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terça-feira, 25 de agosto de 2015

La mode au musée : les meilleures expositions de l'année

Alors que l'exposition "China: Through the Looking Glass" a établi un record de fréquentation au Costume Institute du Metropolitan Museum of Art, retour sur les plus gros succès de l'année et les expos modes à ne pas manquer.

"China: Through the Looking Glass": robe de soirée, Roberto Cavalli (Italien, né en 1940), automne/hiver 2005–6 RelaxNews / Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Photography © Platon


Inaugurée au mois de mai, l'exposition a été prolongée de trois semaines en raison de son succès. Elle reste donc à découvrir jusqu'au 7 septembre. Le précédent record était détenu par l'exposition "Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty" (2011), qui a dépassé les 670.000 visiteurs.

Dans les sections chinoise et égyptiennes du musée et au Anna Wintour Costume Center, sur 3000m², 16 galeries accueillent la plus grande des expositions jamais organisées par le Costume Institute. On y explore l'esthétique chinoise et son influence millénaire sur la mode occidentale en juxtaposant haute couture et habits traditionnels, mais aussi peintures, porcelaines et arts visuels pour révéler les projections enchanteresses de l'imagerie asiatique. Balenciaga, Alexander McQueen, Chanel et Christian Dior comptent parmi les maisons de couture représentées.

Ce n'est pas la seule exposition à avoir attiré les foules cette année. L'exposition "Savage Beauty" a de nouveau fait les gros titres en voyageant à Londres pour s'installer au musée Victoria and Albert Museum. Le succès était de nouveau au rendez-vous puisque l'exposition est devenue en 21 semaines l'événement payant le plus lucratif du musée en attirant 493.000 visiteurs venus de 87 pays. L'hommage à la carrière du couturier Lee Alexander McQueen a réuni des tenues et des accessoires provenant des premières collections londoniennes, ainsi que des objets rares issus de collections privées.

Les amateurs n'auront pas à patienter longtemps pour obtenir une nouvelle dose de mode au musée : Chanel prendra ses quartiers à Londres le 13 octobre pour l'ouverture de l'exposition "Mademoiselle Privé" dans la prestigieuse Saatchi Gallery. Inspiré par Coco Chanel, ce "voyage enchanté" dans l'histoire de la maison française emmènera le visiteur jusqu'aux succès actuels de l'ère Karl Lagerfeld.

Le Royaume-Uni accueille aussi actuellement "Yves Saint Laurent: Style is Eternal", qui se penche sur l'empreinte laissée par le célèbre couturier à travers 50 créations emblématiques, notamment des pièces rares datant de l'époque Dior. L'exposition est à découvrir au Bowes Museum (Barnard Castle, dans le comté de Durham) jusqu'au 25 octobre.



Arqueólogos descobrem contato de povos do Marajó com as Guianas, explica Helena Lima, coordenadora do projeto , realizado pelo Museu Emílio Goeldi.

Cerâmica de Gurupá apresenta características únicas, diz pesquisadora.

Cerâmica encontrada em Gurupá tem traços do estilo Koriabo, encontrado em povos mais ao norte do Pará (Foto: Acervo projeto OCA/MPEG)
Cerâmica encontrada em Gurupá tem traços do estilo Koriabo,
encontrado em povos mais ao norte do Pará (Foto: Acervo projeto OCA/MPEG)



Um projeto arqueológico em Gurupá, na ilha do Marajó, Pará, Brasil, surpreendeu pesquisadores com evidências de novos contatos entre os povos da Amazônia. Através de escavações e coleta de materiais, os arqueólogos encontraram peças com estilos diferentes das cerâmicas tapajônica e marajoara, indicando que as civilizações que viviam na floresta antes do descobrimento interagiam com mais povos do que se pensava.

"Sabemos que a comunicação do passado pre-colonial seguia o fluxo do rio. O Amazonas era uma grande avenida, mas o que está nos surpreendendo é a ausência de semelhanças estilísticas entre a cerâmica encontrada em Gurupá e as peças do restante do Marajó e de Santarém. A semelhança é com artesanato Koriabo, que aparece nas Guianas e no Amapá, Brasil", explica a arqueóloga Helena Lima, coordenadora do projeto Origens, Cultura e Ambiente (OCA).

