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quinta-feira, 25 de junho de 2015

Finland's National Board of Antiquities is the nation's specialist, service provider, developer and authority in material cultural heritage and the cultural environment field.

It collects, manages and presents the national heritage of cultural history and records in addition to producing and providing knowledge.




The oldest directives concerning antiquities were given in Sweden-Finland in 1666, when prehistoric sites and other antiquarian monuments were declared to be under the protection of the State. The clergy were ordered to compile descriptions of the sites of antiquarian and topographical interest that were to be found in their parishes, and around 20 such descriptions from Finland were eventually sent to the newly founded Antiquities College in Stockholm. In the 1680's, the law was extended to include precious metal objects found in the ground; these were to be offered to the Crown, which could claim them against a reward.

In the 1700's, the antiquities laws were augmented several times, most notably in the legislation of 1734. This period saw the rise of the view that antiquities formed part of the national cultural heritage since they represented the works of the ancestors.

After the Russo-Swedish War of 1808-1809, Finland became a part of Russia as and autonomous Grand Duchy. Though the Swedish law of 1734 was still in force, no public authority was charged with overseeing the antiquities legislation. As romanticism and nationalism began to awaken, so did general concerns over the gradual deterioration of the medieval castles and stone churches.

In 1870, the Finnish Antiquarian Society was formed to care for and document national historical monuments. The Antiquarian Society, by its activity, greatly influenced the development of Finnish antiquities legislation and administration. The Decree on the Protection of Ancient Monuments was given in 1883, and the next year saw the founding of the Archaeological Bureau, later renamed the State Archaeological Commission, charged with "the general care of country's ancient monuments".

The Archaeological Commission was reorganized in 1972 and became the National Board of Antiquities.

The National Board of Antiquities is responsible, together with other authorities and the museum field, for protecting environments with cultural history value, archaeological culture heritage and architectural heritage, and other cultural property. It also collects and presents a culture historical national collection, studies material cultural heritage and both supports and develops the museum field nationally.

The National Board of Antiquities provides varied and constantly developing services for all citizens.

It operates under the Ministry of Education and Culture.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.nba.fi/

AlpinMuseum - Größtes alpingeschichtliches Museum Europas

Die Alpenwelt unter Dach und Fach, facettenreich und spannend thematisch aufbereitet. Das ist der Auftrag des Alpinmuseums!


Extrembergsteigen, Expeditionen weltweit, Aus- und Einblicke in die Skigeschichte lassen den Natur- und Lebensraum Bergwelt neue Perspektiven gewinnen. Die Ausstellung entführt in die Erlebniswelt der Alpen. Lassen Sie sich ein auf die Vielschichtigkeit des größten innereuropäischen Gebirges.

Bergsteigen einmal anders: Das ist im Alpinmuseum im Marstall in Kempten möglich. Zu sehen ist die Geschichte der Alpen als Lebensraum. Die mühevolle Besiedlung des Gebirges sowie der Kampf ums Überleben in den Bergen werden genauso gezeigt wie die Entwicklung der letzten 150 Jahre, in denen sich die Alpen zu einem Zentrum des Tourismus entwickelt haben. Die umfassende Ausstellung reicht von frühen Gebirgsschilderungen bis zur wissenschaftlichen Erforschung der Alpen. Auch eine Auswahl von Bäumen und Tieren sowie Mineralien und Fossilien des Alpenraums sind zu bewundern.

Besonders eindrucksvoll ist die Entwicklung des Alpinismus. Markante Stationen des Bergsteigens werden vor Augen geführt und verdeutlichen die Gefahren der Bergwelt. Die Palette reicht von Fridtjof Nansen bis zu Alexander und Thomas Huber. In der Skisammlung sind Wintersportgeräte aus allen Epochen ausgestellt: vom Gleitholz bis zum Hochgeschwindigkeits-Ski der Gegenwart, von der Mauerrohrbindung bis zum Step-in-Gerät, Ski-Stiefel und -Stöcke. Eine Schau zur Entwicklung einer Gerätschaft, die den Wintersport von heute geprägt hat.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.museen-kempten.de/

Cultura e cozinha brasileira: gastronomia - Moqueca baiana – Brazilian Fish Stew - Receita da Chef Juliana Bonomo

Perfil da chef  Juliana Bonomo
Cozinheira, pesquisadora de cozinha brasileira e mestre em Memória Social.

