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segunda-feira, 31 de agosto de 2015

In general there are 4000 caves registred in the Czech Republic; starting with small caverns to large systems of many kilometers.

THE CAVE ADMINISTRATION OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC, is the governmental partially self-financing organization of the Ministry of Environment;






Its mission is to protect and care for show caves and other underground spaces according to the nature and landscape protection regulations and State Mining Authority regulations;

It is a member of the International Show Caves Association.

The Cave Administration cares for the Show caves in the Czech Republic; it arranges steps according to the nature protection demands and ensures the technical protection after the state Mining Authority rules. It also cares for exploration, monitoring, documentation and guide services for the public.

The Cave Administration also participates in given activities in other caves and underground spaces and geological localities of the Czech Republic. It provides the statewide evidence and documentation of caves and other speleological objects.

Currently the Cave Administration cares for 14 Show caves and one mining locality containing cave spaces. It guarantees their protection according to the maintenance plan. In terms of the revitalization program the Cave Administration eliminates negative impacts of previous activities and exploitation of caves as well as renovates their real estate and technical furnishing. External tourist premises are being restored and educational exhibitions are being prepared at them, informative and scientific publications are published.

All caves are protected by the law No.114/1992 on the nature and landscape protection. Show caves are the representative sample of most remarkable caves of Bohemia and Moravia, and they are utilized for educational and entertainment purposes. 700 000 tourists from all over the world visits them annually.

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KARST IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
Karst form of the Czech republic are developed nearly exclusively in different types of limestones and less frequently also in dolomitic limestones belonging to main geological and geomorphological units of the Bohemian Massif and Outer Western Carpathians.

The most important karst areas, i.e. Moravian Karst, Bohemian Karst and the prevailing part of karst areas of the northern Moravia, are developed in Devonian limestones and less frequently in Silurian limestones and dolomitic limestones. They are unmetamorphosed or only weakly metamorphosed, but they are strongly faulted and folded during orogenies. 

The major part of small karst areas was developed in crystalline limestones metamor-phosed in different intensity in the Moldanubian, Lugic (West Sudeten) and Moravo-Silesian units, in central Bohemian metamorphic islets, etc. Limestone/dolomite lenses occur also in other metamorphic units. Carbonate rocks are mostly of Lower Paleozoic age.

Jurassic limestones show limited karstification in the Lugicum (Lužický Ridge). Larger karst areas are developed in the Klippen Belt of the Outer Western Carpathians in the eastern part of the republic.

Cretaceous limestones belong to limited facies development of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Distinct karstification is traceable to the west of Kutná Hora City.

Karst areas of the Czech republic represent mostly small islands with imperfectly developed karst morphology and with existing limited variety of karst forms. Also larger karst areas, i.e. Bohemian Karst, are composed of discontinuous mosaic of limestone strips isolated and interrupted by non-karst rocks. Only the Moravian Karst represents more developed karst area with abroad variety of karst phenomena including free underground water streams.

Type of karst. Owing to dominant lithology of karst rocks, our karst areas represent carbonate karst belonging to the Central European Type of polycyclic and polygenetic karst (PANOŠ V., 1964). It is isolated (scattered) type of karst which developed by repeating karstification during changing climatic and geomorphological conditions. Hydrothermal karst, firstly described from Zbrašov Aragonite Caves (KUNSKÝ J., 1957), represents a special type of karst. It developed by activity of penetrating thermomineral waters through a limestone massif.

The specificity of karst areas reflects e.g. their differentiated geomorphological evolution. Owing to small area of carbonate outcrops, the variety of karst forms is highly limited, in places. Karst areas have mostly identical geomorphological evolution with the geomorphological unit to which they belong. Except the Moravian Karst and several other karst areas, their expression in the relief is not distinct. They usually form elevations or short ridges, eventually morphological depressions. The dominant part of surface of carbonate rocks is covered by weathering products and other sedimentary covers of variable age and genesis. The sedimentary cover accelerates karst process, in limited places, or on the contrary it decelerates karst evolution, turning the karst into fossilised state. Evidences of previous karstifications are usually preserved under sediments.

Evolution of karst in our republic can be divided into several more distinct periods of karstification interrupted by orogenic processes and/or marine transgressions. The oldest proved period of karstification took place during the deposition of Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks, and it is composed of several local phases of karstification. The next period of karstification is connected with final stages of the Variscan Orogeny ad it lasted until the beginning of Upper Cretaceous marine transgression in Cenomanian. A number of fossil karst forms resulted from this period hidden under Cretaceous cover in Bohemian and Moravian Karsts. The youngest period of karstification has been lasting from sea retreat in Upper Cretaceous until the present time. It is subdivided into numerous phases connected to reflections of the Alpine Orogeny in the foreland of the Bohemian Massif and separated either by short marine ingressions (eastern margins of the Bohemian Massif) and/or by expressive phases of accumulation of continental sediments (Neogene coal-bearing basins, Tertiary to Quaternary terraces). The most important underground cave systems developed during Tertiary in the Bohemian, Moravian and North Moravian Karsts, and in some of other isolated karst islands. Above mentioned phases of karstification produced typologically different karst forms in the dependence to tectonic, climatic and hydrological conditions. The evolution of karst areas differed also in different regions.

PSEUDOKARST IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
Pseudokarst phenomena often occur in the Czech Republic. They are represented by karst and morphologically similar forms developed in non-karst rocks. They are especially rich in thick sequences of Upper Cretaceous sandstones of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Caves developed along fissures, bedding planes and in blocky screes are common, as well as fissure shafts and niches. A number of those natural forms was changed by man. Features developed in calcareous spongilites, marlstones and calcareous sandstones of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin are often classified as transitional or karst forms. 

The most extensive systems of pseudokarst fissure and scree caves and shafts are developed in sandstones and marlstones of the flysh zone of Western Carpathians.

Processes connected with young relief originated fissure caves in volcanic rocks of the Èeské støedohoøí Mts. Syngenetic inhomogeni-ties probably represent the basis of cavities in volcaniclastic rocks of the Doupovské hory Hills.

Pseudokarst cavities, i.e. mostly covered open fissures, fissures and cavities in scree in isolated rocks and rocky cliffs, occur in places within the whole territory of our republic. They are developed in solid rocks with blocky disintegrations, especially in magmatic and metamorphic rocks.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.jeskynecr.cz/?lang=en

Vanadzor Museum of Fine Arts, was founded as a branch of the National Gallery of Armenia.

Our Museum maintains a rich and impressive collection of artwork. In fact, Vanadzor is home to a very large and vibrant group of artists of various media, and was historically known as the heart of Armenia’s art community.

