sexta-feira, 12 de fevereiro de 2016

XYLOGRAPHY MUSEUM, na cidade de Campos do Jordão, São Paulo, Brasil.

Woodcut printing and wood engraving printing


About wood block printmaking, also called xylography.
Etymologically, the word xylograph is composed by "xilorf, from the Greek: and by "grafo", also from the Greek. "Xilon" means wood and "grafo" means to engrave or to write. Therefore, a xylograph is a print made from a wood engraved block. In a simpler manner, one can say that it is a printing process which uses a wooden stamp.










How they are done
Preparing a stamp requires the engraving of a wood block: leaving in high relief the image intended to be reproduced. The high parts (in relief) will receive ink and transfer the image to the support. Usually, woodcuts prints are printed on paper but they can also be printed on other types of supports. Mostly, the printing is made by employing ink, which is previously applied on the block. There are, however, woodcut prints printed without ink: in which the relief caused by pressing the block on the paper is enough for the observer to discern an image.

Printing can be produced by a screw press (vertical screw), by a cylinder press or even with no press at all. Using the pressure of a wooden spoon (or another rounded: smooth and no-edge instrument) on the back of a sheet of paper, it is possible to press it inch by inch against the block, causing the ink to be transferred to the paper. In Japan, instead of a wooden spoon, woodcut manual printing uses an instrument known as "baren11, a kind of tablet made of bamboo leaves stuffed with something firm and flexible (rolled string, pasteboard), with a bamboo handler. The technique is subdivided in two types: woodcut printmaking and wood engraving printmaking. In the woodcut printmaking, also called grain or laying wood, to make the block the artist uses a wood board, that is, a wooden piece which was cut along the grain, from the crown to the roots, longitudinally to the tree's trunk. Diversely, in the wood engraving printmaking, also called standing wood engraving printmaking, wood boards are not used. The engraver makes the stamp by engraving the surface of a wood disc obtained by transversally cutting the tree trunk at the end-grain. That is, when cutting the trunk, the saw blade operates in a plan perpendicular to the grain direction.


History

It is not known exactly when woodcut printing began to be used or who invented it. Among the knowns, the oldest paper woodcut print illustrates an issue of the Buddhist prayer Diamond Sutra, published by Wang Chieh, in China, in 868. It is, however, believed that centuries before, the Far East woodcut printing artists were already stamping fabrics, perhaps initially in India.


In Europe, the most remote testimony is a piece of fabric stamped in the twelfth century. There are, however, some people who claim that European fabric stamping exists since the sixth century. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Europeans widely used woodcut printing to produce sacred images (saint images) and decks of cards.


Afterwards, some artists raised woodcut printing to higher levels, especially Albrecht Durer (1471-1528), from Germany, who inaugurated a new chapter in this form of art: with the Apocalypse series (1499), in which he developed tracings in search of the potentialities of wood, attaining a peculiar and remarkable plastic language. Durer's print's greatly influenced illustration in Germany. Italy was another woodcut printing excellence center in the Renaissance period, especially the cities of Venice and Florence. Although subordinated to book illustration, woodcut in Italy developed its creativity, thanks to the miniaturist tradition in which Italians exercised a certain ornamental freedom. However, when it was already spread throughout Europe, woodcut printing happened to lose space. From the sixteenth century on, etching and metal engraving appeared as a very strong competitor. At that time, wood engraving printmaking was not yet used, and etching and metal engraving would allow attaining images richer in delicate traces and in fine minutia, impossible to be made in woodcut printmaking. This proved to be an advantage that overcame its disadvantage of needing a second printing due to the fact that the metal is inked in a manner different than that employed in typography, which is a relief block technique. Meantime, on the other side of the world, in Japan, wood engraved printings experienced a magnificent splendor moment with the Ukyio-e School. Produced mainly in Edo, currently Tokio, from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth century, Ukyio-e printings represent woodcut's first liberty movement from books. Printed in detached paper sheets, in huge numbers, countenanced by the work of teams of engravers and printers gathered in collective workshops, it met, with its abundant colors as well as landscape and daily life descriptions, the taste of salesmen. The highest exponents of the Ukyio-e wood printing were Utamaro Kitagawa (1753-1806), Hokusai Katsushira (1760-1849) and Hiroshige Ando (1797-1858).

