terça-feira, 28 de julho de 2015

MUSEALIZACIÓN DEL OBJETO (MUSEALIA) - · en CULTURA, INSTITUCIONES,MUSEO, MUSEOGRAFÍA, MUSEOLOGÍA, OPINIÓN. ·

A veces este término es reemplazado por el neologismo musealia (poco utilizado – a nosotros tampoco nos gusta nada de nada -), construido sobre un modelo del latín: musealia que constituye un plural neutro, los musealia.


En su sentido filosófico más elemental, el objeto en sí mismo no es una realidad, sino un producto, un resultado o un correlato. En otras palabras, designa a lo que es apoyado o arrojado a la cara (ob-jectum, Gegen-stand) por un sujeto que lo trata como diferente de sí, aún cuando se considere a sí mismo como objeto. Esta distinción entre sujeto y objeto es relativamente tardía y propia de Occidente. En este caso, el objeto difiere de la cosa, la cual, por el contrario, mantiene con el sujeto una relación de contigüidad o instrumentalidad. (ejemplo: el instrumento, como prolongación de la mano, es una cosa y no un objeto). Un objeto de museo es una cosa musealizada, una cosa que puede ser definida como cualquier realidad en general. La expresión “objeto de museo” podría casi pasar por un pleonasmo en la medida en que el museo no es solamente un lugar destinado a cobijar objetos, sino también un lugar cuya principal misión es transformar las cosas en objetos.



1. En ningún caso el objeto es una realidad en bruto o un simple dato que bastaría recoger para constituir, por ejemplo, las colecciones de un museo, como si se recogiesen conchillas en una playa. Tiene un status ontológico que va a asumir, en ciertas circunstancias, tal o cual cosa, dando por entendido que dicha cosa no será siempre asimilable a un objeto. De hecho, la diferencia entre la cosa y el objeto consiste en que la cosa es aprehendida en lo concreto de la vida y la relación que mantenemos con ella es una relación de simpatía o de simbiosis. Es esto lo que revela, en particular, el animismo de las sociedades a menudo llamadas primitivas en relación con su funcionalidad, como es el caso de la herramienta adaptada a la forma de la mano. Por el contrario, el objeto es siempre lo que el sujeto coloca frente a él, distinto de él, es lo que está “enfrente”, lo diferente. En este sentido, el objeto es abstracto y está muerto, como cerrado sobre sí mismo, hecho del que da testimonio la serie de objetos que es la colección (Baudrillard, 1968). Este status del objeto se considera hoy como un producto netamente occidental (Choay, 1968; Van Lier, 1969; Adotevi, 1971), en la medida en que es Occidente el que, rompiendo con el modo de vida tribal, piensa por primera vez en la separación entre sujeto y objeto (Descartes, Kant y más tarde McLuhan, 1969).



2. El trabajo de adquisición, investigación, preservación y comunicación del museo lo presenta como una de las grandes instancias de “producción” de objetos, es decir, de conversión de las cosas que nos rodean. En estas condiciones, el objeto de museo – musealium o musealia – no posee una realidad intrínseca, aún cuando el museo no sea el único instrumento “productor” de objetos. En efecto, otros enfoques son “objetivantes”, tal el caso particular de la gestión científica. Esta última establece normas de referencia (por ejemplo, las escalas de medida) totalmente independientes del sujeto y al mismo tiempo, a duras penas puede tratar lo viviente en cuanto tal (Bergson), ya que tiende a transformarlo en objeto, lo que constituye la dificultad de la fisiología con respecto a la anatomía. Simplemente, el punto de vista museal (ayyy!), aunque se encuentre a veces al servicio de la gestión científica, difiere porque su primera preocupación es exponer los objetos, es decir, mostrarlos concretamente a un público visitante. El objeto de museo está hecho para ser mostrado, con todo el abanico de connotaciones implícitamente asociadas, ya que se lo puede presentar para emocionar, distraer o instruir. Esta operación de “mostración”, para utilizar un término más genérico que el de exposición, es tan esencial que es el que, creando la distancia, hace de la cosa un objeto, mientras que en la investigación científica por el contrario, prima la exigencia de rendir cuentas de las cosas en un contexto universalmente inteligible.