Highslide JS
Spring 

The Museum is located in the beautiful Lori Region near other world renowned visitor’s attractions. For tourists, Vanadzor is a perfect stop on your trip. Our visitors section on the website can help you plan your excursion and learn more about the Lori Region. Both day trips from Yerevan and overnight visits incorporating other destinations are possible and very enjoyable.


We stand ready to assist you with your visit. The Museum can accommodate groups of students, adults, tourists and visitors from around the world. We can arrange for guided tours and translators in just about any language you request if you give us advance notice.


I also welcome your ideas for special events and exhibitions. We have hosted lectures, seminars, readings, performances and even concerts at our Museum. What better place to hold your special event!



For those of you that are unable to visit Armenia and Vanadzor at the moment, we hope this site provides a virtual tour of our collection, our scholarly works, and serves as a valuable source of reference for anyone interested in Armenian art.

Feel free to contact us by telephone or email with your questions and ideas, and we look forward to seeing you soon.

Sincerely,

Papag Aloyan
Director, Vanadzor Museum of Fine Arts

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.vanart.org/

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ABOUT THE AREA

Vanadzor, Armenia’s third largest city was also known as Kirovakan during the Soviet Period. Vanadzor is located in the picturesque Lori Region which is in North East Armenia and borders on Georgia. Vanadzor is easily reached by car and is located approximately 120 km from Yerevan on excellent roads. The Lori Region is picturesque and many proclaim that Lori is the most beautiful region in Armenia. Streams and rivers converge through mountain passes greatly contributing to a visitor’s experience.

The Lori Region is home to many significant historical and religious sites, many recognized by the UNESCO World Heritage List. The picturesque city of Dilijan, known as the Swiss Alps of Armenia, greets visitors in Lori with its hilly landscape and rich foliage and charm. Famous Churches of Goshavank and Haghartsin and monasteries of Sanahin and Haghpat, where Sayat Nova and others taught are located on hill tops with breathtaking views. The mountain top plateau community of Odzun is home to a magnificent 7th century cathedral, which was recently reopened and is now a working Church. A 12th Century foot bridge crosses the Debed River in the city of Alaverdi and can be crossed by visitors today.

Culture and art has thrived throughout the centuries in Lori thus earning its place as Armenia’s cultural center. The famous poet, Hovanes Toumanyan lived in the village named after him and a museum in his honor is open to visitors. Scores of well-known artists, sculptures and artisans have made the Lori Region their home over the centuries. Excellent examples of their work can be found in the collection of the Vanadzor Museum of Fine Arts.

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HISTORY
In 1974, the Vanadzor Museum of Fine Arts was founded as a branch of the National Gallery of Armenia. In 1979, it was reorganized and received the status of an independent Museum of Fine Arts with its own collection. Since then, the Museum has become one of the most prominent cultural centers in the Lori region.

The Museum houses more than 1,700 works of art in its permanent collection including: paintings, sculptures, drawings, prints and works of decorative arts mostly by Armenian artists, with a special emphasis on artists of the Lori region. Visitors can admire outstanding works of art depicting different episodes of Armenian history, or delve into the deep philosophy behind various works of art. Special exhibitions are also held.

The Museum serves as an educational resource and research environment for students and artists. Lectures and workshops explore art history and art criticism. Museum staff provides special tours and classes for students.

Though the Museum receives modest state support, the Museum relies on support from private individuals and foundations to grow its impact as an important destination in the Lori Region.

Musée National de la Céramique à Safi

Aperçu historique :




Construite sous les Almohades (XII-XIII ème siècle), la citadelle qui abrite le musée national de la céramique est classée monument historique. Son emplacement, surplombant la médina de Safi et offrant une vue sur l'océan, atteste de son rôle défensif. C'est pour cela qu'elle fût occupée par les portugais entre 1508 et 1514 comme en témoigne les armoiries du roi Emmanuel 1 er qu'on peut constater sur l'une des tours de la citadelle. Le rôle militaire de cette fortification va être mis en valeur par les Saadiens. C'est ainsi que Moulay Zidane l'a doté de plusieurs canons de fabrication hollandaise.

Sous la dynastie Alaouite, la citadelle allait recevoir vers 1762 la bahia , demeure palatiale construite par le prince Moulay Hicham fils du Sultan Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah. C'est vraisemblablement à cette époque qu'on doit le nom de maison du sultan (Dar Essoltan) que conserve encore la tradition orale.

Après avoir été le bureau du contrôleur civile sous le protectorat français, ce monument fut le siège de plusieurs administrations avant de devenir le musée national de la céramique en 1990.




La nouvelle exposition permanente :

Conçue pour faire approcher le grand public à la céramique marocaine, à sa diversité et à son authenticité, cette nouvelle exposition répond également à un souci didactique.

C'est ainsi que le circuit de la visite, élaboré sous le signe de l'équilibre entre l'architecture et les collections, offre un voyage à travers les temps et les lieux de la céramique.

Les sections de cette exposition sont :
La céramique archéologique :

Présente des pièces archéologiques représentatives des grandes civilisations qui ont marqué l'histoire marocaine pendant les temps néolithique, antiques et médiéval.
La poterie rurale :

La céramique est présentée sous sa forme locale, utilitaire mais belle.

L'absence de l'émail laisse apprécier la couleur de la beauté des formes.
La céramique de Fès et Meknès :

Des pièces citadines y sont exposées. Le visiteur découvre les formes authentiques et les techniques ancestrales de la monochromie et de la polychromie.
La céramique de Safi :

Joyau de l'exposition, cette section raconte l'histoire du savoir-faire locale avant et après l'artisan Lamali.
La céramique contemporaine :

Est représentée par les ouvres modernes de Fès et de Safi. Le visiteur est invité à apprécier la touche innovatrice des maitres-artisans contemporains.

 



fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
http://www.minculture.gov.ma/fr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=87&Itemid=133&lang=fr




Musée National de la Céramique Casbah-Safi
Tél. : (212) 544-46-38-95

Neanderthals liked their creature comforts too! Spanish cave suggests ancient man had HOT WATER and bedrooms. OS HOMENS DAS CAVERNAS TINHAM ÁGUA QUENTE E ATÉ UM QUARTO

Cave near Barcelona in Catalonia features hearths and a concave hole
Hole suggests Neanderthals heated rocks for hot water 60,000 years ago
Archaeologists believe a central area of the cave was used as a bedroom because fewer artefacts and bone debris were found there 
Abric Romaní site yielded 10,000 new fossil remains and artefacts


You may imagine Neanderthals to be simple thugs or messy heathens.


But the discovery of a cave in the Catalonia region of Spain adds to a growing body of evidence that our distant cousins were more sophisticated than previously thought.


