sábado, 1 de agosto de 2015

Il voulait célébrer les femmes, il crée finalement un musée sur Jack l'Éventreur (de femmes)

Le projet de base : un musée destiné à l'histoire des femmes de l'est londonien. Le résultat final ? Un musée consacré à Jack l'Éventreur. Que s'est-il passé ?

La découverte d'une des victimes des meurtres de Whitechapel, 1888 .



L'essentiel du jour

18h52 – Ce panda malin aurait simulé une grossesse pour être chouchouté

18h38 – Arabie saoudite : les femmes peuvent enfin voyager seules

18h30 – Le tapisserie de cheveux est-elle la nouvelle tresse brésilienne ?

18h08 – 6 astuces pour une épilation sans douleur

17h47 – Ces femmes posent avec des gâteaux pour faire un doigt d'honneur au body shaming

17h20 – Pourquoi les "hommes d'âge mûr" ont-ils des femmes et les "cougars" des toy boys ?

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Lorsque les habitants du quartier de l'East End à Londres ont appris qu'un musée sur le thème des femmes de l'est londonien et des suffragettes allait ouvrir dans Cable Street, ils ont évidemment salué l'initiative. Mais quand la devanture a été révélée, ils ont tous été choqués de constater que le projet avait complètement changé, puisque c'est un musée consacré à Jack L'Éventreur qui a ouvert à la place.

Outre le fait que l'idée du musée consacré à l'histoires des femmes ait été mise de côté, c'est surtout le fait qu'il ait été remplacé par un lieu consacré au plus célèbre tueur de femmes de l'histoire de Londres qui rend les habitants furieux. Si le tueur en série le plus célèbre de l'histoire est devenu un mythe, ses victimes, elles, ne sont vues que comme telles et l'on oublie souvent de prendre leurs histoires en considération, autrement que pour se régaler des photos de leurs cadavres pour s'offrir quelques frissons. Ces femmes étaient toutes des travailleuses du sexe qui ont été sauvagement assassinées par un serial killer qui n'a jamais été appréhendé.

De plus, comme le fait remarquer Jemima Broadbridge, une militante de l'est londonien, Cable Street n'a rien à voir avec Jack L'Éventreur :

"La rue est connue pour Charles Dickens et Oscar Wilde, pas Jack L'Éventreur."

Une affirmation soutenue par Jenni Bowsell-Jones, qui vit dans le quartier depuis plus de trente ans :

"J'ai été très surprise quand j'ai vu de quel musée il s'agissait. Je pense que personne dans le quartier ne s'oppose à l'idée de faire quelque chose de nouveau et excitant, mais Jack L'Éventreur n'a rien à voir avec Cable Street. C'est dans Cable Street que s'est déroulée la marche anti-fasciste de 1936, c'est pour ça que la rue est connue. Les meutres de L'Éventreur ont eu lieu dans Batty Street et le quartier de Spitalfields."

C'est vrai qu'il y a de quoi être perplexe. Mais alors, que s'est-il passé ?

À l'origine, le musée devait donc rendre hommage aux femmes du quartier ayant marqué l'histoire. Il s'agit du projet de Mark Palmer-Edgecumbe, ancien responsable de la diversité chez Google. Dans le document envoyé par ses architectes en juillet, on pouvait voir des photos de suffragettes et de femmes asiatiques des années 1970 protestant contre les crimes raciaux autour de Brick Lane.

Dans ce même document, on pouvait lire une description du musée à venir :

"Le musée reconnaîtra et célèbrera les femmes de l'East End qui ont influencé l'histoire, et détaillera les raisons pour lesquelles elles ont été essentielles aux changements de notre société. Il analysera l'expérience sociale, politique et domestique de l'époque Victorienne à nos jours."

L'un des arguments avancés était la fermeture récente de la Whitechapel Women's Library, en 2013, pour insister sur l'importance d'un tel musée qui deviendrait alors la seule ressource dédiée à l'histoire des femmes dans l'East End.

Que ce projet se soit transformé en une célébration d'un tueur de femmes est donc complètement aberrant.