Curiosa pela própria natureza, gosto de sair pelo Brasil e pelo mundo provando novos sabores. Gosto também de escrever e de dividir com as pessoas as coisas que vejo e que penso.


 Moqueca baiana – Brazilian Fish Stew


 Moqueca baiana – Brazilian Fish Stew


Moqueca baiana – Brazilian Fish Stew



Moqueca baiana – Brazilian Fish Stew

Serves 8 people

Ingredients

7 tomatoes

5 small red onions

4 small green bell peppers

800 ml coconut milk

100 ml dendê oil

3 cups cilantro leaves

2 kg white fish file (hallibut, swordfish, fresh cod, red snapper)


Salt to taste

Chili peppers (serve aside)

Wash the vegetables.

Slice the tomatoes, green bell pepper and red onion.

Season the fish files with salt.

In a large saucepan, make layers with onions, tomatoes, green bell peppers and cilantro leaves.

Season with salt.

Make a layer with fish and cover it with another layer of tomatoes, bell peppers, onions and cilantro. Season with salt.

Add the coconut milk. Drizzle with dendê oil.

Put the lid on.

Cook over low heat, until the vegetables and fish are fork tender.

Serve with white rice and pirão.



White Rice 
Serves 8 people 

Ingredients 

500 g white rice 

50 ml vegetable oil 

4 cloves garlic 

1 liter water 


Wash and drain the white rice. 

In a dry medium saucepan, add the vegetable oil and garlic. 

When the garlic is golden brown, add the rice and sauté until it is lightly toasted. 

Add 1 litro of water. 

Let it cook over medium heat until the rice is soft. 

Let the water dry and fluff the rice up with a fork. 



Pirão 

Serves 8 people 

Ingredients 

1 litro fish stock 

1 chopped onion 

2 chopped cloves of garlic 

50 ml dendê oil 

1 cup yucca flower 

Salt to taste. 

In a medium saucepan, drizzle the dendê oil and cook the onions and the garlic until it gets translucent. 

Add the fish stock, bring it to a boil. 

Slowly add the yucca flower, stirring until the texture of a purée. 

Adjust seasonings and serve.






fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti 




Casa memorială Mihail Sadoveanu - Casa Memorială „Mihail Sadoveanu” din Iași este un muzeu municipal, secție a Muzeului Literaturii Române din Iași. -- Memorial House Sadoveanu - Memorial House "Mihail Sadoveanu" University is a municipal museum, a branch of Romanian Literature Museum in Iasi.

Muzeul este amplasat în casa în care a locuit scriitorul Mihail Sadoveanu, amplasată pe Aleea Mihail Sadoveanu nr. 12.

Clădirea din dealul Copoului a aparținut istoricului M. Kogalniceanu.




Întâmplarea a vrut ca Mihail Sadoveanu să intre în noua sa casă de la Copou în 1919, într-un moment când George Enescu era pe punctul de a renunța la o reședință, care îi devenise dragă și în care compusese și cântase timp de trei ani, când se stabilise momentan în Iaș, îin urma Primului Război Mondial.

In 1947, Mihail Sadoveanu a donat domeniul în favoarea Institutului de Agronomie din Iași. Castelul cu turn cunoaște acum o noua etapă a istoriei sale. In prima duminică a lunii mai, când arborii și arbuștii din curte înfloresc, aici se organizează tradiționala "Sărbatoare a liliacului". 

La 6 noiembrie 1980, casa din Copou a fost inaugurată ca Muzeu Memorial "Mihail Sadoveanu". Au fost prezenți la festivitate: fiica scriitorului, Profira Sadoveanu, soția sa, Valeria Sadoveanu, I.P.S. Teoctist, Mitropolitul Moldovei și Sucevei, scriitori, oameni de cultură, oficialități din Iași, un numeros public. 