A hole in the rock shelter, found among hearths, suggests Neanderthals may have heated rocks and used them to produce hot water 60,000 years ago, as well sleeping in a specific area.




The discovery of a cave in the Catalonia region of Spain adds to growing evidence that Neanderthals were more sophisticated than previously thought. A hole in the rock shelter (pictured) found among hearths, suggests Neanderthals may have heated rocks and used them to heat water 60,000 years ago

The Abric Romaní site, near Barcelona, also yielded 10,000 new fossil remains and artefacts which will help experts learn more about the domestic lives of the prehistoric man.

The concave hole was discovered by archaeologists from the Catalan Institute of Human Paleoecology and Social Evolution (IPHES). 


It measures 16 inches x 12 inches x 4 inches (40 x 30 x 10cm) and is located near the wall of the cave. 

But what is particularly interesting about this hole is that is enclosed by hearths showing evidence of fires.

Hearths have been discovered in other Neanderthal dwellings, and it’s been suggested that they even cooked their food by boiling it in a bag made of skin, or a birch bark tray to soften it – possibly seasoning the meat with herbs.


An inner part of the cave (pictured) is thought to have been used for sleeping, because far fewer artefacts were found there and remains are small in size. The archaeologists claim the site offers the first evidence of a Neanderthal ‘bedroom’ and similar spaces have only been discovered in early Homo sapiens dwellings




Together with other artefacts in the cave, the hole suggests Neanderthals used different parts of the cave for different activities such as butchering meat, making tools and throwing out rubbish. An illustration showing Neanderthals together is pictured

Now, experts believe think they may have dropped hot stones, heated on these fires, in water to heat it. 

NEANDERTHAL 'BOIL IN THE BAG'

Neanderthals may have cooked stews in the skins of animals, according to anthropologists.

Animal bones found at sites known to have been inhabited by Neanderthals are 90 per cent free of gnaw marks.

This suggests that fat and meat had instead been cooked off the bones.

A study of tooth plaque from the teeth of fossilised Neanderthal remains also suggest that they may have heated grains of barley.

However, there is no evidence that Neanderthals had any pots or pans to cook with.

Instead Professor John Speth, an archaeologist at the University of Michigan, believes that they used animal paunches and folded bark to make bags that they could boil their good in. 

Together with other artefacts, the hole suggests Neanderthals used different parts of the cave for different activities such as butchering meat, making tools and throwing out rubbish.

Lithic stone tools and shards of material used to make them have been recovered made from flint, limestone and quartz.

Bones of horses, red deer, aurochs and wild goats confirm what Neanderthals hunted and ate.

The bones have cut marks made by the tools and it is thought that the bones belong to 15 animals.

But more excitingly, an inner part of the cave is thought to have been used for sleeping, because far fewer artefacts were found there and any remains are small in size.

The archaeologists claim the site offers the first evidence of a Neanderthal ‘bedroom’ and that similar spaces have only been discovered in early Homo sapiens dwellings elsewhere.

They have previously identified sleeping areas in the ‘Level N’ of the Abric Romaní site, dated to around 50,000 years ago and published in the journal Current Anthropology in 2011.

However the 'new' cave has bigger hearths and shows a higher density of remains, making the different areas of the cave clearer than before,

The team has painstakingly photographed the cave and artefacts in-situ to study the spatial settlement pattern of the site further.

Reconstructed surfaces will feature in a future exhibit at the Neanderthals Museum of Catalonia in Capellades.

Scientist discusses way of life for the Neanderthal people



The Abric Romaní site, in Capellades near Barcelona (marked), also yielded 10,000 new fossil remains and artefacts which will help experts learn more about the domestic lives of the prehistoric man. The concave hole was found by archaeologists from the Catalan Institute of Human Paleoecology and Social Evolution (IPHES)



Lithic stone tools have been recovered made from flint, limestone and quartz, as well as bones of horses, red deer, aurochs and wild goats (a mixture is shown) confirming what Neanderthals hunted and ate







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Sítio descoberto na Espanha tem indícios de que nossos antepassados usavam pedras para aquecer a água

Aquela história de que os neandertais eram burros e grosseiros pode estar com os dias contados. Uma descoberta em uma caverna na região de Catalunha, na Espanha, tem evidências de que o nosso parente distante era mais sofisticado do que imaginávamos.

De acordo com o Daily Mail, os arqueólogos do Instituto Catalão de Paleoecologia Humana e Evolução Social (IPHES) descobriram indícios em uma caverna que sugerem que o homem pré-histórico pode ter usado pedras quentes para a aquecer água há 60 mil anos atrás.

A pista para a desconfiança dos estudiosos foi encontrada na própria caverna que é cercada por lareiras e mostra evidências de incêndios. Em outras civilizações de Neandertais as lareiras descobertas sugerem que elas eram usadas para cozinhar alimentos em um saco feito de pele ou em uma bandeja de casca de bétula (espécie de árvore). Agora os cientistas acreditam que eles esquentavam as pedras nas lareiras e depositavam as pedras quentes na água para conseguir aquecê-la.

E as novidades não acabam por aí. Os nossos antepassados não tinham sala de visitas, mas eles também separavam partes da caverna de acordo com a atividade exercida. No buraco, pistas indicam que existiam locais específicos para fazer ferramentas e até para dormir. Os arqueólogos acham que o local da caverna com menos artefatos pode ter sido um quarto. Eles afirmam que o sítio oferece a primeira evidência de um “quarto” de um Neandertal. Espaços como esses só haviam sido identificados em habitações de Homo sapiens.

Ferramentas feitas de pedra, sílex, calcário e quartzo e cacos de materiais usados ​​na fabricação delas foram recuperadas para estudos. Ossos de cavalos, veados e cabras selvagens também serão estudados para confirmar o que os neandertais caçavam e comiam.

A caverna está situada no sítio Abric Romaní, perto de Barcelona, que também abriga 10.000 novos restos de fósseis e artefatos que ajudarão especialistas aprender mais sobre a vida do homem pré-histórico.


Caverna encontrada na Catalunha sugere que Neandertais esquentavam água usando pedras quentes (Foto: Instituto Catalão de Paleoecologia Humana e Evolução Social)

http://elastica.abril.com.br/os-homens-das-cavernas-tinham-agua-quente-e-ate-um-quarto

Museu de Roma promove diálogo entre esculturas e alta-costura - O que é luxo ?

A Galleria Borghese, em Roma, acolhe uma exposição que confronta as criações do costureiro Azzedine Alaïa e as obras esculturais de seu acervo. A agenda cultural europeia desta semana segue na temática da moda e faz escala no museu de Belas Artes de Bruxelas, que homenageia os estilistas belgas, antes de passar pelo Victoria & Albert Museum, em Londres, que se questiona sobre o verdadeiro sentido do luxo.