Mark Palmer-Edgecumbe explique ce changement assez simplement : il avait effectivement prévu d'ouvrir un musée sur l'histoire sociale des femmes mais lorsque le projet s'est développé, il s'est dit qu'il serait plus intéressant d'aborder le sujet via le point de vue des victimes de Jack L'Éventreur. Il défend même son point de vue :

"Il ne s'agit absolument pas de célébrer les crimes de Jack L'Éventreur, mais de tenter de comprendre pourquoi et comment ces femmes se sont retrouvées dans cette situation."

Un discours un peu biaisé qui semble légèrement insultant envers les victimes du tueur en série puisqu'à en croire sa tournure de phrase, elles auraient une part de responsabilité dans tout ça - rappelons qu'elles ont été sauvagement attaquées (parfois chez elles) par un homme qui leur a, entre autres, arraché l'utérus. Difficile de comprendre ce parti pris et d'imaginer une seconde que le projet puisse avoir une représentation un tant soit peu positive des victimes en question, surtout quand la devanture affiche clairement le nom et la silhouette du célèbre éventreur.

Mais à en croire les descriptions présentes sur le site du musée , très peu de considération a été accordée à l'image des victimes.

L'une des salles du musées, située au sous-sol et réservée aux plus de 16 ans, contiendra des photos des autopsies des victimes de Jack L'Éventreur. Si ces femmes n'avaient pas demandé à être massacrées, on se doute qu'elle n'auraient pas non plus apprécié de voir leurs cadavres mutilés s'afficher sur les murs d'un musée... surtout quand son but principal était de célébrer les femmes de ce quartier légendaire.


fonte: @edisdonmariotti #edisonmariotti
http://www.terrafemina.com/article/il-voulait-celebrer-les-femmes-il-cree-finalement-un-musee-sur-jack-l-eventeur-de-femmes_a281377/1

the Museum of Anthropological Archaeology began in 1837 with the relocation of the University to Ann Arbor and the creation of its first University Museum.

The Anthropology Museum was formally established in 1922, and moved to its home in the Ruthven Building in 1928. For nearly a century since then, the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology has been a vital center of archaeological research and teaching.




Jimmy Griffin’s retirement in 1975 marked the end of 31 years of enlightened leadership. It was decided then that the directorship would rotate among the curators so that the burden would be shared. Richard Ford was the first to follow Griffin. In the 1970s, Dean Billy Frye created a curatorship in Latin American Archaeology for Joyce Marcus. A newly created curatorship for North America was filled by John Speth, and John O’Shea succeeded Chris Peebles (Great Lakes). Carla Sinopoli succeeded Karl Hutterer as Asian curator. Most recently, in a move that would undoubtedly please Jimmy Griffin greatly, Robin A. Beck became Curator of North American Archaeology and inherited Griffin’s fabulous ceramic repository.

The Museum has a history of creating new collections and changing or combining others. We refuse to be locked into a static set of categories and curatorships. More changes are anticipated for the future, as we try to stay ahead of new trends in Anthropological Archaeology. 


Graduate student A. Wright in lab

Throughout our history, the Museum has been greatly enhanced by the contributions of numerous research scientists, visiting scholars, staff, and students—too numerous to mention here, but essential to dynamic and innovative research and teaching, and to the development, study, and care of the important research collections that we curate.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
https://www.lsa.umich.edu/ummaa/about/history

O rico legado do Museu de Imagens do Inconsciente

Nise da Silveira (1905-99) nasceu em Maceió e cursou a faculdade de medicina na Bahia, sendo a única mulher em uma turma de 127 homens. Mudou-se para o Rio, onde obteve aprovação no concurso para médico psiquiatra em 1933. No governo Vargas, residindo no hospital da Praia Vermelha, foi presa sob acusação de comunismo e afastada do serviço público de 1936 a 1944. Com a onda de democratização do país no final da Segunda Guerra, foi readmitida.