De acordo com a pesquisadora, a semelhança entre a cerâmica de Gurupá e de civilizações ao norte do estado do Pará, Brasil, fizeram com que os arqueólogos debatessem a possibilidade da interação entre povos que não são ligados pelos grandes rios. "Percebemos semelhanças muito fortes, então começamos a discutir o baixo Amazonas como área de intenso fluxo estilístico, de idéias e estilos em sentido norte-sul ou sul-norte", disse. "É absolutamente viável pensar em comunicação fora do fluxo dos grandes rios", afirma.

Tesouro oculto
Segundo o Museu Goeldi, desde o século XIX o arquipélago do Marajó serve como referência para pesquisa sobre as culturas da região antes da chegada dos portugueses. Apesar disso, o projeto OCA é a primeira iniciativa a explorar o potencial de Gurupá.

"O município de Gurupá, embora tenha potencial arqueológico muito grande, com mais de 50 sítios, nunca havia sido pesquisado. Houve um inventário do Iphan realizado em parceria com a Ufpa entre os anos de 2008 e 2009 que resultou em uma publicação de um livro que já apontava uma cerâmica diferente das demais culturas amazônicas, não relacionada com conjuntos conhecidos", explica Helena Lima, coordenadora do projeto , realizado pelo Museu Emílio Goeldi.

Riqueza ameaçada
A cidade de Gurupá está localizado entre os Xingu e Amazonas, Brasil, no arquipélago do Marajó. O município possui pouco mais de 31 mil habitantes de acordo com o censo do IBGE, e tem abundância de sítios arqueológicos espalhados pela Reserva Ambiental de Jacupi, um local que desperta interesse de madeireiros e loteadores.

Entre os materiais coletados, os pesquisadores encontraram cerâmicas, carvões e amostras de solo de diversas épocas. Há vestígios de povos desde antes da chegada dos europeus à Amazônia até períodos mais recentes. Os itens foram trazidos para a Reserva Arqueológica do Museu Goeldi onde são analisados.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://g1.globo.com/pa/para/noticia/2015/08/arqueologos-descobrem-contato-de-povos-do-marajo-com-guianas.html

colaboração Karina Kramer

MUSEOS Y LUZ -- · en MUSEO, MUSEOGRAFÍA,MUSEOLOGÍA, OPINIÓN, TECNOLOGÍA. ·

La luz en los museos es una de las mayores preocupaciones de los museógrafos, sobre todo en exposiciones de arte. Por un lado, los conservadores pelean fundamentalmente defendiendo la preservación de las obras y objetos, y los educadores lo hacen en su labor de divulgación de los mismos. Lo que no puede ser es que en demasiadas ocasiones los colores de las obras estén distorsionados por la ausencia o exceso de iluminación, que no seamos capaces de leer un cartelito u observar un objeto mal iluminado. Hay guías de museos que se ven con verdaderas dificultades para explicar al público los colores y matices de los cuadros, cuando la iluminación de la sala no les permite distinguirlos con claridad. Veremos visitantes que van por libre en la sala acercando la nariz a la superficie del lienzo para poder apreciar con claridad los matices de color. El exceso de luz tampoco ayuda y es devastador en materia de conservación.


Hubo un tiempo en el que pensábamos que nos habíamos vuelto un poco obsesivos con este tema de la luz, hasta que un día visitamos una galería de arte de Copenhague. En aquella galería cada cuadro disponía de al menos cinco focos y cada uno era distinto al anterior. Dependiendo de los matices de colores y del criterio del artista – si estaba vivo -, se bañaba el cuadro de luz blanca en una intensidad variable si se encontraban cerca del escaparate o no, es decir, si la obra estaba expuesta a la cambiante luz exterior; no estábamos tan descaminados en nuestro celo por el tema.


Una mala iluminación combinada con una escenografía basada en colores oscuros (paredes) es la receta ideal para que se produzcan “ruidos” en la vista del visitante en relación con las obras expuestas. Es inquietante y frustrante que los brillos que se generan con mala iluminación sobre la superficie del lienzo nos impidan apreciar la obra en su justa medida. Podemos decir también que las sombras no forman parte de las esculturas salvo que el artista las incluya intencionadamente. No hay excusa para hacerlo mal o no hacerlo bien. Los expertos en iluminación y los avances tecnológicos son aliados muy valiosos que nos pueden ayudar.