Gazde au fost muzeografii Muzeului Literaturii Romane din Iași, cei care, prin efort și perseverență, au conferit clădirii destinația și aspectul actual. Ansamblul sculptural (autor Dan Covătaru) din grădina muzeului păstrează, cu pioșenie, urna funerară cu rămășițele pământești ale Valeriei Sadoveanu. Dorința scriitorului, de a-și afla odihna veșnica în acest loc, nu s-a materializat încă. 

Reamintim cuvintele sale, rostite la 6 februarie 1938, cu ocazia acordării, de către Universitatea ieșeana, a titlului de "doctor honoris causa" : "Oriunde m-ar purta valurile vieții, dumneavoastră știți că mă întorc aici, așa cum albina, după ce explorează câmpia și cerul, se întoarce la roiul său, fără de care nu poate trăi. Nădăjduiesc ca și popasul meu din urmă, cel definitiv, tot aici va fi. Doresc ca acest popas să fie cât mai întarziat, surprizele existenței și fragilitatea ființei noastre l-ar putea face, însă, și foarte apropiat".


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
colaboração:
Gabriela Mangirov

www.turism-iasi.ro/index.php?id=63
ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casa_Memorială_„Mihail_Sadoveanu”_din_Iași
www.infoturism-moldova.ro › Resurse turistice › Case memoriale


--in
Memorial House Sadoveanu

Memorial House "Mihail Sadoveanu" University is a municipal museum, a branch of Romanian Literature Museum in Iasi.

The museum is located in the house where the writer lived Sadoveanu, Mihail Sadoveanu Alley located. 12.
 The building belonged to the history of Copou hill Kogalniceanu.

 Chance Sadoveanu wanted to enter his new home at Copou in 1919, at a time when George Enescu was about to abandon a residence, which had become the darling and composed and sang for three years, it is currently established in IAS, following World War Iin.

In 1947, Sadoveanu donated to the Institute for Agronomy in Iasi. Castle tower knows now a new stage of its history. On the first Sunday of May, when the trees and shrubs in bloom yard, here is organized traditional "celebration of bat".

On 6 November 1980, the house opened as a museum Copou Memorial "Mihail Sadoveanu". Were present at the celebration: the writer's daughter, Profira Sadoveanu, his wife, Valeria Sadoveanu, IPS Teoctist, Metropolitan of Moldova and Suceava, writers, culture, officials from Iasi, a large audience.

Hosts were the curators of the Romanian Literature Museum in Iasi, who through effort and perseverance have given destination and the current layout of the building. Sculptural Ensemble (author Dan Covataru) maintains the museum's garden, reverently, funeral urn with the remains of Valeria Sadoveanu. The desire of the writer, and to find eternal rest in this place, has not yet materialized.


Recall his words spoken on 6 February 1938 when it awarded by the University of Iasi, the title of "doctor honoris causa": "Wherever I would wear the waves of life, you know I'll be back here as bee after explores plain and sky returns to its hive, without which it can live. I hope as my last halt at all, will be here. I want this to be as late stop, surprises existence and the fragility of our being it could be done, however, and very soon. "

MUSEO: CONCEPTOS CLAVE – AUTORES -- · en INSTITUCIONES, MUSEO,MUSEOGRAFÍA, MUSEOLOGÍA, PATRIMONIO. ·

El objetivo de los autores del diccionario de los Conceptos Clave de Museología no ha sido realizar un tratado “definitivo” sobre el mundo del museo, sistema teórico ideal pero separado de la realidad. Se ha elegido la fórmula relativamente modesta de veintiún términos con el objeto de marcar los hitos de una reflexión continua sobre el campo museal. No os sorprenderá encontrar aquí un cierto número de términos de uso común: museo, colección, patrimonio, público, etcétera. entre los cuales esperamos que descubráis sentidos o reflexiones que os resulten menos familiares. Os extrañará quizá, no ver figurar algunos, como por ejemplo la palabra “conservación” que es retomada en el artículo sobre “preservación”. Con respecto a este último término, no se han seguido todos los desarrollos que pudieron haber hecho los miembros del Comité de Conservación(ICOM-CC), cuyos trabajos se extienden mucho más allá de nuestras pretensiones en este dominio. Algunos otros términos, más teóricos, parecerán a priori exóticos al práctico: museal, musealización, museología, etc. Es un objetivo que apunta a presentar, en lo posible, una visión amplia de lo que se observa en el mundo de los museos, incluido un cierto número de experiencias no siempre habituales, susceptibles de influir de manera considerable en el devenir de los museos. En particular, el caso del museo virtual y el del cibermuseo.


