domingo, 30 de agosto de 2015

MUSEOS: HABLEMOS DE ACCESIBILIDAD -- en DISEÑO, Diseño de Museos,GESTIÓN, INSTITUCIONES, MUSEO, MUSEOGRAFÍA, MUSEOLOGÍA, OPINIÓN,PATRIMONIO. ·

Actualmente visitamos museos que se encuentran en edificios que nunca fueran pensados para ser museos, fueron construidos para albergar otra cosa muy diferente. Estos edificios que visitamos son museos que han sido reciclados, transformándose de palacios, conventos, castillos, fortalezas, etcétera, a ser museos en la actualidad. Existen muchos ejemplos, como ya habréis visto y visitado, uno de ellos es el Museo Nacional de Arte de Cataluña (España), edificio emblemático de la Exposición Internacional de Barcelona 1929, o el caso delCentro Andaluz de Arte Contemporáneo ubicado en el antiguo convento de laCartuja de Sevilla (España). Pero hay centenares de ejemplos más en todo el mundo. En todos estos equipamientos antiguos, que ahora son modernos museos, se obliga a invertir mucho dinero en mantenimiento y acondicionamiento de los mismos, tanto en lo relacionado a la adaptación de las colecciones al continente, como a las necesidades de accesibilidad de sus visitantes, hecho que condiciona de manera permanente los presupuestos de estas instituciones. Y con la que está cayendo…


Allá por el año 1929, el arquitecto Auguste Perret, divulgador en Europa de nuevas técnicas constructivas y uso de materiales hasta entonces desconocidos para la construcción, cuestionaba el tipo de museos en edificios “antiguos”, ya que “la iluminación suele ser defectuosa y la decoración se peleaba con las colecciones expuestas, cuestionándose si era posible encontrar, “en el mundo moderno, la atmósfera, el encanto y el prestigio de los viejos palacios, para concebir un edificio que además pudiera ser un verdadero lugar de esparcimiento, de fiesta y de estudio”. Podemos considerar que este ejercicio de “esparcimiento y fiesta” debe ser también para todo tipo de público. El museo se debe construir no solo bajo criterios de funcionalidad, sino de adaptación a las personas que tiene dificultades de movilidad por la razón que sea, ya sea física o psico-somática, o ambas.


Hemos usado ya en varios artículos de este blog, la palabra “accesibilidad” la asociamos siempre con los visitantes de los museos que tienen alguna discapacidad física o psíquica, o ambas, y que necesiten de especial atención para que su estancia en el museo no les genere el más mínimo de los problemas. En este sentido, deberíamos ampliar el término cuando hablamos de visitantes con dificultades de movilidad pero por que son pequeños, niños y niñas, o por ser mayores o por ser mujeres en periodo de gestación, etcétera.

Campaña “No te duermas al volante”, Gobierno de Thailandia

No solo estamos hablando de barreras arquitectónicas sino de barreras que muchas veces – y sin ser conscientes de ello – están dentro del conjunto de elementos de preservación preventiva de los objetos expuestos. Los museos deberían promover diversos niveles de difusión de sus contenidos (colecciones) para que todos los visitantes, sean quienes sean, se encuentren físicamente de una manera u otra, tengan un índice de percepción u otro, puedan acceder a ese patrimonio de una manera fluida y sencilla.


En el conocido como “Decálogo de León” (2008), que surgió a partir de la Convención Europea sobre “Formación y diseño para todos: experiencias innovadoras”, se dice que “el diseño para todos debe ser entendido de una forma amplia y completa. Los productos, los entornos, las tecnologías, los servicios y, en general, cualquier ámbito de sociedad, deben ser concebidos de forma que puedan ser utilizados por todas las personas, independientemente de sus capacidades, circunstancias y diversidades. La participación de los visitantes es un aspecto esencial en todas las fases que intervienen en el proceso de diseño. La formación es crucial para promover el cambio de actitud necesario que la sociedad necesita en la búsqueda de un diseño para todos. Las bases de ese cambio se deben establecer en las escuelas, en las universidades, en los centros educativos y en el entorno familiar”. Nosotros añadimos, por supuesto, “y en los museos”.