Peças esculturais do costureiro Azzedine Alaïa estão confrontadas ao acervo da Galleria Borghese, em Roma.

Apesar da overdose de marcas que compõem o universo da moda, raros são os estilistas que deixam um vestígio ao ponto de serem estudados nas escolas de design. Um deles é o franco-tunisiano Azzedine Alaïa, ícone dos anos 1980 e 90 que marcou a história por seu estilo, mas também por sua maneira especial de ver o mercado. Seguindo seu instinto, o discreto costureiro esnobou durante muito tempo o ritual dos calendários de desfiles e só apresentava suas coleções quando “se sentia pronto”. Mas além desse ritmo próprio, sua principal característica foi a paixão pelo corpo feminino, ao ponto tratá-lo como uma escultura.

Essa relação de Alaïa com a silhueta inspirou a realização de uma exposição que acontece nesse momento na Galleria Borghese, em Roma. Situado no parque que leva o mesmo nome, o museu italiano, conhecido por suas esculturas, decidiu confrontar seu acerto ao trabalho do franco-tunisiano. Batizada "Costura/Escultura", a mostra, que vai até 25 de outubro, cria um verdadeiro diálogo entre os vestidos do costureiro e as obras de grandes pintores e escultores, como Rubens ou Antonio Canova que, como Alaïa, tentaram em algum momento de suas carreiras sublimar a o corpo feminino.

Durante o percurso, o visitante se dá conta que, mesmo se uns trabalham com seus pinceis, estecas e formões, enquanto os outros moldam com tecidos ou couro, as disciplinas têm mais em comum do que imaginamos. E quando descobrimos que o mestre das tesouras estudou Belas Artes na juventude, pensando em um dia se tornar escultor, esse diálogo se torna ainda mais pertinente.

Os belgas na moda

Outro programa para quem estiver de passagem pela Europa nesse final de verão no hemisfério norte é a exposição “Les Belges - Une histoire de mode inattendue” (Os belgas, uma história inesperada da moda). Organizada pelo BOZAR, o museu de Belas Artes de Bruxelas, a mostra dá aos visitantes alguns indícios para explicar como um pequeno país, quase do tamanho do estado de Alagoas, conseguiu se impor com uma das referências do mundinho das passarelas.

Esse "momento" belga começou no início dos anos 1980, quando um grupo de colegas com nomes impronunciáveis, que ficou conhecido como os “Seis da Antuérpia” ganhou fama internacional. De uma hora para outra o mundo descobriu que aquele país minúsculo tinha, não apenas uma tradição têxtil e de design, mas também excelentes escolas de moda, como La Cambre ou a Academia Real de Belas Artes da Antuérpia, que formaram alguns dos principais talentos da atualidade. De Martin Margiela a Raf Simons, passando por Dries Van Noten e Diane von Fürstenberg, o evento apresenta peças de 70 estilistas, desde os pioneiros até a nova geração. O belo catálogo que acompanha o percurso completa a exposição, que fica em cartaz até 13 de setembro.

O que é luxo ?

O mundo da moda tem se inspirado muito nos últimos tempos dos códigos do luxo. Mas afinal, o que é luxo ? Essa vasta questão é abordada em uma interessante exposição que acontece até 27 de setembro no Victoria & Albert Museum, em Londres.

Didáticos, os comissários abordam o assunto não apenas como um mercado bilionário, mas também como um motor para o artesanato e a vitrine para técnicas de produção ameaçadas de extinção. Dividida em temas como "exclusividade", "precisão", "opulência" ou "autenticidade", a mostra "What’s luxury?" traz elementos históricos, mas se interessa principalmente pelos critérios do que pode ser considerado luxuoso nos dias de hoje. Será que o luxo na vida é ter tempo, gozar de liberdade em suas escolhas, ou simplesmente consumir produtos industrializados ? Para quem ainda acredita que tudo isso é apenas uma questão de dinheiro, o fato de que a entrada da exposição londrina seja gratuita é um talvez um bom indício da resposta.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
http://www.brasil.rfi.fr/cultura/20150821-museu-de-roma-promove-dialogo-entre-esculturas-e-alta-costura
© Ilvio Gallo Silvano Mendes

Folklife & Ethnological Museum of Macedonia - Thrace .. The F.E.M.M.-Th. explores and studies the traditional culture of recent times in the region of northern Greece.

The Fοlklife and Ethnological Museum of Macedonia-Thrace is a permanent non-profit-making institution, a legal entity in public law operating under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture. 


Through knowledge of the society of yesterday the Museum hopes to promote a better understanding today's world. Its role is first and foremost a social one. Through its varied activities (exhibitions, educational programmes, publications and other activities) it communicates with the public and participates in the culture and life of the community. 

According to the legislation founding the Museum, its purpose is: 
1. to familiarize the public, and particularly the younger generation, with the traditional culture of our recent past, 
2. to raise public awareness of the material and spiritual elements of our recent cultural heritage, 
3. to preserve collective memory, 
4. to promote understanding and interpretation of the past and its organic links with the present day. 


Within this context the objectives of the Museum are defined by the specific activities in which it is involved, namely: 

1. In the area of research: Promotion of scientific research and study (ethnological-ethnographic) of traditional material from the culture of recent times in Macedonia and Thrace, in collaboration with other agencies or institutions here and abroad, 

2. In the area of museum management: Preservation and safekeeping of the relics of our traditional culture, and communication of the results of its research in all possible ways (exhibitions, publications, guided tours, educational programmes, conferences, events, etc.), 

3. In the area of consultancy: Offering advice and opinions to museums and collections in northern Greece and working with societies and agencies to achieve the fullest possible promotion of traditional culture.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.yppo.gr/1/e1540.jsp?obj_id=1553

domingo, 30 de agosto de 2015

MUSEOS: HABLEMOS DE ACCESIBILIDAD -- en DISEÑO, Diseño de Museos,GESTIÓN, INSTITUCIONES, MUSEO, MUSEOGRAFÍA, MUSEOLOGÍA, OPINIÓN,PATRIMONIO. ·