Mário Pedrosa e Nise da Silveira, no Rio, em 1980


Por não aceitar as formas de tratamento psiquiátrico em uso na época, como o eletrochoque, a lobotomia e o coma insulínico, Silveira criou, em 1946, no Centro Psiquiátrico Nacional (antigo hospital do Engenho de Dentro), no Rio, a Seção de Terapêutica Ocupacional. Entre 17 atividades diferentes, a produção dos setores de pintura e modelagem foi tão abundante e revelou-se de tão grande interesse científico que, em 1952, nasceu o Museu de Imagens do Inconsciente, que se tornou um centro de estudo e pesquisa. As imagens produzidas no ateliê levantavam perguntas que não encontravam respostas na formação psiquiátrica acadêmica.
Arquivo Nise da Silveira 

Ela observou, por exemplo, que formas circulares apareciam em grande quantidade na pintura dos esquizofrênicos. Fotografou dezenas dessas imagens e enviou uma carta a Carl Jung perguntando se eram realmente mandalas. A resposta confirmava suas indagações: as mandalas expressariam o potencial autocurativo da psique. Por meio dessa correspondência, a psicologia junguiana foi introduzida na América Latina.

O Museu de Imagens do Inconsciente possui a maior e mais diversa coleção do gênero no mundo, documentando importante período da história da ciência e da cultura. Seu estágio de organização e pesquisa é uma referência e constitui genuíno patrimônio da humanidade.

O grande interesse despertado por este acervo, aliado ao amplo espectro de pesquisas que ele permite, faz do museu uma instituição com potencial de crescimento inigualável, de proveito em especial para o desenvolvimento de ações ligadas à inclusão e ao desenvolvimento sociais combinadas com os novos conceitos de saúde cultural e sustentabilidade.

Em 1947, o Museu de Imagens do Inconsciente realizou sua primeira exposição na sede do Ministério da Educação, no Rio de Janeiro. Mário Pedrosa, então crítico de arte do jornal "Correio da Manhã", escreveu: "O artista não é aquele que sai diplomado da Escola Nacional de Belas Artes, do contrário não haveria artista entre os povos primitivos, inclusive entre os nossos índios. Uma das funções mais poderosas da arte –descoberta da psicologia moderna– é a revelação do inconsciente, e este é tão misterioso no normal como no chamado anormal. As imagens do inconsciente são apenas uma linguagem simbólica que o psiquiatra tem por dever decifrar. Mas ninguém impede que essas imagens e sinais sejam, além do mais, harmoniosas, sedutoras, dramáticas, vivas ou belas, enfim constituindo em si verdadeiras obras de arte".

Hoje, a Sociedade Amigos do Museu de Imagens do Inconsciente está desenvolvendo um projeto para uma nova sede com o objetivo de ampliar suas múltiplas atividades. O acervo é estimado em 360 mil obras, sendo que as principais coleções (com 127 mil obras) são tombadas pelo Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional. O Arquivo Pessoal de Nise da Silveira foi incluído recentemente no Registro da Memória do Mundo da Unesco. Nosso país tem o dever de manter e dar desenvolvimento a esse trabalho –um dos tesouros mais valiosos da alma brasileira.


fonte: @edisonmarioti #edisonmariotti 
www1. folha. uol. com. br /ilustrissima /2015/07/ 1659929-o-rico-legado-do-museu-de-imagens-do-inconsciente.shtml?cmpid=compfb

The Latvian National Museum of Art is the largest depository of professional art in Latvia.

Museum regularly holds art exhibitions and scientific conferences, diverse art and cultural events, takes part in international projects, as well as compiling and editsing museum publications.


Alongside the permanent and temporary exhibitions, the Latvian National Museum of Art is known for its educational projects. Visitors are offered specialist-guided tours and educational programs.

Today Latvian National Museum of Art contains main building in Krišjāņa Valdemāra Street, Arsenāls Exhibition Hall, the Museum of Romans Suta and Aleksandra Beļcova and since January 1, 2010 also the Museum of Decorative Arts and Design and the Art Museum "Riga Bourse".

Over the course of time the name, ownership, the contents of the collections and operating policy of the Latvian National Museum of Art (LNMA) have undergone many changes and transformations. The origins of several Riga museums are associated with the name of the doctor Nikolai Himsel. An art collection of sorts began to form inthe Himsel Museum (established 1773) and in 1816 it was separated into its own cabinet. Among the artworks donated to the cabinet there are several paintings that are now in the keeping of the Latvian National Museum of Art.