At that time in Europe, wood printing was once again being widely used to illustrate books, newspapers and magazines, thanks to the new techniques of wood engraving, which, during the nineteenth century were diffused by the hands of the English engraver Thomas Bewick (1753-1828). In 1775, Bewick won the engraving prize of the London Art Society and initiated the ruling of the wood engraving printmaking, which lasted for one century with no rivals and sustained many collective workshops to meet the large demand from publishers. However, such illustrative wood engraving printmaking - usually called reproduction prints or interpretation prints - collapsed in the twentieth century, because of the advantages of the innovative metallic cliché, then widely spread, which derived from photography combined to chemical corrosion of metals.


By losing its useful function - which condemned reproduction engravers to unemployment - wood printing however experienced a magnificent resurrection, although specifically in the artistic field. Liberated from being subservient to orders from communication means, it began to be used with creative freedom by plastic artists enthused with the power of such a plastic language, in which dramatic black and white contrasts are evident. Some of the predecessors of this new phase in Europe were Felix Valloton (1865-1925) from Switzerland, Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) from France and Edvard Munch (1863-1944) from Norway. Afterwards, the German expressionists (Kirchner, Heckel, Schmidt-Rottluff, Nolde etc.) of the Die Brucke group (1906), and at the same time the French fauvists (Matisse, Derain, Dufy and Vlaminck), elevated woodcut printing to an extraordinary expression level.

In Brazil, the same evolution was witnessed: while reproduction prints lost space, liberated artistic woodcut printing came to light, having as its initial pillars Osvaldo Goeldi (1895-1961) and Lasar Segall (1891-1957), and, in the next decades, it became richer with a large number of relevant artists. At the edges of such erudite art, a whole league of creative engravers bloomed in Brazil, originated from typography printing shops linked to the "corder literatureO, which roots stretch back to the northeastern singers.

(*) "Cordel" literature is the Brazilian denomination of unpretentious publications sold at folk fairs, mainly in Brazil's northeastern region. Its texts (in rhymed poetry) were typographically printed and frequently illustrated with woodcut prints. Its name derives from the pamphlets being usually hung from a string, a 'cordel'. to be display ed for sale.





http://www.casadaxilogravura.com.br/xilo2.html#História







fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

Cultura e conhecimento são ingredientes essenciais para a sociedade.

A cultura é o único antídoto que existe contra a ausência de amor.

Vamos compartilhar.





A Casa da Xilogravura é um museu brasileiro localizado na cidade de Campos do Jordão, estado de São Paulo. É uma instituição privada sem fins lucrativos, mantida pela Editora Mantiqueira

Bahrain National Museum. --- Museu Nacional do Bahrain.

The Bahrain National Museum is the crowning achievement of the Kingdom of Bahrain’s ongoing efforts to preserve the nation’s heritage and history; Efforts which began in 1957 when the first exhibition of the artefacts discovered by the Danish archaeological expedition was held at Al-Hidaya Al-Khalifiya in Muharraq.



The museum was inaugurated in 1988 by the late Emir Shaikh Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa in a grand ceremony attended by His Royal Highness Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa, the Prime Minister, and then Crown Prince His Majesty King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa.

Built on a central location between Manama and Muharraq, Bahrain National Museum houses 9 main halls, and classifies the accumulated heritage of the Kingdom of Bahrain into 6 different sections. Visitors to the museum will be taken on a 4,000 year journey through time as they pass through its halls, from the traditional handicrafts hall, to the customs and traditions hall, burial mounds hall, ancient documents and manuscripts hall, Tylos hall, and Islamic period hall. 