3. Los naturalistas y los etnólogos, así como los museólogos, por lo general seleccionan lo que llaman objetos en función de su potencial de testimonio, ya sea por la cantidad de información (rótulos) que puedan llevar para reflejar los ecosistemas o las culturas de las cuales desean conservar las huellas. “Los musealia son objetos muebles auténticos que, como testimonios irrefutables, muestran el desarrollo de la naturaleza o de la sociedad” (Schreiner, 1985). Es la riqueza de la información que llevan en sí mismos la que conduce a etnólogos como Jean Gabus (1965) o Georges Henri Rivière (1989) a atribuirles la calificación de objetos- testimonio que conservan mientras están expuestos. Georges Henri Rivière también utiliza la expresión objetos-símbolo para designar ciertos objetos-testimonio cargados de contenido que pretenden resumir toda una cultura o toda una época. La consecuencia de esta objetivación sistemática de las cosas permite estudiarlas mucho mejor que cuando quedan en su contexto de origen (sitio etnográfico, colección privada o galería), pero también puede poner de manifiesto una tendencia fetichista: una máscara ritual, una vestimenta ceremonial, un instrumento musical, etc., cambian bruscamente de estado al entrar en el museo. Artificios como la vitrina o el cimacio, separadores entre el mundo real y el mundo imaginario del museo, no son otra cosa que rótulos de objetividad que sirven para garantizar la distancia (crear una distanciación, como decía Bertold Brecht del teatro) y señalar que lo que se presenta no pertenece más a la vida, sino al mundo cerrado de los objetos. Por ejemplo, no se tiene el derecho de sentarse en una silla que pertenece a un museo de artes decorativas, lo que presupone una distinción convencional entre la silla funcional y la silla-objeto. “Desfuncionalizadas” y “descontextualizadas”, a partir de ese momento, no sirven más para los fines a que estaban destinadas, sino que entran en un orden simbólico que les confiere una nueva significación (lo que conduce a Krzysztof Pomian a llamarlas “portadoras de significación”, (semióforos) y a atribuirles un nuevo valor que en principio es puramente museal, pero que puede devenir económico. Se transforman así en testimonios “principales” de la cultura.



4. El mundo de la exposición refleja tales elecciones. Para semiólogos como Jean Davallon “…los musealia se pueden considerar menos como cosas (desde el punto de vista de su realidad física) que como entes de lenguaje (definidos y reconocidos como dignos de ser conservados y presentados) y como soportes de prácticas sociales (son recolectados, catalogados, expuestos, etcétera)” (Davallon, 1992). En una exposición, los objetos son utilizados como signos del mismo modo que las palabras en un discurso. Pero los objetos no son otra cosa que signos, puesto que por su sola presencia pueden ser directamente percibidos por los sentidos. Por esta razón a menudo se utiliza, para designar al objeto de museo presentado a partir de su poder de “presencia auténtica”, el término anglosajónreal thing, traducido como cosa verdadera, es decir “cosas que presentamos tal cual son y no como modelos, imágenes o representaciones de cualquier otra cosa” (Cameron, 1968), lo que supone, por diversas razones (sentimental, estética, etcétera), una relación intuitiva con lo que está expuesto. El término objeto expuesto (expôt) designa las cosas reales que están expuestas, pero también todo elemento digno de ser expuesto (un documento sonoro, fotográfico o cinematográfico; un holograma; una reproducción, una maqueta, una instalación o un modelo conceptual.