Pero no solo hay museos de arte en el mundo, hay muchas clases de museos en los que la iluminación es un factor muy a tener en cuenta. En los museos debemos pensar en las personas discapacitadas, en los niños, en nuestro mayores. Si veis a alguien en un museo que esté de rodillas, es muy posible que se trate de un museógrafo sacando conclusiones al mirar el mundo desde la altura de un niño. Hay museos demasiado oscuros que se vuelven incluso peligrosos para determinado grupo de personas con dificultades. La oscuridad tampoco ayuda a que los niños se encuentren a gusto en el museo, al margen de que se trate de una oscuridad preventiva, para preservar los objetos expuestos. Habrá que buscar otra solución con la luz encendida.


Kevan Shau, diseñador experto en iluminación museográfica, nos cuenta: “el burdo sistema de encendido cuando el visitante se acerca no es la única forma de solucionar el problema. Dejar que el visitante decida el encendido de las luces de una vitrina es una buena posibilidad, la secuencia de luces en un expositor o en una vitrina, también puede ser utilizada no solo para ahorrar energía, sino que puede llegar a formar parte de la interpretación de lo expuesto”.


fonte: @edisonmarioti #edisonmariotti Espacio Visual Europa (EVE)

Myanmar Gems Museum - MYANMAR has long been known as the best source for lustrous rubies in the world, gemstones whose beauty is rivaled only by the emeralds produced by the mines of Colombia.

Myanmar Gems Museum, located at in Yangon, Myanmar, is a museum dedicated to precious Burmese gem stones. The museum is located on the third floor of a four-story building, located near Kaba Aye Pagoda.

Burma-Ruby


The Gems Mart at the Gems Museum consists of 82 stores on three floors, and sells high-quality raw and finished gem products, offering rubies, sapphires, pearls, jade and more. The mart is open from 9 am to 5 pm Tuesday through Sunday. The museum building is the site of semi-annual Myanmar Gems Emporium, attended by gems and jewellery merchants from around the world.


GLEAM OF GEMS DOTS MYANMAR'S HISTORY

The 51st Myanma Gems Emporium


MYANMAR has long been known as the best source for lustrous rubies in the world, gemstones whose beauty is rivaled only by the emeralds produced by the mines of Colombia.

During the Bagan (Pagan) Dynasty (1044 to 1287 CE) rubies were worn by Myanmar royalty. Some of the royal rubies were so valuable that a Chinese emperor is said to have offered a city in his own country in exchange for one of the prized gemstones.

Rubies were used in ceremonies and to adorn royal regalia, and the choicest items mined were reserved for the court. Some were sold to India and the Middle East, but many of the finest rubies and other gemstones were dedicated to the Buddhist religion.

Myanmar people follow Theravada Buddhism, which preaches the virtues of humility and living a simple life without ostentation. The gems were therefore not used for personal adornment but were encased in the htarpanar-taik, or relic chambers of pagodas and stupas. The search for these riches was one reason why more than 1000 pagodas were desecrated and destroyed by British troops at the end of the Third Anglo- Burmese War.

European traders first visited Myanmar around 1400 CE with the pr4nary aim of engaging in the spice trade. But some early travelers -such as Nicola di Conti, Ludovico di Varthema, Hieronimo de Santo Stephano and Caesar Fredericke -re- ported on the profusion and quality of rubies and other gemstones worn by Myanmar royalty, and this aroused the interest of the West.

By the 17th century Jean-Bapiste Tavernier, a trader inl precious stones, had sold Myanmar rubies to King Louis XIV and Cardinal Mazarin. Napoleon Bonaparte himself is said to have possessed a Mogok ruby.

During the reign of King Pindale (1648-1661) a ruby of surpassing quality was discovered by a villager named Nga Mauk. This was presented to the king and became the finest gem in his possession. The stone weighed 80 carats when cut and became known as the Nga Mauk Ruby.