Comencemos por indicar los límites de este trabajo. Se trata de proponer una reflexión teórica y crítica acerca del mundo de los museos en un sentido amplio, que va más allá de los museos clásicos. Seguramente, es posible partir del museo para intentar definirlo. En la definición del ICOM se dice que se trata de una institución al servicio de la sociedad y de su desarrollo. ¿Qué significan esos dos términos fundamentales? Pero sobre todo, ¿por qué hay museos? Las definiciones no aportan una respuesta inmediata a esta pregunta. Se sabe que el mundo de los museos está vinculado a la noción de patrimonio, pero también que es mucho más vasto. ¿Cómo evocar este contexto más amplio? A través del concepto de lo museal (o del campo museal) que es el campo teórico que trata del tema en cuestión, del mismo modo que la política es el campo de la reflexión política, etcétera. Los cuestionamientos críticos y teóricos vinculados al campo museal constituyen la museología, mientras que su aspecto práctico está representado por la museografía. Para cada uno de estos términos existen, a menudo, varias definiciones que han ido fluctuando a lo largo del tiempo; se evocan aquí sus diferentes aspectos.

Archivo EVE


El mundo de los museos ha evolucionado ampliamente a lo largo del tiempo, tanto desde el punto de vista de sus funciones como a través de su materialidad y la de los principales elementos sobre los cuales descansa su trabajo. En concreto, el museo trabaja con los objetos que forman las colecciones. Evidentemente, el factor humano es fundamental para comprender el funcionamiento museal, tanto en lo que concierne al personal que trabaja en el seno del museo – las profesiones y su relación con la ética – como al público o los públicos a los cuales el museo está destinado. ¿Cuáles son las funciones del museo? Opera una actividad que se puede describir como un proceso de musealización y de visualización. En general, se habla de funciones museales que han sido descriptas de muchas maneras diferentes en el curso del tiempo. Nos basamos en uno de los modelos más conocidos, elaborado a fines de la década del ‘80 por laReinwardt Academie de Ámsterdam. Distingue tres funciones: la preservación (que comprende la adquisición, la conservación y la gestión de colecciones), la investigación y la comunicación. La comunicación, comprende la educación y la exposición, las dos funciones tal vez más visibles del museo. Al respecto, nos parece que la función educativa, en sí misma, se ha desarrollado lo suficiente en el curso de los últimos decenios, como para que se le adjunte el término mediación. Una de las mayores diferencias que se presentan desde hace pocos años, reside en el peso cada vez mayor que se adjudica a la noción de gestión. Creemos que por sus especificidades conviene tratarla como una función museal en sí misma, probablemente de igual modo que a la arquitectura del museo, cuya importancia está en crecimiento y trastorna a veces el equilibrio de las otras funciones.


¿Cómo definir al museo? ¿De manera conceptual (museo, patrimonio, institución, sociedad, ética, museal), por la reflexión teórica y práctica (museología, museografía), por su forma de funcionamiento (objeto, colección, musealización), por la vía de sus actores (profesión, público) o por las funciones que allí se llevan a cabo (preservación, investigación, comunicación, educación, exposición, mediación, gestión, arquitectura)? Tantos son los puntos de vista posibles que conviene entrecruzarlos para comprender mejor un fenómeno en plena evolución, cuyos recientes desarrollos no nos deben dejar indiferentes.