5. Una cierta tensión opone la cosa verdadera y su sustituto. Conviene destacar, en este sentido, que para algunos, el objeto semióforo no aparece como portador de significación más que cuando se presenta por sí mismo y no por vía de un sustituto. Pero, por amplia que pueda parecer esta concepción, no tiene en cuenta ni los orígenes del museo durante el Renacimiento (ver Museo), ni la evolución y la diversidad a la que ha llegado la museología del siglo XIX. Tampoco considera el trabajo de cierto número de museos cuyas actividades son esencialmente parecidas, por ejemplo, en Internet o sobre soportes duplicados; generalmente, todos los museos hechos de sustitutos como las yesotecas, las colecciones de maquetas, las ceratecas (museos que conservan reproducciones en cera) o los centros de ciencias (que exponen sobre todo modelos). Desde el momento en que los objetos se consideran elementos del lenguaje, permiten construir exposiciones-discurso que no siempre alcanzan a sostener dicho discurso. Por lo tanto, es necesario imaginar otros elementos de sustitución del lenguaje. Cuando la función y la naturaleza del objeto expuesto buscan reemplazar una cosa verdadera o un objeto auténtico, se le atribuye la cualidad de sustituto. Puede ser una fotografía, un dibujo o un modelo de la cosa real. El sustituto es considerado opuesto al objeto “auténtico” (si bien no se confunde totalmente con la copia del original, como sucede con los calcos de las esculturas o las copias de las pinturas), en la medida en que puede ser creado directamente a partir de la idea o del proceso, y no sólo a través de una copia exacta del original. Según la forma del original y el uso que de él se haga, puede ser ejecutado en dos o tres dimensiones. Esta noción de autenticidad, particularmente importante en los museos de bellas artes (obras maestras, copias y falsificaciones), condiciona una gran parte de las cuestiones ligadas al estado y al valor de los objetos. Se observa, sin embargo, que existen museos cuyas colecciones sólo están compuestas de sustitutos y que, de manera general, la política de sustitutos (copias, yesos o ceras, maquetas o soportes digitales) abre amplia- mente el campo de acción del museo y contribuye a cuestionar, desde el punto de vista de la ética museal, el conjunto de valores actuales de dicha institución. Por otra parte, desde una perspectiva más amplia, todo objeto expuesto en un museo debe ser considerado como un sustituto de la realidad que representa, porque como cosa musealizada, el objeto de museo, es en sí mismo, un sustituto (Deloche, 2001).



6. En el contexto museológico, sobre todo en las disciplinas arqueológicas y etnográficas, los especialistas se han acostumbrado a revestir al objeto del sentido que ellos imaginan a partir de sus propias investigaciones. Mucho son los problemas que se plantean. Ante todo, los objetos cambian de sentido en su medio de origen siguiendo el capricho de las generaciones. A continuación, cada visitante es libre de interpretar lo que contempla en función de su propia cultura. De lo que resulta un relativismo que Jacques Hainard resume, en 1984, con una frase que se tornó célebre: “el objeto no es para nada la verdad de nada; polifuncional primero, polisémico después, no tiene sentido más que puesto en un contexto”. (Hainard, 1984).

“Tiny PMS Match“, (en PICDIT)

MUSEALIA

S. m. (del latín objectum, echar en cara). – Equivalente inglés: object; francés: objet; alemán: Objekt Gegenstand; it.: oggetto; portugués: objecto, (portugués brasileño: objeto).


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti Espacio Visual Europa (EVE)

Vitebsk Museum of Modern Art ( Russian: Витебский Музей Современного Искусства ) was an art museum in Vitebsk, Belarus organized in 1918 by Marc Chagall, Kazimir Malevich and Alexander Romm.

In 1921 it exhibited 120 paintings "representing all the movements of the contemporary art from the Academic Realism to Impressionism to Suprematism". In the mid-1920s the museum was abolished. While some paintings have found their way to museums of Russia and Belarus, the whereabouts of many paintings are unknown.

The building of the People's Art School where 
the Vitebsk Museum of Modern Art was situated

The history of the museum starts in 1918. On 12 September 1918 famous painter Marc Chagall, then the Commissar of Arts for Vitebsk Region, went to Petrograd for getting the official approval for his idea to organize a Museum of Modern Art in Vitebsk. On 14 November 1918 newspaper published information that the works on organization of museum of modern arts had started in Vitebsk.

The Museum was organized in the building of the People's Art School (Народное Художественное Училище) on 10 Bukharin Street. The museum was headed By Chagall and Malevich and later by Alexander Romm who was appointed the Chief of Vitebsk Commission on preservation of Heritage and Arts on 15 January 1920. In parallel the same building also hosted another art museum, the so-called School Museum for the works of the graduates of the People's Art School. The second museum was organized on 8 July 1919.

In the 1920s the museum got a significant collection of the contemporary painting. In spring 1921 Alexander Romm wrote about 120 paintings "representing all the movements of the contemporary art from the Academic Realism to Impressionism to Suprematism. Almost all contemporary painters are represented in the collection by their serious characteristic works". 

