quarta-feira, 7 de janeiro de 2015

Ancient Roman fort in England may have been constructed to pay homage to Mithra or Sol


Ancient Roman fort in England may have been constructed to pay homage to Mithra or Sol Invictus

A new study shows that the builders of an ancient Roman fort in northern England aligned it so the sun’s rays shone through the gates at dawn and sunset on the winter and summer solstice. The researchers suggest that that construction of the fort was designed in such a way for the inhabitants to engage in sun worship and pay homage to solar deities. 
 
Hardknott Roman Fort in Cumbria, England


The fort, now in ruins, was near Hardknott Pass overseeing the River Esk on the northern frontier of the Roman Empire during the reign of Hadrian, 117 to 138 A.D, located in what is now Cumbria, England.



The Roman Fort is located in the picturesque Hardknott Pass of Cumbria, England. Source: BigStockPhoto

The researcher who made the discovery by studying the fort’s alignment using online software, said it could have been built in homage to solar deities Mithra or Sol Invictus. Mithra, whose cult was solely male and who was worshipped especially by soldiers, was so powerful the sun was believed to kneel to him.

The fort, overlooking the Eskdale Valley, was arranged in a square with the four gates in the center of the four walls. During the annual June 21 summer solstice sunrise, the sun’s rays shone through the fort’s northeastern and southwestern gates. At sunset on the longest day of the year, sun rays shone through the northwestern and southeastern gates, physics researcher Amelia Carolina Sparavigna wrote in the journal Philica.



Hardknott Roman Fort. Credit: Google Maps, 2014

On the December 21 winter solstice, or the lowest point of the sun in the sky and the shortest day of the year, the sun rose in alignment with the southeastern and northwestern gates and set in line with the southwestern and northeastern gates, she wrote.

The fort’s “distinctive layout … [has] an orientation of its axes to solstices, so that, through its four gates, we could imagine to see sunrise and sunset on those days,” she wrote in Philica.



Walls of Hardknott Roman Fort (Wikimedia Commons)

Sparavigna said the four towers in the corners of the fort were aligned with the cardinal directions. The fort sat on the landscape in a diamond shape, with one corner and its tower almost directly north, one to the south and the other two to the east and west.

If the idea of the fort’s layout was to place its towers at corners in the north, south, east and west, it may be a coincidence of nature that the rising and setting sun’s rays shone nearly exactly through the gates to the northwest, northeast, southwest and southeast during solstices. Nevertheless, Sparavigna told Live Science that it was common for cultures at the time to align their buildings to solar and celestial events.

"An orientation of sacred places to sun and sky is common to several religions," Sparavigna told Live Science. She said it’s "quite possible that the Hardknott fort has a symbolic homage to the sun. The god could be Sol, the ancient Roman god of the sun, which evolved [into] Sol Invictus." Sol Invictus means “unconquered sun.”



Relief depicting Roman Mithras, described as sol invictus (the unconquered sun god). (Wikimedia Commons)

She said another god, Mithra, is possibly the inspiration for the fort’s solar construction. Mithra was a Persian god that became popular with Roman soldiers and the male general populace. Mithra himself was referred to as Sol Invictus in the Roman Empire.

“The [Mithra] cult was all male. There were seven degrees of initiation. Different ritual meals were associated with each stage,” says Tertullian.org. “It is certain that Mithras is born from a rock. He is depicted in his temples hunting down and slaying a bull. … He then meets with the sun, who kneels to him.”

The New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology said in pre-Zoroastrian Persia, Mithra was associated with the supreme being Ahura and “was a god of the first magnitude.” His wisdom and military valor were unsurpassable. “He possessed not only strength but at the same time knowledge, for in essence he was Light. As such he led the solar chariot across the sky,” the encyclopedia says.

Sol Invictus was a later Roman sun deity who was separate from Mithra. He was patron of soldiers. Scholars disagree as to whether he is simply a newer version of the old Latin cult of Sol, or the sun as god.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/ancient-roman-fort-england-may-have-been-constructed-for-mithra-020156

Featured image: Hardknott Roman Fort in Cumbria, England. Source: BigStockPhoto

Washington : le musée d'art d'Asie est en ligne

La collection du musée d'art asiatique de Washington, la Freer et Sackler galleries, est depuis le début de l'année totalement disponible en ligne, rapporte aujourd'hui le musée national.

Quelque 40.000 pièces ont ainsi été numérisées, dont 90% en haute-résolution, parmi lesquelles une vaste majorité n'a jamais été vue par le public, indique un communiqué de presse.

Le musée est le premier des musées nationaux américains gérés par l'institution Smithsonian, à ainsi numériser toute sa collection.

La plupart des pièces de ce projet nommé Open FS, sont disponibles et téléchargeables sans droits pour tout usage non-commercial.

Elles vont des tableaux aux poteries, statues, textiles jusqu'aux manuscrits dont les pages principales ont été sélectionnées.

La Freer and Sackler galleries abrite une importante collection d'art asiatique mais aussi d'art américain avec le plus grand ensemble d'oeuvres du peintre américain James Whistler.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-actu/2015/01/05/97001-20150105FILWWW00383-washington-le-musee-d-art-d-asie-est-en-ligne.php

Le musée Rodin - Paris



Haut lieu patrimonial, vestige de l’Ancien Régime mais dont le bâtiment, les annexes et les jardins ont suivi, en fonction de leurs affectations successives, une évolution et des transformations qui épousent étroitement le cours de l’histoire politique, sociale et culturelle, le musée s’est toujours montré ouvert à la création de son temps.







