (shown in right scan), foot bones and a vertebrae (shown left). A ‘modern nail’ was also found in the contents


There was a mixture of male and female bones, as well as various body parts, including an adult tibia and fibula, foot bones and a vertebrae.

EMBALMING IN ANCIENT EGYPT


Embalming was practiced for more than 2,000 years and was an important after life ritual in Ancient Egypt.


The earliest mummies were said to have been embalmed in around 2,600BC, but recent evidence suggests it may have started earlier.


Religious ceremonies accompanied the preparation of the body for the afterlife.


Priests wrapped the mummy with linen strips containing resin, placed the internal organs in the specially prepared canopic jars and blessed the entrance of the mummy’s tomb at the funeral.


The mummified remains remain in good condition because the process successfully removed moisture from the body to slow down the process of decay.


The Ancient Egyptians believed the body was the house of the soul so even after death the spirit could only live on if the body was preserved forever. If the body decayed, so too did the soul.


In Ancient Egyptian religion, the soul was made of the ka, which remained in the tomb, the ba, which was free to fly outside the tomb and the akh which travelled to the underworld for judgement.


A ‘modern nail’ was also found among the contents.


‘What a disappointment to find that the mummy in question was only a tangle of bandages arranged to simulate an ancient artefact,’
said Ms Amenta.


‘The mummy is an important witness to this phenomenon of forgery that was able to masterfully deceive collectors and often scholars.


‘Scientific investigations, carried out under the direction of Ulderico Santamaria and his assistant Fabio Morresi, have allowed us to reconstruct the manufacturing technique and probably the area and the period in which these forgers have operated.


‘Scattered in a dozen museums, there are forty examples of this particular type of mummies that Egyptologists have commonly referred to as ‘mummies child’ or animal mummies.’


Following further tests, the cartonnage - painted plaster and linen surrounding the mummified remains - was found to contain a resin that was typically used on antiques during the mid-19th century in Europe.


In particular, traces of zinc and tin were found in the paints that included pigments that wouldn’t have been used at the time.


Previous studies also found that a mummy in the collection identified as a female on the sarcophagus contained the remains of a male.


There have been a number of fake mummies found in collections globally, but the reasons for the forgeries are not known.


During the 18th and 19th century, Napoleon’s expeditions to Egypt caused a so-called ‘mummy mania’, in Europe in which people became fixated on the process.








Embalming was practiced for more than 2,000 years in Ancient Egypt. The earliest mummies were said to have been embalmed in around 2,600BC, but recent evidence suggests it may have started 1,500 years earlier. Traces of embalming agents were found in linen used to wrap bodies in Egyptian cemeteries (pictured)


This caused a rise in fake mummies being created and put on display, and in some cases, criminals would publicly ‘unwrap’ these forgeries to a group of tourists who would pay large sums to see it.

THE VATICAN MUSEUMS


The Vatican Museums were set up by Pope Julius II in the 16th century to promote knowledge of art history and culture.


The Etruscan Museum was established in 1837 and added archaeological finds discovered during excavations carried out from 1828 onwards in southern Etruria.


Two years later, the Egyptian Museum was opened that houses ancient artefacts from explorations in Egypt, together with other pieces already conserved in the Vatican and in the Museo Capitolino.


In the year 2000, the Vatican Museums opened a new large entrance that provides visitor information and other services, and on display are many new artworks, two of which were specially created for this hall.


The Department of Antiquities of Egypt and the Near East of the Vatican Museums set up the Vatican Mummy Project in 2007 with the aim of cataloguing, studying and restoring its collection of mummies.


The Vatican collection holds nine complete Egyptian mummies, and eighteen body parts made up of heads, hands and feet.


Ms Amenta told the
Catholic New Service that 'mummies were in high demand from the Middle Ages up to the Renaissance because they were burned and used as a powder in apothecary potions for various ailments.'


She said that two pounds of 'mummy dust' would be equivalent to $17,000 (£11,270) today. Mummified bodies were also used to create brown oil paints.


Embalming was practiced for more than 2,000 years and was an important after life ritual in Ancient Egypt.


The earliest mummies were said to have been embalmed in around 2,600BC, but recent evidence suggests it may have started earlier.


In August last year, traces of complex embalming agents were found in linen used to wrap bodies that were placed in tombs in one of the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries.


The formula used to treat the cloth predates the earliest scientific evidence of embalming in the area of northern Egypt by more than a millennium.


Experts identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum, a natural petroleum source and a plant oil or animal fat in the funerary wrappings in unopened tombs at Mostagedda, in the region of Upper Egypt.


This suggests the practice began around 1,500 years earlier than first thought.
 


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2928091/Vatican-mummies-FAKE-Bones-inside-two-collection-s-ancient-Egyptian-caskets-date-Middle-Ages.html#ixzz3QFT2Lst3

 

Why is the V&A hiding a picture of Mohammed from its website?