In 1866 the Riga council acquired the paintings of collector Domenico de Robiani and these formed the basis for the Riga City Art Gallery. The gallery was opened to the public in 1869 in the Riga Realschule (now the Riga 1st State Grammar School at 8, Raiņa Boulevard). The Riga Society of Art Promotion or Kunstverein was founded in 1870. Both organizations shared a common aim, to popularise the visual arts, to hold exhibitions and to promote the development of art in the Baltic.

From 1879 until 1905, the City Gallery leased accommodation in a building owned by Ludwig Wilhelm Kerkoviuss (now the science library of the University of Latvia at 4 Kalpaka Boulevard). The question of constructing accommodation for the needs of the museum had been raised several times since the 1870s.

The main LNMA building in Krišjāņa Valdemāra Street was built between 1903 and 1905 for the needs of the Riga City Museum of Art and the Riga Society of Art Promotion. It is the first building in the Baltics specially built for the needs of a museum. The project author and first museum director was the German architect and art historian, Wilhelm Neumann (1849–1919). The collections consisted mainly of works by Western European artists from the City Art Gallery. Alongside the permanent display other exhibitions were organized too.

With Latvia's independence in 1918, the aims and tasks of the museum also changed and attention was turned to the heritage of national art and contemporary developments. The purposeful formation of a collection of Latvian visual art began in the 1920s and 30s when the museum director was the notable Latvian painter, Professor Vilhelms Purvītis (1872–1945).

From 1920 the State Museum of Art also occupied part of the Riga castle where the core consisted of the collection of national art but in parallel, a collection of foreign art was also formed. Both art museums were distinguished by their ownership – the city and the state. The twenty years of the independent first Republic were a very fruitful and important period in the life of the museum, interrupted in 1940 by the Soviet occupation.

In Latvia the Soviet regime's planned reorganization of museums also affected the Riga City Art Museum that went over to state ownership. The decision was made to reorganize the museum system. This envisaged the formation of one museum that would concentrate on the collections of Latvian art and a second museum focusing on foreign art. The reorganization begun in 1940 by the Soviet regime was completed immediately after the war when the collections of both museums were divided and systematized according to new principles. Although this division, whereby professional Latvian art went to the State Museum of Latvian and Russian Art (1989–2005 State Museum of Art, now Latvian National Museum of Art), and the foreign collections went to the State Museum of Western European Art (Museum of Foreign Art, now subsidiary of LNMA – Art Museum "Riga Bourse").

1963 saw the establishment of the Combined Directorate of Latvian SSR Art Museums and Exhibitions and both museums was incorporated as its structural units.

In the mid-1980s former warehouse at Torņa Street was taken over by the Directorate for the use of the Museum of Art. The Arsenāls Museum began functioning on January 1, 1989 with the transfer of the collection from the mid-20th century and onwards from Krišjāņa Valdemāra Street. At the same time on the basis of applied art collections of the Directorate and the State Museum of Art was established the Museum of Decorative Arts and Design which opened its doors to visitors on July 6, 1989. In 1989 also the Combined Directorate of Latvian SSR Art Museums and Exhibitions was renamed the Association of Latvian Art Museums.

In 2000 the Ministry of Culture abolished the Association of Latvian Art Museums and reorganized the structure of the member museums. It was decided to give independent legal status to individual museums – the Museum of Foreign Art and the Museum of Decorative Arts and Design. At the same time the Arsenāls Museum of Art was abolished being united with the State Museum of Art. On the basis of these two museums has been organized one united museum of national importance which since September 2005 has a new name – the Latvian National Museum of Art.

In late 2006 Latvian National Museum of Art received bequest of an art historian Tatjana Suta and on October 14, 2008 on its bases opened the Museum of Romans Suta and Aleksandra Beļcova which is situated in former apartment of both artists on Elizabetes Street.

As of January 1, 2010, the Museum of Decorative Arts and Design and the Museum of Foreign Art (now Art Museum "Riga Bourse") are also subsidiaries of the Latvian National Museum of Art.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
http://www.lnmm.lv/en/lnmm/misc/about/history/