Actualmente visitamos museos que se encuentran en edificios que nunca fueran pensados para ser museos, fueron construidos para albergar otra cosa muy diferente. Estos edificios que visitamos son museos que han sido reciclados, transformándose de palacios, conventos, castillos, fortalezas, etcétera, a ser museos en la actualidad. Existen muchos ejemplos, como ya habréis visto y visitado, uno de ellos es el Museo Nacional de Arte de Cataluña (España), edificio emblemático de la Exposición Internacional de Barcelona 1929, o el caso delCentro Andaluz de Arte Contemporáneo ubicado en el antiguo convento de laCartuja de Sevilla (España). Pero hay centenares de ejemplos más en todo el mundo. En todos estos equipamientos antiguos, que ahora son modernos museos, se obliga a invertir mucho dinero en mantenimiento y acondicionamiento de los mismos, tanto en lo relacionado a la adaptación de las colecciones al continente, como a las necesidades de accesibilidad de sus visitantes, hecho que condiciona de manera permanente los presupuestos de estas instituciones. Y con la que está cayendo…


Allá por el año 1929, el arquitecto Auguste Perret, divulgador en Europa de nuevas técnicas constructivas y uso de materiales hasta entonces desconocidos para la construcción, cuestionaba el tipo de museos en edificios “antiguos”, ya que “la iluminación suele ser defectuosa y la decoración se peleaba con las colecciones expuestas, cuestionándose si era posible encontrar, “en el mundo moderno, la atmósfera, el encanto y el prestigio de los viejos palacios, para concebir un edificio que además pudiera ser un verdadero lugar de esparcimiento, de fiesta y de estudio”. Podemos considerar que este ejercicio de “esparcimiento y fiesta” debe ser también para todo tipo de público. El museo se debe construir no solo bajo criterios de funcionalidad, sino de adaptación a las personas que tiene dificultades de movilidad por la razón que sea, ya sea física o psico-somática, o ambas.


Hemos usado ya en varios artículos de este blog, la palabra “accesibilidad” la asociamos siempre con los visitantes de los museos que tienen alguna discapacidad física o psíquica, o ambas, y que necesiten de especial atención para que su estancia en el museo no les genere el más mínimo de los problemas. En este sentido, deberíamos ampliar el término cuando hablamos de visitantes con dificultades de movilidad pero por que son pequeños, niños y niñas, o por ser mayores o por ser mujeres en periodo de gestación, etcétera.

Campaña “No te duermas al volante”, Gobierno de Thailandia

No solo estamos hablando de barreras arquitectónicas sino de barreras que muchas veces – y sin ser conscientes de ello – están dentro del conjunto de elementos de preservación preventiva de los objetos expuestos. Los museos deberían promover diversos niveles de difusión de sus contenidos (colecciones) para que todos los visitantes, sean quienes sean, se encuentren físicamente de una manera u otra, tengan un índice de percepción u otro, puedan acceder a ese patrimonio de una manera fluida y sencilla.


En el conocido como “Decálogo de León” (2008), que surgió a partir de la Convención Europea sobre “Formación y diseño para todos: experiencias innovadoras”, se dice que “el diseño para todos debe ser entendido de una forma amplia y completa. Los productos, los entornos, las tecnologías, los servicios y, en general, cualquier ámbito de sociedad, deben ser concebidos de forma que puedan ser utilizados por todas las personas, independientemente de sus capacidades, circunstancias y diversidades. La participación de los visitantes es un aspecto esencial en todas las fases que intervienen en el proceso de diseño. La formación es crucial para promover el cambio de actitud necesario que la sociedad necesita en la búsqueda de un diseño para todos. Las bases de ese cambio se deben establecer en las escuelas, en las universidades, en los centros educativos y en el entorno familiar”. Nosotros añadimos, por supuesto, “y en los museos”.


No queremos sentar cátedra sobre este concepto de accesibilidad, tampoco queremos decir que “todo” deba ser orientado a esta función en el edificio, pero sí debe existir al menos un recorrido accesible en todo museo. Debemos crear y pensar en itinerarios con una selección de piezas que permitan interactuar de maneras distintas ante estas colecciones. Seamos capaces de generar experiencias sensoriales para todos, con réplicas que se pueda tocar – incluso de cuadros, como ya se esta haciendo en algún museo de arte -. Las vitrinas y maquetas deben estar colocadas a una altura que permita que sean observadas por niños y personas de estatura pequeña y por personas que se desplazan en sillas de ruedas. Existen casos en los que adultos de estatura media no alcanzan a ver objetos expuestos – recordamos también la existencia de espejos que ayudan a observar y nos son caros -. Es muy importante que aquellos que tenemos responsabilidades en el diseño de museos y exposiciones seamos capaces de “vestir los pantalones de otros”, ponernos en el lugar de los demás para reflexionar sobre el cómo. Nosotros seguiremos poniéndonos de rodillas en los museos para vagar por sus salas, se sacan muchísimas conclusiones – recomendable el uso de rodilleras -; también hemos usado muletas, es agotador.




fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti Espacio Visual Europa (EVE)

Museu Geológico da Bahia, Brasil -- Geological Museum of Bahia (MGB) is a center of research

Uma visita ao Museu Geológico da Bahia é um convite a conhecer o solo e as rochas onde pisamos, as riquezas do subsolo, bem como os fósseis dos seres que habitaram a nossa Terra. Permite ao público conhecer a história geológica e o patrimônio mineral desse Estado.


Possui um dos maiores acervos de rochas, de minerais, de pedras preciosas e de fósseis da Bahia, com mais de 20 mil peças, proporcionando aos seus visitantes uma viagem no tempo geológico através das suas exposições temáticas: Meteoritos, Universo/Sistema Solar, Minerais, Rochas, Recursos Minerais, Minerais e Rochas Industriais, Artesanato Mineral, Garimpo, Minerais Radioativos, Energia dos Cristais, Gemas, Petróleo, Otto Billian, Rochas Ornamentais e Fósseis.

Conta ainda, com um auditório/cinema de 125 lugares e de um aconchegante café à sombra de centenária mangueira, de onde se pode apreciar um belíssimo mural do artista plástico Juarez Paraíso.

Inaugurado em 4 de março de 1975, atualmente vinculado à Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Econômico – SDE do Estado da Bahia, o Museu é um centro de pesquisa, divulgação e preservação do patrimônio geológico da Bahia, que desenvolve projetos de cunho científico, educativo e cultural.

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Laboratório de Rochas e Minerais
Utilizado principalmente para pesquisa do acervo do Museu. Está equipado com um Microscópio Petrográfico Nikon HFX – II A e uma Lupa Binocular Tokyo.

Laboratório de Paleontologia
Anexo ao Salão de Fósseis proporciona ao visitante a oportunidade de conhecer a rotina de um paleontólogo, as atividades de curadoria e pesquisa, como as técnicas de preparação, limpeza e conservação de amostras e o tombamento dos fósseis.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.mgb.ba.gov.br/


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Founded on March 4, 1975, the Geological Museum of Bahia (MGB) is a center of research, dissemination and preservation of geological heritage of Bahia and develops projects of a scientific, educational and cultural.