“The Bean”, Håkan Ludwigson


A comienzos del los ‘80, el mundo de los museos conoció una ola de cambios sin precedentes. Considerado por largo tiempo como un lugar elitista y discreto, de pronto proponía una suerte de “presentación en sociedad”, anunciando su gusto por las arquitecturas espectaculares, las grandes exposiciones resplandecientes y populares y una cierta forma de consumación en la que estaba resuelto a tomar parte. La popularidad del museo no se ha desmentido, su número se ha duplicado en el espacio en poco más de una generación y los nuevos proyectos de construcción – desde Shanghai hasta Abu Dhabi – son cada vez más sorpren- dentes. En efecto, una generación después, el campo museal sigue en transformación: si el Homo turisticus parece a veces haber reemplazado al visitante en la mira del mercado museal, no está prohibido interrogarse acerca de sus perspectivas. El mundo de los museos, tal como lo conocemos ¿tiene todavía un porvenir? La civilización material cristalizada por el museo ¿no está conociendo cambios radicales? No pretendemos responder aquí a tales cuestiones, pero esperamos que quien se interese en el futuro de los museos o, de manera más práctica, en el futuro de su propio establecimiento, encontrará en estas pocas páginas algunos elementos susceptibles de enriquecer su reflexión.

François Mairesse y André Desvallées



fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti Espacio Visual Europa (EVE)

Wallraf Museum

COLOGNE’S FIRST MUSEUM

“I hereby designate my native town, the City and Municipality of Cologne, as heir to my entire estate.” These words from the testament of Franz Ferdinand Wallraf (1759 – 1824) marked the beginning of the Wallraf Richartz Museum & Foundation Corboud. 


When Wallraf died on 18 March 1824, an absolutely immense estate ran into the city’s ownership. The number of altars, paintings, drawings, books, coins and other objets d’art that the collector had saved during his life from the ravages of secularisation was simply over­whelm­­ing. The city already started looking for a suitable place to house the collection shortly after his death. But several decades were to pass before the first dedicated building was erected.



THIRTY YEARS OF WAVERING – 
FROM WALLRAFIANUM TO WALLRAF RICHARTZ MUSEUM


After the death of his friend Wallraf, the writer and painter Matthias Joseph de Noël (1782 – 1849) conducted the negotiations with the city council over the bequest. And in 1827 de Nöel – by now elected as the collection’s first curator – managed to arrange for it to be provisionally housed in the former quarters of the Cologne archbishops in Trankgasse: the Wallrafianum.





When in 1844 the painter Johann Anton Ramboux (1790 – 1866) succeeded de Noël in the position of curator, the possibility of building a dedicated museum had long been the subject of heated debate. A number of renowned architects, including Jakob Ignaz Hittorff, Sulpiz Boisserée and Ernst Zwirner, had presented plans to the city, but a lack of finances prevented them from being realised.


The council only finally agreed to build a museum when in 1854, a good thirty years after Wallraf’s death, the merchant Johann Heinrich Richartz (1795 – 1861) made a donation of 100,000 thalers. Work could now commence on the first museum to be built in the Rhineland. In keeping with the plans of Josef Felten (1799 – 1880), a Cologne architect and friend of Richartz, the foundation stone was laid shortly after on the grounds of the former Minorite monastery.




Seven years later, on 1 July 1861, the Wallraf Richartz Museum was opened with great pomp. Lord Mayor Stupp of Cologne culminated his effusive inaugural speech with the words “Cologne has sired great men – but never before has there been a Richartz!” The benefactor was not however personally there to witness the celebratory opening: Johann Heinrich Richartz had died shortly beforehand. But his memory lives on in the name of the museum.


RISE AND FALL – 
THE WALLRAF RICHARTZ MUSEUM DURING WORLD WAR II


Both the popularity of the museum and its holdings underwent constant growth in the years to follow. Numerous loans, gifts from the citizenry, and purchases of old masters and modern works, above all by the Impressionists, soon made the house – now under the direction of Carl Aldenhofen (1842 – 1907) and Alfred Hagelstange (1874 – 1914) – one of the foremost museums in Germany


Under director Otto Förster (1894 – 1975), in 1936 the museum acquired theCarstanjen Collection. With valuable works by Rembrandt and Franz Hals, the stone was laid for a gallery of European stature. 1936 was also the year of the great Stefan Lochner exhibition: to mark the 75th anniversary of the Wallraf Richartz Museum, Förster dedicated a special exhibition to the Cologne master that brought together all of the works that the research had so far identified as by him.