Today 90 paintings of the museum are known (some may belong to the School Museum. The painters included Nathan Altman, Abram Brazer, David Burliuk, Marc Chagall, Aleksandra Ekster, Robert Falk, Sergei Gerasimov, Natalia Goncharova, Alexander Ivanovich Ivanov, Wassily Kandinsky, Ivan Klyun, Pyotr Konchalovsky, Konstantin Korovin, Nikolai Krymov, Pavel Kuznetsov, Alexander V. Kuprin, Mikhail Larionov, Aristarkh Lentulov, Kazimir Malevich, Ilya Mashkov, Vassily Millioti, Alexey Morgunov, Alexander Osmerkin, Yakov Pain, Vera Pestel, Lyubov Popova, Yehuda Pen, Alexander Rodchenko, Vassily Rozhdestvensky, Olga Rozanova, Alexander Romm, Nikolay Sinezubov, Konstantin Somov, Varvara Stepanova, Władysław Strzemiński, Aleksandr Shevchenko, David Sternberg, Solomon Yudovin, Nicolay Paskevich.


The exposition of the museum was open to public in July 1920. In July–October 1922 23 paintings were moved to Petrograd. To the 1 April 1923 only 35 works left. In 1925 there were signals that paintings of avant garde artists from the museum are cut for canvas by the students of Art School. On 26 September 1925 the surviving 32 paintings were transferred to Vitebsk Regional Museum. Most of them were transferred to the Belarusian National Arts Museum in Minsk in 1939. After World War II only one work from the former Vitebsk Museum of Modern Arts was left in Vitebsk: a small still life by David Sternberg. Besides this painting the whereabouts of only 24 are known: 19 paintings are in State Russian Museum in Saint Petersburg, four paintings are in Belarusian National Arts Museum in Minsk and one painting is in the Kawamura Museum of Modern Art in Japan.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti Museums in Vitebsk

Since 1992, Riga Motor Museum is a state museum and since 2009 it operates as a structural unit of JSC "Road Traffic Safety Directorate" (Abbr. in Latvian CSDD). The Museum was accredited in 1999, 2004, and 2010.

Since the appearance of the first self-propelled vehicle in Latvia at the end of the 19th century, people have striven for improvement and perfection, considering only the newest and most modern models worth attention.


Only in the 1960’s – 1970’s, Latvia started to pay attention to older automobiles and motorcycles. Latvia Antique Automobile club (AAK) was founded in 1972. It was the first public organisation of that kind in the territory of the former USSR. The activities of AAK in the 1970’s – 1980’s were the basis of founding Riga Motor Museum in 1989. The building of the museum was designed by Latvian architect Viktors Valgums, and back than it was acknowledged as one of the best buildings built in Latvia after World War II.

Riga Motor Museum's project by Latvian architect Viktors Valgums (1984).

Since 1992, Riga Motor Museum is a state museum and since 2009 it operates as a structural unit of JSC "Road Traffic Safety Directorate" (Abbr. in Latvian CSDD). The Museum was accredited in 1999, 2004, and 2010. It is a member of International Association of Transport and Communications Museums – International Council of Museums (IATM – ICOM), Latvia Museum Association and Latvia Transport Development and Education Association.
The Riga Motor Museum current director is Aivars Aksenoks (since 2009). Former directors include Viktors Kulbergs, Uģis Kalmanis, Edvīns Liepiņš and Andrejs Beļinskis.

Over the years, the Museum’s exposition has gained not only international recognition, but also visitor sympathies. Furthermore, year after year the exposition is being enriched with unique and alluring exhibits.

The museum is open to collaboration and very often takes part in antique vehicle exhibitions and events in Latvia, as well as further abroad. The publics’ favorite events without doubt are antique car rallies. The biggest antique vehicle of the year is of course Riga Retro, taking place every year in the middle of August. Riga Motor Museum’s antique vehicles often enrich city festivals and events all over Latvia. 

Photo: Pony&Smith. Antique vehicle event "Riga Retro 2013".

In 2010, the Riga Motor Museum exposition area was amplified by 1300 m2. Thanks to the new exposition space it was possible to house a new collection dedicated to war machinery from World War II, as well as other special vehicles and Riga Bus Factory busses. 

Photo: Ilmars Znotins. Opening ceremony of the new exposition space.

On April 15th, 2013 Riga Motor Museum’s doors were closed to public due to the forthcoming major reconstruction.

The renovation project of the Riga Motor Museum envisages an enlargement of its existing exhibition area, creation of a new, more comfortable and up-to-date entrance, organization of the visitors’ flows in a clear way; the renovation project will also assure the museums accessibility for all the visitants and design a space according to the expositions actual needs while preserving the museums historical character, functional plan and its structural configuration.