At the end of the Third Anglo-Burmese War, the recently deposed King Thibaw was persuaded to entrust the crown jewels and the Nga Mauk ruby to a Colonel Sladen for safekeeping.

Later, when Thibaw asked for the return of the ruby, he was told that Sladen had returned to England. The British authorities finally told Thibaw that Sladen had died in 1910 and that there was no record of his handing over any ruby of quality to the government.

Many Myanmar believe to this day that Thibaw was given the runaround and was the victim of deceit in high places. No trace of the Nga Mauk ruby has surfaced since.

After the British annexed Myanmar, international interest grew in the ruby mines at Mogok, known to be the richest in the world. There was fierce competition to acquire mining concessions. In 1889 a company called Burma Ruby Mines Ltd won a lease to work the mines. However, due to their reliance on heavy equipment and machinery the venture failed and the company went into voluntary liquidation in 1934.

Another company, Ruby Mines Ltd, took over. When the Japanese invaded Myanmar the managing director and staff fled to India. 

Myanmar regained independence after World War II. Not much was accomplished in gem mining and the gem industry was nationalised in 1962.

When the State Law and Order Restoration Council took over the reins of government in 1988 it repealed the old laws, adopted a free market policy and threw open the doors to private enterprise and direct foreign investment.

The Ministry of Mines set up a new agency called the Myanma Gems Enterprise to oversee the changeover. Under the enterprise the gemstone industry was liberalised, joint venture agreements were signed between the government and ethnic groups inhabiting the gem-bearing areas, and private companies were allowed to import machinery and equipment without paying customs duty.

These measures led to an increase in the number of local gem companies. In 1995224 new licenses were issued, boosting the exploration and production of gemstones and heavily fractured Mong Hsu rough rubies.

Mong Hsu located in Shan State, about 150 miles east and slightly to the south of Mogok. The mine there was worked in the 19th century, but since the rubies obtained were usually opaque and could not be easily faceted, work in the area was largely abandoned.

The discovery by the Thais that Mong Hsu rough rubies, when subjected to intense heat, take on the colour of Mogok rubies changed all that. Soon monstrous quantities of rough rubies from the region were being sold at gem auctions. In March 2002, more than five million carats of Mong Hsu rough rubies were purchased, while sales of genuine Mogok rubies languished. 

Tai gemstone "cook ers" are constantly experimenting with heat treatments to enhance the quality of rough stones. They have already achieved considerable success and flooded the market with all kinds of heat-treated stones.

The Myanmar government has taken pains to assure potential buyers that all the rubies and sapphires sold at the Myanma Gems Enterprise auctions and Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings Ltd auctions are natural and untreated, and that the Mong Hsu rough rubies offered for sale are untreated unless otherwise stated.

The question of provenance or place of origin has lately come to the fore with regard to rubies. Myanmar rubies are the finest in the world, against which all others are measured, and to be able to say that a particular stone comes from Myanmar enhances its value by 10 to 20 per cent over those of similar quality from other sources.

Formerly there was no surefire method of proving provenance, the method being chancy and based on anecdotal evidence. However, a new technique using D N A fingerprinting has been developed.

The water in which emeralds, rubies, sapphires and other precious gems were crystallised millions of years ago varied widely from area to area in the presence and quantity of certain minerals. The DNA process takes a small sample of the surface of the stone, vaporizes it and measures the oxygen isotope ratio, which can be used determine with certainly from which mine a given gemstone came.

Another heartening development is that many geologists now believe that the Mogok Stone Tract may be larger than formerly believed, being 10 to 25 miles wide and extending from Putao in Kachin State in the far north to Moattama in Mon State nearly 1200 kilometres of the south.


fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti
http://www.myanmargems.com/perfectgem.htm

The Museum is located in one of the oldest wooden houses built for the employees of the City of Helsinki.

Worker Housing Museum and Shop

Alppila, near Linnanmäki Amusement Park, houses the Worker Housing Museum providing a glimpse into the history of everyday life in the one-room apartments, so called stove rooms, of Helsinki. Stove ovens, wash tables and pull-out beds illustrate the life of working families during different phases of the 1900s.