No queremos sentar cátedra sobre este concepto de accesibilidad, tampoco queremos decir que “todo” deba ser orientado a esta función en el edificio, pero sí debe existir al menos un recorrido accesible en todo museo. Debemos crear y pensar en itinerarios con una selección de piezas que permitan interactuar de maneras distintas ante estas colecciones. Seamos capaces de generar experiencias sensoriales para todos, con réplicas que se pueda tocar – incluso de cuadros, como ya se esta haciendo en algún museo de arte -. Las vitrinas y maquetas deben estar colocadas a una altura que permita que sean observadas por niños y personas de estatura pequeña y por personas que se desplazan en sillas de ruedas. Existen casos en los que adultos de estatura media no alcanzan a ver objetos expuestos – recordamos también la existencia de espejos que ayudan a observar y nos son caros -. Es muy importante que aquellos que tenemos responsabilidades en el diseño de museos y exposiciones seamos capaces de “vestir los pantalones de otros”, ponernos en el lugar de los demás para reflexionar sobre el cómo. Nosotros seguiremos poniéndonos de rodillas en los museos para vagar por sus salas, se sacan muchísimas conclusiones – recomendable el uso de rodilleras -; también hemos usado muletas, es agotador.




fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti Espacio Visual Europa (EVE)

Museu Geológico da Bahia, Brasil -- Geological Museum of Bahia (MGB) is a center of research

Uma visita ao Museu Geológico da Bahia é um convite a conhecer o solo e as rochas onde pisamos, as riquezas do subsolo, bem como os fósseis dos seres que habitaram a nossa Terra. Permite ao público conhecer a história geológica e o patrimônio mineral desse Estado.


Possui um dos maiores acervos de rochas, de minerais, de pedras preciosas e de fósseis da Bahia, com mais de 20 mil peças, proporcionando aos seus visitantes uma viagem no tempo geológico através das suas exposições temáticas: Meteoritos, Universo/Sistema Solar, Minerais, Rochas, Recursos Minerais, Minerais e Rochas Industriais, Artesanato Mineral, Garimpo, Minerais Radioativos, Energia dos Cristais, Gemas, Petróleo, Otto Billian, Rochas Ornamentais e Fósseis.

Conta ainda, com um auditório/cinema de 125 lugares e de um aconchegante café à sombra de centenária mangueira, de onde se pode apreciar um belíssimo mural do artista plástico Juarez Paraíso.

Inaugurado em 4 de março de 1975, atualmente vinculado à Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Econômico – SDE do Estado da Bahia, o Museu é um centro de pesquisa, divulgação e preservação do patrimônio geológico da Bahia, que desenvolve projetos de cunho científico, educativo e cultural.

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Laboratório de Rochas e Minerais
Utilizado principalmente para pesquisa do acervo do Museu. Está equipado com um Microscópio Petrográfico Nikon HFX – II A e uma Lupa Binocular Tokyo.

Laboratório de Paleontologia
Anexo ao Salão de Fósseis proporciona ao visitante a oportunidade de conhecer a rotina de um paleontólogo, as atividades de curadoria e pesquisa, como as técnicas de preparação, limpeza e conservação de amostras e o tombamento dos fósseis.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.mgb.ba.gov.br/


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Founded on March 4, 1975, the Geological Museum of Bahia (MGB) is a center of research, dissemination and preservation of geological heritage of Bahia and develops projects of a scientific, educational and cultural.

Knowing the soil and rocks beneath our feet where the subsoil, as well as fossils of creatures that inhabited our Earth is to know our history and also our Geological Heritage.

With more than 10,000 samples of rocks, minerals and fossils, the MGB provides visitors a journey through geological time through its thematic exhibitions: Solar System Meteorites, Minerals, Rocks, Mineral Resources Prospecting, Radioactive Minerals, Mineral Craft, Crystals of energy, Petroleum, Gems, Collection Otto Billian, Paleontology and Ornamental Stones.
Linked to the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Mining (SICM) of the State of Bahia, the MGB has realized projects with the Company Bahia Mineral Research (CBPM), Nuclear Industries of Brazil (INB), Petrobras, Living Art Museum of Cinema and the municipalities of the state of Bahia.

The MGB is registered in the National Register of Museums, Ministry of Culture and participates in events promoted by the Brazilian Institute of Museums (IBRAM).


Laboratory of Rocks and Minerals
It is primarily used for petrographic description and features a significant collection of thin sections of rocks from Bahia, largely. It is equipped with a petrographic microscope Nikon HFX – II A and a Magnifier Binocular Tokyo.

Laboratory of Paleontology
Is attached to the Hall of Fossils and offers visitors the opportunity to learn the routine of a paleontologist, the curatorial and research activities, such as preparation techniques, cleaning and conservation of samples of fossils and tipping.

In 2012, the RokiškisRegionalMuseum was chosen as the Museum of the Year.

The beginnings of Rokiškis Regional Museum date back to 1933, when school inspector Juozas Ruseckas, schoolteacher Petras Bliūdžius, the town's burgomaster Julijonas Malevičius and other enthusiasts assembled at the Society for Regional Studies and established the Museum of Regional Studies. The RokiškisRegionalMuseum has an interesting museological history as for nearly half a century it has been settled in Rokiškis Manor House that had belonged to several generations of Tyzenhauz Counts and the Psezdziecky family, known for cultural and scientific activity, collections and patronage. 