“DEGENERATE” AND DESTROYED


Just one year later, the National Socialists confiscated countless works for its propaganda exhibition “Degenerate Art”. The collection lost many priceless exhibits, including paintings and drawings by Picasso, Munch, Beckmann, Gaugin, Dix, and Kokoschka. One blow followed the other: during the night-time bombing raids in 1943, the museum was completely destroyed. The artworks could however be evacuated in good time.




NEW DEPARTURES AND NEW BEGINNINGS – 
THE POST-WAR YEARS AND THE ENTRY OF THE MODERNISTS


The Cologne lawyer and art collector Josef Haubrich (1889 – 1961) had followed the developments at the Wallraf Richartz Museum with keen interest. In 1955 he signalled a new start in his City of Cologne, which had been destroyed by the war like scarcely another in Germany: as a replacement for the works confiscated by the Nazi regime, he donated his singular collection of German Expressionist and Modernist works.




Two years later, in 1957, the new building of the Wallraf Richartz Museum (now the home of the Museum für Angewandte Kunst) opened its doors. The architects were Rudolf Schwarz (1897 – 1961) and Josef Bernard (1902 – 1959). In 1968, the house received another major addition in the field of modern art through the donation of the Peter and Irene Ludwig Collection.


TWO COLLECTIONS UNDER ONE ROOF – 
THE WALLRAF RICHARTZ MUSEUM AND MUSEUM LUDWIG


Under the direction of Gerhard Bott, (*1927), who assumed his position in 1975, the City of Cologne together with husband and wife benefactors Paul and Irene Ludwig decided to establish a separate museum for twentieth century art:Museum Ludwig come into being. The two museums were however to share a new building, and there was much discussion about how this was to be done. A call for proposals was made in 1974 and a decision reached in 1976: the winners of the competition were Cologne architects Peter Busmann (*1933) and Godfrid Haberer (*1941). In 1986, roughly ten years later, the Wallraf Richartz Museum and Museum Ludwig moved into their new home between the cathedral and the Rhine.




A HISTORICAL LOCATION IN THE HEART OF TOWN – 
A NEW HOME FOR THE OLD MASTERS


When the Ludwigs likewise donated their Pablo Picasso collection to the City of Cologne in 1994, the new museum building which had opened only a few years before proved to be too small for both historical and modern art. The city council thus decided in 1996 to construct a new, dedicated building for the Wallraf Richartz Museum in the city’s historical centre, according to the plans of Cologne architect Oswald Mathias Ungers (1926 – 2007). In January 2001 the new building was opened in the immediate neighbourhood of Stefan Lochner’s birthplace.




BY NO MEANS THE END OF THE STORY – 
THE HIGHLIGHTS OF THE FONDATION CORBOUD


In 2001, the same year in which the new building was inaugurated, the Swiss entrepreneur Gérard J. Corboud (*1925) and his Cologne-born wife, Marisol Corboud, made over their extensive collection of Impressionist and post-Impressionist paintings to the Wallraf Richartz Museum as a “loan in perpetuity”. To thank and honour these two benefactors, the museum has ever since borne the name "Wallraf Richartz Museum & Fondation Corboud”.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
http://www.wallraf.museum/en/the-museum/history/

Le musée s'invite dans les foyers grâce à une application béninoise pour smartphones

Pour admirer les toiles du Béninois Cyprien Tokoudagba ou les élégantes coiffures nigérianes du photographe J.D. Okhai Ojeikere, plus besoin de se déplacer au musée: il suffit désormais de télécharger une application, pensée et réalisée au Bénin.

Le principe de "Wakpon" ("Viens voir" en fon, la langue locale la plus parlée au Bénin) est simple: il s'agit d'imprimer 10 images, sortes de patchworks de pagnes africains, sur des feuilles A4, puis de les viser avec un smartphone ou une tablette sur lesquels on aura préalablement téléchargé gratuitement l'application. Comme par magie, un tableau ou une photo apparaissent alors, assortis d’un commentaire didactique sur l'œuvre et l'artiste.