It is scheduled that Riga Motor Museum will reopen in the spring of 2015.




fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
http://www.motormuzejs.lv/pub/index.php?id=47

Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque (Persian: مسجد شیخ لطف الله‎) is one of the architectural masterpieces of Safavid Iranian architecture, standing on the eastern side of Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan, Iran.

Construction of the mosque started in 1603 and was finished in 1619. It was built by the chief architect Shaykh Bahai, during the reigh of Shah Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty.













Frontpage of Chardin's book on his many journeys to Persia, published in 1739.


Entrance door leading from the L-shaped vestibule into the mosque.
Of the four monuments that dominated the perimeter of the Naqsh-e Jahan Square, this one was the first to be built.





The purpose of this mosque was for it to be a private mosque of the royal court, unlike the Masjed-e Shah, which was meant for the public. For this reason, the mosque does not have any minarets and is of a smaller size. Indeed, few Westerners at the time of the Safavids even paid any attention to this mosque, and they certainly did not have access to it. It wasn't until centuries later, when the doors were opened to the public, that ordinary people could admire the effort that Shah Abbas had put into making this a sacred place for the ladies of his harem, and the exquisite tile- work, which is far superior to those covering the Shah Mosque.


To avoid having to walk across the maydān when getting to the mosque, Shah Abbas had the architect build a tunnel spanning across the piazza, from the Ali Qapu palace, to the mosque. When reaching the entrance of the mosque, one would have to walk through a passage that winds round and round, until one finally reaches the main building. Along this passage there were standing guards, and the obvious purpose of this design was for the women of the harem to be shielded as much as possible from anyone entering the building. At the main entrance of the mosque there were also standing guards, and the doors of the building were kept closed at all times. Today, these doors are open to visitors, and the passage traversing underneath the field is no longer in use.


Sheikh Lutfallah
Throughout history, this mosque has been referred to by different names. For Junabadi it was the mosque with the great dome (Masjed-e qubbat-e ’azim) and the domed mosque (qubbat masjed), while contemporary historian Iskandar Munshi named it the mosque of great purity and beauty. On the other hand, European travellers, such as Jean Chardin referred to the mosque using the current name, and Arabic inscriptions within the mosque, done by calligrapher Baqir Banai, also include the name of Sheikh Lutfallah. In addition, the reckonings of Muhibb Ali Beg, the imperial treasure holderer, show that the Imam's salary came directly from the imperial household resources. All this suggests that not only was the building indeed named after Sheikh Lutfallah, but also, that this famous imam was among the first prayer leaders for the royal court in this very mosque.


Architecture
Showing the entrance and the dome which does not stand directly behind the entrance, but is offset to the south.
The dome does not stand directly behind the entrance, but is offset to the south.

The entry gateway, like those of the Grand Bazaar and the Masjed-e Shah, was a recessed half-moon. Also, like in the Masjed-e Shah, the lower facade of the mosque and the gateway are constructed of marble, while the haft-rangi tiles (هفت‌رنگی, lit. "seven-coloured", "polychrome mosaics") decorate the upper parts of the structure. Creation of the calligraphy and tiles, which exceed, in both beauty and quality, anything created beforehand in the Islamic world, was overseen by Master calligrapher Ali Reza Abbasi.


One of the unique characteristics of the mosque is the peacock at the center of its dome. If you stand at the entrance gate of the inner hall and look at the center of the dome, a peacock, whose tail is the sunrays coming in from the hole in the ceiling, can be seen.


The monument's architect was Mohammad-Reza Isfahani, who solved the problem of the difference between the direction of qibla and gateway of the building by devising an L-shaped connecting vestibule between the entrance and the enclosure. Reza Abbasi's inscription on the entry gateway gives the date of the start of construction. The north-south orientation of the Maydan does not agree with south-west direction of qibla; it is set at 45 degrees to it. This feature, called پاشنه pāshnah in Persian architecture, has caused to standing the dome not directly behinde the entrance iwan (in picture).


Its single-shell dome is 13 m in diameter. The exterior side is richly covered with tiles.


The interior of the dome which is inset with a network of lemon-shaped compartments, which increase in size as they descend from a formalised peacock at the pattern inlaid on plain stucco.