Knowing the soil and rocks beneath our feet where the subsoil, as well as fossils of creatures that inhabited our Earth is to know our history and also our Geological Heritage.

With more than 10,000 samples of rocks, minerals and fossils, the MGB provides visitors a journey through geological time through its thematic exhibitions: Solar System Meteorites, Minerals, Rocks, Mineral Resources Prospecting, Radioactive Minerals, Mineral Craft, Crystals of energy, Petroleum, Gems, Collection Otto Billian, Paleontology and Ornamental Stones.
Linked to the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Mining (SICM) of the State of Bahia, the MGB has realized projects with the Company Bahia Mineral Research (CBPM), Nuclear Industries of Brazil (INB), Petrobras, Living Art Museum of Cinema and the municipalities of the state of Bahia.

The MGB is registered in the National Register of Museums, Ministry of Culture and participates in events promoted by the Brazilian Institute of Museums (IBRAM).


Laboratory of Rocks and Minerals
It is primarily used for petrographic description and features a significant collection of thin sections of rocks from Bahia, largely. It is equipped with a petrographic microscope Nikon HFX – II A and a Magnifier Binocular Tokyo.

Laboratory of Paleontology
Is attached to the Hall of Fossils and offers visitors the opportunity to learn the routine of a paleontologist, the curatorial and research activities, such as preparation techniques, cleaning and conservation of samples of fossils and tipping.

In 2012, the RokiškisRegionalMuseum was chosen as the Museum of the Year.

The beginnings of Rokiškis Regional Museum date back to 1933, when school inspector Juozas Ruseckas, schoolteacher Petras Bliūdžius, the town's burgomaster Julijonas Malevičius and other enthusiasts assembled at the Society for Regional Studies and established the Museum of Regional Studies. The RokiškisRegionalMuseum has an interesting museological history as for nearly half a century it has been settled in Rokiškis Manor House that had belonged to several generations of Tyzenhauz Counts and the Psezdziecky family, known for cultural and scientific activity, collections and patronage. 



The first museum spaces were two rooms in the county library. From 1935, the museum established itself in the town centre, in the present-day Rokiškis District Municipality Juozas Keliuotis Public Library. The first collections were composed of objects of museological value that were accumulated by the county's teachers and students, as well as artefacts brought over from the Rokiškis Secondary School museum. In 1938, when the museum started to receive financial support from the Ministry of Education, more sizeable ethnographic objects were added to the collection, the opportunity arose to acquire a few artefacts of greater value. In 1939 the museum's collection consisted of 1046 objects of museological value. 

With the arrival of Soviet rule, the owners of Rokiškis Manor House fled Lithuania, and the remaining artistic valuables came under threat. It was then that P. Bliūdžius and the town's burgomaster Vladas Paukšta began to see to it that they would not perish. In 1940, the museum was relocated into the manor house and declared a state institution. However, this joy was short-lived because in December of 1940 a regiment of the Red Army settled into the manor, the commanders of which refused to cooperate with P. Bliūdžius in order to preserve the collections of artefacts. 

The war began. The Nazi administration completely restricted the activity of the museum. Artefact collecting work grinded to a halt. Many nationalised art objects were never brought back. Many artefacts, especially those that had practical functions, were looted by private individuals. Due to the uncertain safety of the works of art, many of the museum's most valuable paintings and prints were transferred to the Kaunas Museum of Culture in 1941. The Rokiškis museum was once more renamed as the Rokiškis Museum of Regional Studies. Juozas Simanavičius, the secondary school drawing teacher, became the director of the museum. In 1942, at the demand of Hitler's government, the museum was forced to move out of the manor house. Artefacts were stored in the secondary spaces of the manor house. After the war, museum activity commenced once more, the use of the principal rooms of Rokiškis Manor House was returned. In 1947, under the leadership of director Alfonsas Krasauskas, expositions were installed and opened to the public, an extensive collection of prints amassed by collector Povilas Gasiūnas was brought to the museum. In 1948, use of the manor house was awarded to Rokiškis Collective Farm and the museum was once again relocated. This time it was moved to a small unheated wooden church in Vytautas street.

In 1952, the museum, along with other cultural institutions, was returned the use of the manor house. Expositions of archaeology, folk art, natural science and ethnography were opened, and a few years later the first exposition of the Soviet period was set up.

A new organisational and creative chapter (1957-1966) in the history of the museum is associated with museum director Stasys Daunys. Under his leadership, the institution's activity became much more intense. In the 1958-1959 period, archaeological excavations were conducted at Juodonys castle mound, a peasant's homestead was transferred to the territory of the museum and a section dedicated to folk domestic life was set up in the manor park. The Zarasai Museum became a branch of the Rokiškis museum, and a folk art exposition was set up in Stelmužė Church. S. Daunys discovered Lionginas Šepka, an incredible wood carver, whose work was brought to the museum. 

In 1966, S. Daunys left the museum to work in Rumšiškės, and Algimantas Kvartūnas was appointed as director by the Ministry of Culture. The museum expanded, as did its collections and expositions. In 1970, a folk art exposition was opened, the following year − an exposition of Lionginas Šepkus’ wood carvings, in the period of 1975-1980 − a historical exposition. In 1979, the museum was granted ownership of two outbuildings, formerly the quarters of employees hired to work at the manor house (kumetynai). The other cultural institutions that had been established in the manor house were accommodated in the new buildings, leaving the museum as the sole proprietor of the manor house ensemble. Besides managing museum activity, the director had to take care of the repair and restoration of the manor buildings, as well as the maintenance of the manor park. The director left in 1980.

In the last few decades, the long line of male museum directors was replaced by female leadership: Ona Mackevičienė (1980-1985), Marijona Mieliauskienė (1985-1987), Olga Grumbinienė (1987-1989), and Nijolė Šniokienė from 1989.

The manor ensemble buildings, walls and park underwent many years of restoration. In 1987, with the transformation of the heating system, all expositions were dismantled. Because the restoration of the museum was funded solely by the district municipality, work was long-drawn-out. The situation changed when in 1996 museum restoration started to receive additional funding from the Cultural Heritage Department of Lithuania. The ensemble changed rapidly: the central manor house and the north facades of the servants' quarters were restored, roofs were laid anew, the facade square of the park was cleared up, pathways were built, the great hall of the manor house restored, and new plumbing installed.

The opening of the great hall in April of 1997 was a long-awaited celebration not only for museum workers, but for all Rokiškis residents. More than four decades later (since it was adapted as a district cultural centre in 1954), the manor house was allowed to exude its former glory once again, becoming the representative location of the town. This was a great opportunity for museum workers to organise various events, invite visitors to concerts of chamber music, literary evenings and other gatherings. The restoration of the hall was the second stage of the manor house interior reconstruction as, in 1984, the Count's dining room was opened after restoration, receiving a lot of public interest and encouraging museum workers to create further plans for a more extensive exposition dedicated to manor house culture and history.