The V&A has recently decided to remove an historic image of the Prophet Mohammed from its website. The image remains in the collection and will be made available to scholars and researchers by appointment.



A 16th-century Turkish image of Mohammed welcoming Jacob, from the ‘Zubdet ut Tevarih’ by Lokman (1583) - a separate picture to the one in the V&A collection


I am not sure it is a very uplifting example, this censorship of the past, but they are certainly not alone in doing this. Indeed over the last generation, a slow but efficient iconoclasm has been at work in Britain pruning images of the Prophet from published books, not just about the life of the Prophet but also illustrated surveys of Islamic Art. It is extraordinary how successful this campaign has been, based not on any physical threat but on a deluge of orchestrated complaints by telephone and email. And if you are the publisher of an Islamic interest book, receiving hundreds if not thousands of messages from your target audience telling you that this book would have been bought, except for the inclusion of an ‘offensive’ illustration – well this message certainly gets through to the marketing department.

Last week, an art scholar friend of mine, who is incidentally a Muslim, told me that things are getting worse. He has been doing valuable work for many years, teaching the basic principles of Islamic design to young craftsmen who are keen to reconstruct in carved wood, plaster and painted tile their own Islamic heritage, which has been destroyed by war and revolution. You would have to say that he stands on the side of the angels in this work, for which he is paid only travel expenses. He packs in centuries of artistic development in an accessible three-day or week-long course of lectures, which is also a wonderful testament to his travels and taste, for they are beautifully illustrated by the slides he has taken over the years. You might have thought he would be honoured, but after one of these recent lectures he was arrested by the police of his host-nation and told that he had a choice: either destroy all the slides on his computer or be thrown into jail. His crime was to have shown a beautiful book illustration of the Prophet, veiled in a halo of light, ascending to the heavens.

We have become so inured to this process that it can be a shock to stroll into a second-hand bookshop and see how free the 1960s and 1970s were from this iconoclasm. To take an example, look at a copy of Emel Esin’s study of the two Holy Cities, entitled Mecca the Blessed, Madinah the Radiant. It is a book that oozes piety, scholarship and devotion, and also has dozens of beautiful illuminated images of the Prophet and his family. If you tried tracking down the various images from the dozen museums proudly cited in the acknowledgements to this book, including lots from the V&A, you would now enter a world of selective silence.

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All faiths have had their iconoclastic periods, and to this day the decoration of any mosque might appear positively skittish compared to the interior of a Free Presbyterian church in Scotland. Even the Orthodox Church, renowned for the beauty of its spiritual art, frescoed on the walls and painted on icons, will not tolerate a free-standing statue. It’s part of a compromise that finally buried the hatchet in the bloody struggles between the iconoclasts and iconodules in the 9th century. And it means that, to my amusement, when the Great Mosque of the Umayyads was built in Damascus in the 8th century, it was the great church of Byzantine Constantinople, Ayia Sophia, that had the simplest, image-free interior. And Buddhism, which supports the largest and longest personality cult in the history of the world, began as a strictly non-representational philosophy. Indeed for the first four hundred years the most that was tolerated in terms of imagery was a symbolic wheel or a footprint.

Although we can be sure that there were no images in any of the early mosques of Islam, we cannot be so certain about the domestic space. Fragments of frescoes from Umayyad hunting palaces suggest a lively delight in the human form. We simply don’t know if there were images of the Prophet in medieval book illuminations, as our oldest sources only go back to the 13th century. And what we do possess from this period and the subsequent three centuries was clearly created for a very elite market, largely commissioned by rulers for themselves or as prestige gifts for other rulers, and kept within the compounds of their palaces. In no way can they be thought of as part of the lived experience of 99.5 per cent of the Muslim world. And the dynasties who primarily made them – the Timurids (descended from Tamburlane), the Safavids (partly descended from Tamburlane and Genghis Khan), the Ottomans (descended from a warrior Turk called Osman) and the Moghuls (descended from the Timurid Babur) – were all descended from blood-thirsty Turkic and Mongol warriors from Central Asia, who for a long time were not especially good Muslims. Indeed the Mongol-Turks very nearly obliterated Islam, before they got back into the cultural swing of things by building monstrously large mosques and university colleges beside their tombs. Looking at some of the details from the glitteringly beautiful book illustrations of this era, the angels do have a very Central Asian look about them, if not actually Chinese and Buddhist, and the tents and armour tend to be Turkic not Arabic. So there is some sense in keeping these images to one side, if in your role as the perfect museum curator you were wanting to reflect the lived culture of the majority of the Islamic world. It could be argued that these books and especially their illustrations were the property of an alien ruling class of destructive conquerors. But we need to hear this story, not hide it.
Barnaby Rogerson has written biographies of Mohammed and his heirs.
 
fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://blogs.spectator.co.uk/culturehousedaily/2015/01/the-v/