The interior side of the dome
Compared with the Shah Mosque, the design of the Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque is quite simple, there is no courtyard and there are no interior iwans. The building itself consists of a flattened dome resting on a square dome chamber. Though, in contranst to the simple structure of this mosque, the decoration of both interior and exterior is exceedingly complex, and in its construction the finest materials were used and the most talented craftsmen employed. Robert Byron wrote about this sight: I know of no finer example of the Persian Islamic genius than the interior of the dome:


The dome is inset with a network of lemon-shaped compartments, which decrease in size as they ascend towards the formalised peacock at the apex... The mihrāb in the west wall is enamelled with tiny flowers on a deep blue meadow. Each part of the design, each plane, each repetition, each separate branch or blossom has its own sombre beauty. But the beauty of the whole comes as you move. Again, the highlights are broken by the play of glazed and unglazed surfaces; so that with every step they rearrange themselves in countless shining patterns... I have never encountered splendour of this kind before.




Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque
According to him, "the decoration of the interior side of the dome seems to lead the eye upwards toward its center, as the rings of ornamental bands filled with arabesque patterns become smaller and smaller".


At the interior side of the dome, the aethetic purpose of the long, low, gloomy passage leading to the dome chamber becomes evident, for it is with a sense of heightened anticipation that one enters the sanctuary. Lowness gives way to soaring height and gloom is dispelled by the steady illumination of nearly a score of windows.


B. Barbara has described it in this way: "the turquoise cable moudling of an arch is seen below the dome, in which concentric rings of thirty-two lozenges diminish in size as they approach a centre which gives an impression of luminosity. The design, which suggests both movement and stillness, is a powerful though not an explicit vehicle of religious symbolism, speaking of the harmony of the universe. ... The support system of dome is illustrated by eight great arches of turquoise tilework in cable form which rise from a low dado to the full height of the wall, four in the position of squinches and four against the side walls; between them are kite-shaped squinches-pendentives. Within the dome, ranks of units of tilework of ogee-mandorla form are set in a lattice of plain brick and diminish in size until they meet a central sunbrust patterned with a tracery of arabesque".


The structure of the dome of Lotfollah mosque and that of Blue mosque of Tabriz is believed to be derived from that of Shah Vali mosque of Taft, Yazd.


The tiling design of this mosque, as well as that of Shah mosque and other Persian mosques of even before Safavid period, seems to be not completely symmetrical – particlularly, in colors of patterns. However, it is believed that these asymmetries was intentional, and they are "symmetrical asymmetries".


Architects of the complex were Sheikh Baha'i (Chief architect) and Ustad Mohammad Reza Isfahani.


The building was completed in 1618 (1028 A.H.).[18]


Art


The Ardabil Carpet. The design is derived from the interior side of the dome of Shekh Lotfollah Mosque.
Design of Ardabil rugs (such as the Ardabil Carpet) was from the same concept as that of the interior side of the dome. Also design of the "Carpet of Wonders", which will be the biggest carpet of the world, is based on the interior design of the dome. It has been suggested that concepts of the mystic philosopher Suhrawardi about the unity of existence was possibly related to this pattern at the interior side of the dome. Ali Reza Abbasi, the leading calligrapher at the court of Shah Abbas, has decorated the entrance, above the door, with majestic inscriptions with the names and titles of Shah Abbas, the Husayni and the Musavi, that is, the descendants of Imams Husayn and Musa.


The inscriptions of the Mosque reflect matters that were preoccupying the shah around the time it was built; namely the need to define Twelver Shiism in contrast to Sunni Islam, and the Persian resistance to Ottoman invasion. The running inscription in white tile on blue ground on the exterior drum of the dome, visible to the public, consists of three suras (chapters) from the Quran; al- Shams (91, The Sun), al-Insan (76, Man) and al-Kauthar (108, Abundance). The suras emphasize the rightness of a pure soul and the fate in hell of those who reject God’s way, most likely referring to the Ottoman Turks.


Entering the prayer chamber, one is confronted with walls covered with blue, yellow, turquoise and white tiles with intricate arabesque patterns. Quranic verses appear in each corner while the east and west walls contain poetry by Shaykh Bahai. Around the mihrab are the names of the Twelve Shi’i Imams, and the inscription contains the names of Shaykh Lutfallah, Ostad Muahmmad Reza Isfahani (the engineer), and Baqir al- Banai (the calligrapher who wrote it).