Haut lieu patrimonial, vestige de l’Ancien Régime mais dont le bâtiment, les annexes et les jardins ont suivi, en fonction de leurs affectations successives, une évolution et des transformations qui épousent étroitement le cours de l’histoire politique, sociale et culturelle, le musée s’est toujours montré ouvert à la création de son temps.

Outre une tradition de présentation régulière de la sculpture moderne et surtout contemporaine, fortement réactivée depuis 2006, la rénovation d’ampleur, conduite par l’architecte Pierre-Louis Faloci, sur « La Chapelle » de l’hôtel Biron, a permis la réouverture très appréciée en 2005 de cet ancien bâtiment du XIXe siècle. L’édifice accueille aujourd’hui les espaces dédiés aux expositions temporaires, un auditorium, le hall d’entrée du musée, une boutique accessible et visible depuis la rue, et des bureaux.


Outre une tradition de présentation régulière de la sculpture moderne et surtout contemporaine, fortement réactivée depuis 2006, la rénovation d’ampleur, conduite par l’architecte Pierre-Louis Faloci, sur « La Chapelle » de l’hôtel Biron, a permis la réouverture très appréciée en 2005 de cet ancien bâtiment du XIXe siècle. L’édifice accueille aujourd’hui les espaces dédiés aux expositions temporaires, un auditorium, le hall d’entrée du musée, une boutique accessible et visible depuis la rue, et des bureaux.


Chronologie d'Auguste Rodin


Rodin est considéré comme l’un des sculpteurs les plus remarquables de son temps. Divisée en quatre grandes sections « Jeunesse et Formation », « Les Grandes années de Création », « Un Tournant Décisif » et « Les Dernières Années », cette chronologie propose des repères et des jalons biographiques susceptibles d’éclairer l’œuvre et la vie de l’artiste. 
fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.musee-rodin.fr/fr/rodin/chronologie-dauguste-rodin






Projeto proíbe demolição de museus, bibliotecas e teatros públicos

A Câmara analisa projeto que proíbe a extinção ou a demolição de museus, bibliotecas ou teatros públicos sem que haja receita destinada para sua reconstrução, montagem ou construção de outra instituição idêntica no mesmo município (PL 7750/14).



O texto é semelhante a projeto de 1983, do ex-senador Gastão Müller, que fora vetado em 1990. Para o autor da proposta, deputado Carlos Bezerra (PMDB-MT), museus, bibliotecas e teatros são espaços de divulgação e expressão da cultura e de fomento à educação que não podem ser eliminados sem que se projetem suas necessárias substituições.

Tramitação
O projeto será arquivado pela Mesa Diretora no dia 31 de janeiro, por causa do fim da legislatura. Porém, como a seu autor foi reeleito, ele poderá desarquivá-lo. Nesse caso, a proposta, que tramita em caráter conclusivo, será analisado pelas comissões de Trabalho, de Administração e Serviço Público; de Cultura; e de Constituição e Justiça e de Cidadania.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.cenariomt.com.br/noticia/416450/projeto-proibe-demolicao-de-museus-bibliotecas-e-teatros-publicos.html

Archaeologists set explore Clifford’s Tower

The second phase of archaeological investigations to better understand the iconic Clifford’s Tower in York is set to begin this month.



From January 12th to 23rd, the 11th century fortress will close to the public for two weeks as English Heritage experts investigate the mound on which the tower sits, to better understand both its archaeological make-up and its structural stability. The works carry on from November when an initial assessment of the foundations noted that they were in good shape. They also confirmed concrete underpinning took place in 1902 with new information that additional concrete underpinning was added in the 1920s. The results of both stages of archaeological work will feed into a wider discussion into what might be done to improve the visitor experience at a site that welcomes over 140,000 visitors each year.

Liz Page, Historic Properties Director for English Heritage, explains, “Clifford’s Tower holds an important place in York’s history and is becoming an increasingly popular destination with both locals and visitors. We want to do the tower and its fascinating story justice. Currently there are only three information panels to explain the vast history and significance of Clifford’s Tower which is inadequate. But before we start looking to the future, we need to look at the past and these works are part of that process.”

Clifford’s Tower, also known as York Castle, was first built in 1068 on the orders of William the Conqueror as part of his plans for putting an end to Anglo-Saxon resistance in northern England. The site has been a major tourist attraction since the the early 20th century.




Jeremy Ashbee, the Head Historic Properties Curator at English Heritage, added “The castle’s story has been colourful and sometimes violent, and in its time the tower has been many things, including a prison and a gun-platform. We think that the mound has become taller and wider during successive re-buildings over nine centuries. But since 1915, when Clifford’s Tower was placed in the guardianship of English Heritage’s predecessors, the Office of Works, there have been very few investigations and some quite radical changes. For example, the present profile of the mound, with the steep steps leading up to the tower’s door, only reached this form in 1935.”

“The work in January will involve taking samples of soil from several places in the mound, in order to assess its full stability and understand better its make-up. The stone structure of the tower will also be examined as part of essential conservation work.”



Members of the public interested in the history of Clifford’s Tower and English Heritage’s forthcoming archaeological works can attend a meeting at Quaker’s Meeting House, Lower Friargate, York, on Thursday 8 January 2015 at 6:30pm at which Liz Page and Jeremy Ashbee will outline the Investigating Clifford’s Tower project in more detail.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.medievalists.net/2015/01/06/archaeologists-set-explore-cliffords-tower/