Currently, the museum houses over 90 thousand exhibits. The unique history and culture of the Rokiškis Region is preserved here: countless archaeological finds, old books, documents and prints, coins and banknotes from various ages, visual and applied art pieces representing manor house culture, a valuable collection of the Counts' clothing, manor house archival material, photographs, old and new folk art collections with the exceptional works of the 20th century's most famous Lithuanian wood carver, Lionginas Šepka, and the only collection of nativity sculptures in the country. The museum conducts research, publishing, educational and expositional activity, as well as organising events and festivities.

It was selected by experts as one of Lithuania's 20 best museums, receiving the most votes by online news site delfi.lt readers.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.muziejusrokiskyje.lt/en/history

Romains, Germains, Francs, Alamans, Lombards, Burgondes, Wisigoths, Saxons… se sont affrontés dans le fracas des armes, des clameurs guerrières et des râles des mourants, ce week-end.

Tout au long du week-end ont eu lieu des reconstitutions de batailles entre légions romaines et Barbares, qui ont intéressé un nombreux public.

Les Barbares arrivent sur le champ de bataille.

Cet événement organisé par le musée des Temps barbares a réuni environ 400 participants venus de toute l’Europe (Belgique, Suisse, Italie, Allemagne, Pologne, Hongrie, Angleterre…) pour un spectacle dont les très nombreux visiteurs se souviendront.

Entre chaque bataille, les badauds pouvaient aussi découvrir, le travail des artisans, la vie de camp des soldats et se restaurer sous une tente, ou encore acheter, bijoux, armes, poteries et vaisselles mérovingiennes, vikings et romaines.

Le grand moment attendu par l’ensemble des spectateurs est sans conteste la bataille finale, commentée au micro par le directeur Alain Nice, qui voyait s’affronter les Barbares contre la légion romaine. Un moment épique, rythmé par les charges de chevaux et les corps-à-corps des guerriers dans une mise en scène flamboyante.

Rien n’a été laissé au hasard, chaque costume, ornement, stratégie guerrière, ou détail de la vie, sont au plus près de ce qui se faisait à l’époque mérovingienne, grâce aux recherches menées par les historiens.

Un week-end historique qui a su plaire aux plus petits comme aux plus grands.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.aisnenouvelle.fr/

The Archaeological Museum of Delphi, one of the most important in Greece, exhibits the history of the Delphic sanctuary, site of the most famous ancient Greek oracle.

Its rich collections are comprised primarily of architectural sculpture, statues and minor objects donated to the sanctuary. These reflect its religious, political and artistic activities from its early years in the eight century BC to its decline in Late Antiquity. 


The museum is housed in a two-storey building with a total surface area of 2270 square metres, with fourteen exhibition rooms, 558 square metres of storerooms and conservation laboratories for pottery, metal objects and mosaics. A new lobby, cafeteria and gift shop were created during the museum's latest refurbishment. 

The museum is overseen by the Tenth Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities.

The first Delphi Museum was built in 1903 on plans by the French architect Tournaire and funded by A. Syngros in order to house the finds of the great French excavations begun in 1892. The original building, which consisted of two wings, was enlarged and renovated in 1935-6. The new exhibition opened two years later and was organized like the first one by Greek and French archaeologists. A storeroom for inscriptions was constructed in 1956. The complete refurbishment of the museum in accordance with recent museological thinking, especially since many of the antiquities had been stored away during the Nazi occupation, was deemed necessary in 1958 and was carried out by the architect Patroklos Karantinos. Two new rooms, one for the Charioteer and the other for the bronze objects, were created, while the existing three were refurbished. Old storerooms were converted into offices and a guesthouse. A portico was built in front of the offices for the exhibition of Hellenistic statues, but was blocked in 1980 by new offices, while a new adjacent building containing more storerooms (for statues, vases and architectural elements) and laboratories, was added. The new exhibition was established between 1960 and 1963. 

In 1975, part of the sculpture laboratory and storeroom was used for the exhibition of the bull and chryselephantine objects from the recently excavated votive deposit of the Sacred Way. The conversion was completed and the exhibition inaugurated in 1978. In 1979, a second staircase leading to the museum's entrance was created. The latest enlargement and renovation was completed in 1999. It included the refurbishment of the existing exhibition rooms, the modernization and creation of new laboratories, the construction of new storerooms and offices, and of a lobby, cafeteria and gift shop, the landscaping of the area surrounding the museum and the repair of the museum's architectural shell, roof and floor. All of the museum's collections were redisplayed to meet modern museological standards, new exhibits and contemporary information technology were added for visitors.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti 
http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/1/eh151.jsp?obj_id=3404



sábado, 29 de agosto de 2015

Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum - A memória do nuclear: a bomba de Nagasaki

Uma foto que se encontra no museu, tremenda na sua evocação: uma criança de lábios apertados carregando o irmãozinho bebé, já morto, no local da cremação.

“Há um museu pequeno mas muito bem organizado em Nagasaki sobre a bomba atómica. Não ir ao museu era um pouco como ir a Roma e não ver o Papa.” 


Chega-se ao museu atravessando o Parque da Paz, que os japoneses construíram em memória da bomba que foi lançada a 9 de Agosto de 1945. 

Matou em segundos 73 mil pessoas, feriu outras tantas, deixou sem casa 120 mil. Ao todo, viviam em Nagasaki 240 mil pessoas. A bomba é uma ferida na cidade e na sua memória.

O parque foi construído em torno do local onde a bomba foi largada. Há um memorial e uma gigantesca estátua apontando o céu. Há uma fonte, lembrando os que morreram por falta de água. Há uma torre queimada de uma igreja e as ruínas enegrecidas de um edifício-prisão.

Nagasakigenbaku.jpg

O museu é simples porque em boa verdade não há muito pouco para contar. Mas há uma foto, isolada, imensa, tremenda na sua evocação: uma criança de lábios apertados carregando o irmãozinho bebé, já morto, no local da cremação. Órfãos.

A foto é de Joe D’Donnell, o marine americano que em 1945 fotografou durante seis meses Hiroshima e Nagasaki. No museu, a foto, que todos os japoneses conhecem, tem uma legenda escrita pelo próprio O’Donnell. Diz ele que, no final, a criança tinha os lábios cheios de sangue, tal a força com que cerrava os lábios.

Para mim, o museu foi aquela foto.