The first museum spaces were two rooms in the county library. From 1935, the museum established itself in the town centre, in the present-day Rokiškis District Municipality Juozas Keliuotis Public Library. The first collections were composed of objects of museological value that were accumulated by the county's teachers and students, as well as artefacts brought over from the Rokiškis Secondary School museum. In 1938, when the museum started to receive financial support from the Ministry of Education, more sizeable ethnographic objects were added to the collection, the opportunity arose to acquire a few artefacts of greater value. In 1939 the museum's collection consisted of 1046 objects of museological value. 

With the arrival of Soviet rule, the owners of Rokiškis Manor House fled Lithuania, and the remaining artistic valuables came under threat. It was then that P. Bliūdžius and the town's burgomaster Vladas Paukšta began to see to it that they would not perish. In 1940, the museum was relocated into the manor house and declared a state institution. However, this joy was short-lived because in December of 1940 a regiment of the Red Army settled into the manor, the commanders of which refused to cooperate with P. Bliūdžius in order to preserve the collections of artefacts. 

The war began. The Nazi administration completely restricted the activity of the museum. Artefact collecting work grinded to a halt. Many nationalised art objects were never brought back. Many artefacts, especially those that had practical functions, were looted by private individuals. Due to the uncertain safety of the works of art, many of the museum's most valuable paintings and prints were transferred to the Kaunas Museum of Culture in 1941. The Rokiškis museum was once more renamed as the Rokiškis Museum of Regional Studies. Juozas Simanavičius, the secondary school drawing teacher, became the director of the museum. In 1942, at the demand of Hitler's government, the museum was forced to move out of the manor house. Artefacts were stored in the secondary spaces of the manor house. After the war, museum activity commenced once more, the use of the principal rooms of Rokiškis Manor House was returned. In 1947, under the leadership of director Alfonsas Krasauskas, expositions were installed and opened to the public, an extensive collection of prints amassed by collector Povilas Gasiūnas was brought to the museum. In 1948, use of the manor house was awarded to Rokiškis Collective Farm and the museum was once again relocated. This time it was moved to a small unheated wooden church in Vytautas street.

In 1952, the museum, along with other cultural institutions, was returned the use of the manor house. Expositions of archaeology, folk art, natural science and ethnography were opened, and a few years later the first exposition of the Soviet period was set up.

A new organisational and creative chapter (1957-1966) in the history of the museum is associated with museum director Stasys Daunys. Under his leadership, the institution's activity became much more intense. In the 1958-1959 period, archaeological excavations were conducted at Juodonys castle mound, a peasant's homestead was transferred to the territory of the museum and a section dedicated to folk domestic life was set up in the manor park. The Zarasai Museum became a branch of the Rokiškis museum, and a folk art exposition was set up in Stelmužė Church. S. Daunys discovered Lionginas Šepka, an incredible wood carver, whose work was brought to the museum. 

In 1966, S. Daunys left the museum to work in Rumšiškės, and Algimantas Kvartūnas was appointed as director by the Ministry of Culture. The museum expanded, as did its collections and expositions. In 1970, a folk art exposition was opened, the following year − an exposition of Lionginas Šepkus’ wood carvings, in the period of 1975-1980 − a historical exposition. In 1979, the museum was granted ownership of two outbuildings, formerly the quarters of employees hired to work at the manor house (kumetynai). The other cultural institutions that had been established in the manor house were accommodated in the new buildings, leaving the museum as the sole proprietor of the manor house ensemble. Besides managing museum activity, the director had to take care of the repair and restoration of the manor buildings, as well as the maintenance of the manor park. The director left in 1980.

In the last few decades, the long line of male museum directors was replaced by female leadership: Ona Mackevičienė (1980-1985), Marijona Mieliauskienė (1985-1987), Olga Grumbinienė (1987-1989), and Nijolė Šniokienė from 1989.

The manor ensemble buildings, walls and park underwent many years of restoration. In 1987, with the transformation of the heating system, all expositions were dismantled. Because the restoration of the museum was funded solely by the district municipality, work was long-drawn-out. The situation changed when in 1996 museum restoration started to receive additional funding from the Cultural Heritage Department of Lithuania. The ensemble changed rapidly: the central manor house and the north facades of the servants' quarters were restored, roofs were laid anew, the facade square of the park was cleared up, pathways were built, the great hall of the manor house restored, and new plumbing installed.

The opening of the great hall in April of 1997 was a long-awaited celebration not only for museum workers, but for all Rokiškis residents. More than four decades later (since it was adapted as a district cultural centre in 1954), the manor house was allowed to exude its former glory once again, becoming the representative location of the town. This was a great opportunity for museum workers to organise various events, invite visitors to concerts of chamber music, literary evenings and other gatherings. The restoration of the hall was the second stage of the manor house interior reconstruction as, in 1984, the Count's dining room was opened after restoration, receiving a lot of public interest and encouraging museum workers to create further plans for a more extensive exposition dedicated to manor house culture and history.