Un homme utilise l'application "Wakpon", innovation béninoise qui permet de découvrir virtuellement des oeuvres d'art contemporain appartenant à la fondation Zinsou, le 11 juin 2015 à Ouidah, au Bénin afp.com - DELPHINE BOUSQUET

"Cette application est formidable. Grâce à elle, les peuples africains pourront avoir accès à leur culture, à leurs artistes qui sont reconnus dans le monde entier et qu’ils ne peuvent pas voir, faute de lieux d'exposition, de moyens ou de visas...", s'enthousiasme le plasticien béninois Romuald Hazoumé, déjà exposé dans les grandes capitales occidentales, dont les œuvres sont montrées sur Wakpon.

En tout, 44 œuvres de 10 artistes différents sont disponibles.

C'est la fondation Zinsou, installée au Bénin et dédiée à l'art contemporain africain, qui, pour célébrer sa première décennie, a décidé de lancer cette application en piochant dans une sélection de sa propre collection.

- 'La culture est un droit, pas un luxe' -

"Depuis 10 ans, la fondation Zinsou s'attache à faire découvrir l'art contemporain à des populations qui n'y ont pas accès, parce que nous pensons que la culture est un droit, pas un luxe", explique sa présidente Marie-Cécile Zinsou.

Cette trentenaire franco-béninoise débordante d'idées et d'énergie a convaincu son père, Lionel Zinsou, qui vient d'être nommé Premier ministre du Bénin, de financer une fondation quand elle a réalisé, lors d'une mission dans ce pays pour l'ONG SOS Villages d'enfants, qu'il n'y avait pas de musées où leur montrer l'art de leur continent.

Ainsi, depuis 2005, la salle d'exposition de la fondation à Cotonou propose gratuitement des expositions de grande qualité d'artistes béninois et étrangers. Comme celle consacrée au peintre pop américain d'origine haïtienne Jean-Michel Basquiat, en 2007, qui fut une première pour cet artiste sur le continent africain.

En 2013, la fondation Zinsou a aussi ouvert un musée dans une vieille bâtisse d'inspiration brésilienne de l'ancien port d'esclaves de Ouidah, à une quarantaine de kilomètres de Cotonou.

En dix ans, elle a accueilli près de cinq millions de visiteurs dont 70% d'enfants, qui la première fois viennent souvent avec leur classe, puis reviennent seuls... et finissent par emmener leur famille.

Wakpon s'inscrit "dans cette veine, mais on change d'échelle et ça permet de démultiplier notre action", estime Mme Zinsou.

Un développeur franco-béninois de 32 ans installé à Paris, Pierrick Chabi, s'est chargé de la conception de Wakpon. Sa spécialité: "la technique de la réalité augmentée", qui mêle réel et virtuel à partir d'images clés reconnues par le système de l'application.

Cette technologie existe depuis 10 ans mais "n'avait jamais été utilisée pour dématérialiser un musée", explique-t-il à l'AFP.

Entré en contact avec Mme Zinsou via les réseaux sociaux, M. Chabi a fait le voyage jusqu'au musée de Ouidah et a ensuite proposé de le "projeter ailleurs".

- 'Le musée de demain' -

Cette innovation béninoise a été financée par l'IDI, un fonds d'investissement français.

Les artistes concernés ont tous cédé leurs droits, pour permettre l'utilisation de l'application dans divers cadres (écoles, musées...) sans avoir à demander moult autorisations préalables.

Il faut certes être connecté à internet pour télécharger l'application, mais elle fonctionne ensuite sans internet, un vrai plus en Afrique où les connexions sont parfois hasardeuses et souvent onéreuses.

Loin de remplacer les musées, Wakpon est une bonne façon de donner envie de s'y déplacer, estime l'artiste Romuald Hazoumé.

"C'est comme un appât. Les gens connaîtront les œuvres, leur histoire et voudront les voir en vrai! C'est le musée de demain et c'est ce que devraient faire toutes les grosses collections", juge-t-il.

Ce sera peut-être bientôt le cas. Les concepteurs ont été approchés par des musées à Paris et à New York.

Désormais à Cotonou, les visites à la fondation Zinsou se terminent par une démonstration de Wakpon.

"En Afrique, on a tendance à penser que la culture viendra après, quand les pays seront développés et que les économies auront émergé", relève Mme Zinsou. "Mais non. La culture, c’est essentiel (au) développement".



fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://information.tv5monde.com/