Nine stove rooms have been decorated as homes from different periods. Gramophones, steel spring beds and light bulbs slowly appearing in the apartments describe the changes in the lives of inhabitants across the decades.

The museum shop sells nostalgic products that not only make great gifts, but are also attractive additions to your own home. The selection includes old-fashioned but functional kitchen utensils, home-made mustard, tea cloths decorated with pictures of plants that grow in the yards of traditional workers’ homes, and many other exciting finds. Traditional decorative plants from the yards of Helsinki’s wooden houses blossom in the yard in the summer.

The Couven Museum offers its visitors an insight into the syle of living of the 18th and 19th century.

A fascinating variety of high-quality furniture is on display as well as fine chimney pieces and Italian stucco work. Rococo and Aachen-Liège baroque create a harmonious ensemble. The Couven Museum also houses the Adler-Apotheke (pharmacy) where chocolate has been produced in in 1857 for the first time.
couven-museum

The apothecary Adam Coebergh started building the house at the Hühnermarkt in 1662 and established the Adler Pharmacy there. Three years after Andreas Monheim acquired the building in 1783, he commissioned the architect Jakob Couven with its renovation. After the Second World War, in 1951, the City of Aachen bought the building from the Quadflieg family. And in 1958 the Couven Museum was opened here.


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The Couven Museum restoration project










 


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In 1999, more than forty years after the establishment of the Couven Museum at the Hühnermarkt, major renovation and restoration works commenced. With the support of the City of Aachen and the State of North-Rhine Westphalia, the first phase was completed: renovation of the roof and the facade of “Haus Monheim” at the Hühnermarkt.

The second phase of works was the renovation of the “Haus zum Lindenbaum” on the Hof corner of Rommelgasse‚ and finally the rear house bordering the Hof. In 2000/2001 the electrical system in the house was renewed, the interior painted and decorated, and the wooden floors renovated. In the final phase of renovation, in 2003, the small interior courtyard that connects the three buildings of the Couven Museum was given a new glass roof.

Restoration of the canvas paintings in the Couven Museum began with the removal of the large paintings in the Banqueting Hall and in the “Glass Corridor”. With the support of the Regional Association of the Rhineland, the 18th-century paintings were treated by the art restoration experts at Gruppe Köln. After cleansing and fixation of the extremely worn surfaces, an innovative mounting system was developed to allow back-ventilation of the paintings when they were reinstalled on the walls.

The reopening of the Couven Museum in summer 2001 offered visitors not just an “old house with a new look” but also the possibility of following the restoration measures as “work in progress”. In winter, the “Glass Corridor” was still an “empty shell” with the plaster stripped from its walls, but by the following summer visitors could marvel at the freshly restored and reinstalled landscape paintings.

The last phase of restoration work for the time began in spring 2005 with the removal of the panorama paintings from the walls of the so-called Landscape Room on the second floor for shipping to the workshop in Cologne.

The return of the landscape paintings

After extensive restoration and conservation work, the large-scale canvas paintings have now returned to the Landscape Room on the museum’s second floor. The restoration experts of the Gruppe Köln took down the landscape panorama in spring for treatment in their workshop in Cologne. For months, the conservators Carmen Seuffert and Susanne Erhards and their team cleansed and retouched the 25 running meters of canvas painting that covers all the walls of the room.

Now the views of a Dutch coastal landscape can be enjoyed in unprecedented quality. The unknown 18th-century artists offer us detailed portrayals of life and work in a river landscape. Here a coach is ferried across the river; there two wanderers inspect a signpost. Here a dog picks up a scent at the wayside; there a high society party enjoys a picnic on the hillside.
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The Couven Museum is located in an old town house. This means that, unfortunately, barrier-free access is limited to a few rooms on the ground floor. There is no barrier-free access to the exhibition rooms on the first and second floors.
blindenhund700-1

We offer regular guided tours for blind and partially-sighted people. Trained members of staff lead the visitors on a lively tour through the museum that provides them with a range of sensory impressions to take home with them. For information and booking please call +49 (0)241/47980-20 or mail torenate.szatkowski@mail.aachen.de



fonte: @edisonmariotti $edisonmariotti http://couven-museum.de/