Currently, the museum houses over 90 thousand exhibits. The unique history and culture of the Rokiškis Region is preserved here: countless archaeological finds, old books, documents and prints, coins and banknotes from various ages, visual and applied art pieces representing manor house culture, a valuable collection of the Counts' clothing, manor house archival material, photographs, old and new folk art collections with the exceptional works of the 20th century's most famous Lithuanian wood carver, Lionginas Šepka, and the only collection of nativity sculptures in the country. The museum conducts research, publishing, educational and expositional activity, as well as organising events and festivities.

It was selected by experts as one of Lithuania's 20 best museums, receiving the most votes by online news site delfi.lt readers.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.muziejusrokiskyje.lt/en/history

Romains, Germains, Francs, Alamans, Lombards, Burgondes, Wisigoths, Saxons… se sont affrontés dans le fracas des armes, des clameurs guerrières et des râles des mourants, ce week-end.

Tout au long du week-end ont eu lieu des reconstitutions de batailles entre légions romaines et Barbares, qui ont intéressé un nombreux public.

Les Barbares arrivent sur le champ de bataille.

Cet événement organisé par le musée des Temps barbares a réuni environ 400 participants venus de toute l’Europe (Belgique, Suisse, Italie, Allemagne, Pologne, Hongrie, Angleterre…) pour un spectacle dont les très nombreux visiteurs se souviendront.

Entre chaque bataille, les badauds pouvaient aussi découvrir, le travail des artisans, la vie de camp des soldats et se restaurer sous une tente, ou encore acheter, bijoux, armes, poteries et vaisselles mérovingiennes, vikings et romaines.

Le grand moment attendu par l’ensemble des spectateurs est sans conteste la bataille finale, commentée au micro par le directeur Alain Nice, qui voyait s’affronter les Barbares contre la légion romaine. Un moment épique, rythmé par les charges de chevaux et les corps-à-corps des guerriers dans une mise en scène flamboyante.

Rien n’a été laissé au hasard, chaque costume, ornement, stratégie guerrière, ou détail de la vie, sont au plus près de ce qui se faisait à l’époque mérovingienne, grâce aux recherches menées par les historiens.

Un week-end historique qui a su plaire aux plus petits comme aux plus grands.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.aisnenouvelle.fr/

The Archaeological Museum of Delphi, one of the most important in Greece, exhibits the history of the Delphic sanctuary, site of the most famous ancient Greek oracle.

Its rich collections are comprised primarily of architectural sculpture, statues and minor objects donated to the sanctuary. These reflect its religious, political and artistic activities from its early years in the eight century BC to its decline in Late Antiquity. 


The museum is housed in a two-storey building with a total surface area of 2270 square metres, with fourteen exhibition rooms, 558 square metres of storerooms and conservation laboratories for pottery, metal objects and mosaics. A new lobby, cafeteria and gift shop were created during the museum's latest refurbishment. 

The museum is overseen by the Tenth Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities.

The first Delphi Museum was built in 1903 on plans by the French architect Tournaire and funded by A. Syngros in order to house the finds of the great French excavations begun in 1892. The original building, which consisted of two wings, was enlarged and renovated in 1935-6. The new exhibition opened two years later and was organized like the first one by Greek and French archaeologists. A storeroom for inscriptions was constructed in 1956. The complete refurbishment of the museum in accordance with recent museological thinking, especially since many of the antiquities had been stored away during the Nazi occupation, was deemed necessary in 1958 and was carried out by the architect Patroklos Karantinos. Two new rooms, one for the Charioteer and the other for the bronze objects, were created, while the existing three were refurbished. Old storerooms were converted into offices and a guesthouse. A portico was built in front of the offices for the exhibition of Hellenistic statues, but was blocked in 1980 by new offices, while a new adjacent building containing more storerooms (for statues, vases and architectural elements) and laboratories, was added. The new exhibition was established between 1960 and 1963. 

In 1975, part of the sculpture laboratory and storeroom was used for the exhibition of the bull and chryselephantine objects from the recently excavated votive deposit of the Sacred Way. The conversion was completed and the exhibition inaugurated in 1978. In 1979, a second staircase leading to the museum's entrance was created. The latest enlargement and renovation was completed in 1999. It included the refurbishment of the existing exhibition rooms, the modernization and creation of new laboratories, the construction of new storerooms and offices, and of a lobby, cafeteria and gift shop, the landscaping of the area surrounding the museum and the repair of the museum's architectural shell, roof and floor. All of the museum's collections were redisplayed to meet modern museological standards, new exhibits and contemporary information technology were added for visitors.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti 
http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/1/eh151.jsp?obj_id=3404