Turning right at the entrance to the domed prayer chamber, one first encounters the full text of Sura 98, al- Bayyina, the Clear Proof. The message of this chapter is that clear evidence of the true scripture was not available to the People of the Book (i.e. Christians or Jews) until God sent his messenger Muhammad. The horizontal band of script at the bottom of the arch is not Quranic, but states that God’s blessings are on the (Shi’i) martyrs. Thus, Shi’i invocation echoes the Quranic verses in its stress on the truthfulness of God’s message.


The poem of Shaykh Bahai on the right wall prays for help from the Fourteen Immaculate Ones (Muhammad, Fatima and the Twelve Imams), while the inscriptions on the interior of the dome emphasize the virtues of charity, prayer and honesty, as well as the correctness of following Islam and its prophets versus the error of other religions.


The specifically Shi’i passages and their prominent placement in the mihrab, on the two lateral walls and in the horizontal bands of each corner, underscore the pre- eminence of this creed in Safavid Iran.


The fact that two poems by Shaykh Bahai, a devoted Sufi, grace the walls of Shah Abbas’ private mosque, proves that, although some Sufi elements in the empire were suppressed, Sufism as a general phenomenon continued to play an important role in the Safavid society.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmaritti
imagens colaboração: 
Ali Reza Sarvdalir


O Museu Nacional do Ar e do Espaço Smithsonian, nos EUA, lançou segunda-feira uma campanha para angariar 500 mil dólares (461 mil euros) para o restauro do fato do astronauta Neil Armstrong, o primeiro homem que pisou solo lunar.

Museu angaria fundos para restaurar fato de Armstrong


A ideia é voltar a expô-lo e digitalizá-lo em 3D, 
para que todos possam vê-lo. PUB

Coincidindo com o 46.º aniversário da missão lunar Apollo 11, o museu, do Instituto Smithsonian, em Washington, decidiu lançar a campanha através da plataforma de internet Kickstarter, com a qual, em poucas horas, conseguiu mais de 77,2 mil dólares (71,2 mil euros) dos 500 mil que pretende arrecadar num mês.

Com esta campanha, apresentada nas redes sociais com a designação RebootTheSuit, o museu quer assegurar a conservação do fato espacial, a fim de exibi-lo de novo numa vitrina climatizada.

O objetivo é que o fato possa fazer parte da galeria "Rumo à Lua", da exposição do 50.º aniversário da missão Apollo 11, que se comemora em 2019, mas cuja abertura está prevista para 2020.

Num comunicado, o museu adianta que, com os dados da digitalização do fato, desenvolverá materiais educativos que possam ser usados pelas escolas de todo o mundo.

Como recompensa, os cidadãos que participarem no projeto poderão conhecer um astronauta, receber uma impressão em 3D da luva de Neil Armstrong ou um emblema da Apollo 11.

Os mais genorosos, que derem dez mil dólares (9,2 mil euros), serão convidados, a partir de novembro, a ver o fato espacial no laboratório de conservação onde vai ser restaurado.

É a primeira vez que um museu do Instituto Smithsonian recorre ao "crowdfunding" para suportar os custos do restauro de uma parte do seu acervo mais valioso.

O Governo norte-americano financia a manutenção dos 19 museus e galerias da instituição e a segurança das suas coleções, mas as exposições e os restauros dependem, em grande parte, de donativos privados.

Neil Armstrong morreu há cerca três anos, no Ohio, a sua terra-natal, aos 82 anos. A cápsula da missão Apollo 11, na qual o astronauta norte-americano e mais dois companheiros viajaram até à Lua, em 1969, é uma peça do Museu Nacional do Ar e do Espaço Smithsonian.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
http://www.noticiasaominuto.com/mundo/424319/museu-angaria-fundos-para-restaurar-fato-de-armstrong

Governo busca parceria para viabilizar Museu de Ciência e Tecnologia, em Jaraguá, Alagoas, Brasil

Instituto dispõe de diversas áreas tombadas pelo patrimônio e tem interesse em ocupar esses locais com projetos que agreguem valor ao bairro histórico

Galpão pode abrigar o Museu de Ciência e Tecnologia



Pablo Viana visitou a exposição denominada A Invenção da Terra, que apresenta uma coleção de arte popular da alagoana Tania de Maya Pedrosa e conta com um diferencial: monitores de vídeo que permitem interagir com o visitante


O Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional (Iphan) pode ceder um galpão em Jaraguá para que o Museu de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alagoas seja instalado. Parceria entre o Governo de Alagoas, por meio da Secretaria da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Secti), e o Governo Federal, através do Iphan, começou a ser delineada nesta quarta-feira (22), durante visita do secretário da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação de Alagoas, Pablo Viana, e equipe de técnicos da Secti, ao instituto.