Uma portuguesa que vive na capital japonesa dizia que os japoneses fazem questão de sublinhar, durante os treinos sistemáticos a propósito dos terramotos, que não se deve gritar para não assustar os outros e assim não entrarem em pânico. Se assim for, têm mais possibilidades de sobrevivência.

Os japoneses têm razão. Mas são um povo especial, com uma maneira de reagir muito própria, irrepetível se calhar. Foi por isso que me lembrei da foto do menino órfão. Não chorou. Não gritou. Mas apertou os lábios até fazer sangue.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
http://expresso.sapo.pt/internacional/2015-08-09-A-memoria-do-nuclear
colaboração: LUÍSA MEIRELES



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Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum

Established 1955,
built current museum 1996

Location 7-8 Hirano-machi, Nagasaki, Nagasaki
Website www1.city.nagasaki.nagasaki.jp/na-bomb/museum
The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum (長崎原爆資料館 Nagasaki Genbaku Shiryōkan?) is in the city of Nagasaki, Japan. 

The museum is a remembrance to the atomic bombing of the city that occurred on 9 August 1945, at 11:02:35 am. When the United States of America dropped a nuclear bomb on Nagasaki. Next to the museum is the Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims, built in 2003, which marks the hypocenter of the event. The bombing marked a new era in war, making Nagasaki a symbolic location for a memorial. The counterpart in Hiroshima is the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. These locations symbolize the nuclear age, remind visitors of the vast destruction and indiscriminate death caused by nuclear weapons, and signify a commitment to peace.

The Nagasaki museum was completed in April 1996, replacing the deteriorating International Culture Hall. The museum covers the history of the event as a story, focusing on the attack and the history leading up to it. It also covers the history of nuclear weapons development. The museum displays photographs, relics, and documents related to the bombing.

History of the Museum
The museum at the Nagasaki Peace Park replaced the Nagasaki International Culture Hall, where artifacts related to the bombing of Nagasaki were originally exhibited. These artifacts are now supplemented with photographs depicting daily life in Nagasaki before the atomic bomb was dropped, the devastation produced by the bomb, and the history of nuclear arms development.

History covered in the museum
The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum covers the history of the bombing of Nagasaki, Japan. It portrays scenes of the war, the dropping of the atomic bomb, the reconstruction of Nagasaki, and present day. Additionally, the museum exhibits the history of nuclear weapons development.

The atomic bomb was developed by scientists working under the Manhattan Project. The project was granted funding on December 6, 1941, with American leaders aiming for a new invention that would serve as a wartime weapon. The decision to drop an atomic bomb on Japan had been made by 1943, and a shortlist of candidate target cities was in place in 1945. At the time, it was argued that the an atomic bombing would bring about a more rapid end to the war. Hiroshima, the first target, was selected to show the power of America's new weapon. The second bombing, of Nagasaki, was intended to demonstrate that the USA had a large arsenal.[8] At 11:02 A.M. local time on August 9, 1945, the atomic bomb, nicknamed Fat Man after Winston Churchill, was dropped on Nagasaki, forever changing the city's landscape.[8] A mushroom cloud rose to an altitude of 45,000 feet above the city.

Within the museum is a history of the city before the bomb was dropped. The hypocenter of the explosion was the Urakami district, which was a traditionally rustic and isolated suburb. However, the population soared after the 1920s when the district was chosen as the site for munitions factories. An industrial zone was quickly created. Additionally, the Urakami district was home to the Nagasaki Medical College. When the bomb was dropped at 11:02 A.M. on August 9, 1945, the 20 neighborhoods within a one-kilometer radius of the hypocenter were completely destroyed by the heat flash and blast winds generated by the explosion. They were then reduced to ashes by the fires which followed. Within 2 km of the hypocenter, roughly 80% of the houses collapsed and burned. When the smoke cleared, the area was strewn with corpses.

Reconstruction of the city proceeded slowly. It was not until the latter half of 1946 that the first emergency dwellings were provided to the communities. The need for buildings far surpassed the availabilities. As late as 1950, applications for corporate dwellings exceeded the availability ninety times. The national government of Japan created a war disaster reconstruction plan in November 1945 which projected a city concept which would abandon the old war industries and focus instead on a revival of foreign trade, shipbuilding, and the fishing industry. Today, the city is considered a peace city and has pledged itself to the mission of world peace.

Inside the Museum
The residents of Nagasaki consider it their duty to make sure the horrors which they experienced due to the atomic bombing are never repeated. Because of this, the museum is designed in such a way that the audience can see just what effect the bomb had on the city, the reconstruction, and the lasting effects of the atomic bomb. The museum opens with a room dedicated to the city as it was just before the bomb decimated Nagasaki. A clock which stopped at 11:02, the precise time the bomb hit the city, is also on display to demonstrate how so many people were killed in an instant.

In the next section, visitors enter a room which shows Nagasaki just after the bombings. Included in this room is a water tank with contorted legs which was located at Keiho Middle School, approximately 800m away from the hypocenter of the bombing. The section "Events leading up to the Nagasaki Atomic Bombiing" isolates historical events from contemporary biases. The permanent exhibition rooms display large materials exposed to the blast, as well as a replica of a sidewall of the Urakami Cathedral which was hit by the bomb.


Nagasaki Urakami Cathedral M5727
The purpose is to reproduce the state which the city was in immediately after the bombing. Photographs and facts are shown alongside artifacts left by the deceased.[13] Additionally, the second section contains some of the rosaries found inside the Urakami Cathedral. At the time of the bombing, dozens of people were inside the Cathedral for confession. This section also exhibits a timeline of events which shows a course of events that occurred prior to the bomb being dropped in Nagasaki. Leaflets which American forces dropped on Japan during the early part of 1945 are on display. One gives information on the bombing of Hiroshima and the power of the atomic bomb, warning citizens to leave the city and stop fighting. Also included are melted bottles, the bones of a human hand stuck to a clump of melted glass, burnt clothing, a lunchbox with its contents still charred inside of it, and a helmet with the remains of a victim’s skull on the inner surface. Section B shows damage caused by the radiation, damages caused by the blast, appeals of the atomic bomb survivors, and the rescue and relief activities which were carried out.

After viewing the city scene, museum visitors are invited to think about issues related to war and nuclear non-proliferation. This section of the museum contains the political sections entitled "The Road to the Atomic Bombing" and "The War between China and Japan and the Pacific War". It is there that the experience of militarism in Japan and the demands of war are juxtaposed with arguments for the end of nuclear weapons. Visitors are presented with facts on modern nuclear weapons alongside facts related to victims of the atomic bombing. It is a call for peace and an end of the nuclear age.

The final room in the museum contains videos and documents related to the Nagasaki bombing. Visitors can also find answers to their questions and documents like Nagasaki’s Peace Declaration.