O secretário Pablo Viana está mapeando os equipamentos públicos e privados na região do Jaraguá para que possam integrar o Museu de Ciência e Tecnologia, que está em fase de concepção do projeto, e integrará o Parque Tecnológico de Alagoas.

Acompanhado do chefe da Divisão Técnica do Iphan Alagoas, Sandro Gama, e da consultora do Iphan para Educação Patrimonial e Patrimônio Imaterial, Greciene Lopes, contratada com a chancela da Unesco - Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura, para mapear o patrimônio imaterial de Alagoas, Pablo Viana visitou a exposição denominada A Invenção da Terra, que apresenta uma coleção de arte popular da alagoana Tania de Maya Pedrosa, composta de peças de diversos artistas populares do Nordeste, com diferentes bases de materiais, a exemplo da cerâmica, madeira, sucata e pedra.

A exposição conta com um diferencial tecnológico por ter monitores de vídeo que permitem interagir com o visitante e toda a descrição das peças expostas só está disponível no equipamento virtual. Esse modelo poderá ser replicado também no projeto do Museu de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alagoas.

O Iphan em Alagoas dispõe de diversas áreas em Jaraguá tombadas pelo patrimônio histórico. Tem interesse em ocupar esses locais com projetos que agreguem valor ao bairro histórico e complementem a região que está se firmando como espaço cultural pela quantidade de equipamentos públicos de interesse social já existentes, a exemplo do Museu da Imagem e do Som (Misa), do Museu Theo Brandão, o da Associação Comercial, Memorial à República, dentre outros, explica a consultora do Iphan, Greciene Lopes.

Um desses espaços pode abrigar o Museu de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alagoas, “pois o projeto é muito bem vindo”, disse Greciene. A consultora ressalta que a região do Jaraguá é muito rica do ponto de vista da história e seus patrimônios e que não há necessidade de se buscar fora do Estado competências para desenvolver projetos culturais sustentáveis. “Alagoas é um estado abundante em história. Seu patrimônio reflete isso. O que precisamos é que os alagoanos enxerguem esse patrimônio e se apropriem dele. O poder público ainda não enxergou o potencial que a cultura, a história e o patrimônio oferecem para o desenvolvimento do turismo, da educação e economia do povo”, avalia.

O secretário Pablo Viana reconhece as possibilidades que a parceria com o Iphan pode oferecer. “O Instituto do Patrimônio tem o conhecimento técnico necessário, por meio de uma equipe de profissionais qualificados, e que pode nos ajudar a caminhar com o projeto do Museu de Ciência e Tecnologia. Além disso, ainda dispõe de áreas em locais estratégicos e tombadas que necessitam de projetos viáveis e sustentáveis. Essa é uma parceria que só traz benefícios para Alagoas”, finalizou.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
http://www.tribunahoje.com/noticia/149109/cidades/2015/07/22/governo-busca-parceria-para-viabilizar-museu-de-ciencia-e-tecnologia.html

Ukraine: un musée "de l'occupation soviétique"

Le conseil municipal de Kiev a approuvé aujoud'hui la création d'un "musée de l'occupation soviétique" en plein air, au risque de provoquer de nouvelles tensions avec Moscou. Une majorité de 78 élus municipaux - sur un total de 120 - ont voté, selon les médias, en faveur de cette décision, qui vient après une série de lois sur la "décommunisation" du pays déjà adoptées par le Parlement ukrainien.



Le "musée de l'occupation" accueillera notamment des monuments et symboles soviétiques qui doivent être supprimés des espaces publics du pays aux termes des lois controversées sur la "désoviétisation" de l'Ukraine adoptées en avril dernier, a indiqué l'élu Oleg Gariaga, cité dans un communiqué du conseil municipal. "Il faut procéder prudemment au démontage des symboles de l'époque soviétique, dont beaucoup (...) ont une valeur architecturale et culturelle", a-t-il souligné.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
http://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-actu/2015/07/23/97001-20150723FILWWW00289-ukraine-un-musee-de-l-occupation-sovietique.php