The museum seeks not only to enhance understand and knowledge of Bahrain’s history amongst locals only, but also play a role as an institutions which promotes global culture within the community, as evidenced by the numerous international culture and art exhibitions it has hosted over the years.

Bahrain has been one of the Gulf’s most important commercial crossroads for over 4,000 years.

The word Bahrain means ‘two seas’ in Arabic, indicating how the country’s geographic position as a collection of islands has been important throughout its history.

As the land of the ancient Dilmun civilisation, Bahrain has long been a trading centre linking east and west. The country has benefited from its position at the centre of the Gulf’s trade routes and rich pearl diving industry.

By the mid-19th century, the country was the Gulf’s pre-eminent trade hub, emerging as a modern state. Merchants from countries across the Gulf and beyond established themselves on the islands.

Bahrain was the first Gulf state to discover oil, in 1932, and in the past 40 years has led the regional transition to a modern economy. Subsequently, as the first Gulf state to move away from dependence on oil, we have become the region’s most diversified economy.

In particular, our country has become the region’s leading financial centre since the 1980s. Since then manufacturing, logistics, communications, professional services and real estate have also become important sectors. Throughout this period, we have taken great care to build up the skills and talents of the Bahraini people.

In 2002, Bahrain became a constitutional monarchy, and a democratically elected parliament was established. This marked the beginning of a period of on-going reform. The country also has an established legal framework and respected regulatory system.

Manama is the capital of Bahrain and also its largest city. Manama enjoys a distinct reputation as a tourism and cultural hub regionally and internationally, as shown by its selection as the Capital of Arab Culture in 2012, and Capital of Arab Tourism in 2013, and Capital of Asian Tourism in 2014.







fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

Cultura e conhecimento são ingredientes essenciais para a sociedade.

A cultura é o único antídoto que existe contra a ausência de amor.

Vamos compartilhar.





Museu Nacional do Bahrain
O Museu Nacional Bahrain é o coroamento do Reino dos esforços contínuos do Bahrain para preservar o património ea história da nação; Os esforços que começaram em 1957, quando a primeira exposição dos artefactos descobertos pela expedição arqueológica dinamarquesa foi realizada no Al-Hidaya Al-Khalifa em Muharraq.
O museu foi inaugurado em 1988 pelo falecido Emir Shaikh Salman bin Isa Al Khalifa em uma grande cerimônia com a presença de Sua Alteza Real Príncipe Khalifa bin Salman al-Khalifa, o primeiro-ministro, em seguida, príncipe herdeiro Sua Majestade o Rei Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa.
Construído em uma localização central, entre Manama e Muharraq, casas Museu Nacional do Bahrain 9 salões principais, e classifica o património acumulado do Reino do Bahrein em 6 seções diferentes. Os visitantes do museu será tomada em uma viagem 4.000 anos através do tempo à medida que passam através de suas salas, a partir do hall de artesanato tradicional, a costumes e tradições hall, salão de túmulos, documentos antigos e salão de manuscritos, hall Tylos e período islâmico corredor.
O museu procura não só para melhorar a compreensão e conhecimento da história do Bahrein única entre os habitantes locais, mas também desempenhar um papel de instituições que promove cultura global dentro da comunidade, como evidenciado pelas numerosas exposições de cultura e de arte internacionais já recebeu ao longo dos anos.


Bahrain tem sido um dos mais importantes cruzamentos comerciais do Golfo há mais de 4.000 anos.
A palavra Bahrain significa "dois mares" em árabe, indicando como a posição geográfica do país como um conjunto de ilhas tem sido importante ao longo de sua história.
Como o terreno da antiga civilização Dilmun, Bahrein tem sido um centro de comércio ligando a leste e oeste. O país tem beneficiado da sua posição no centro do rotas de comércio e indústria de mergulho ricos pérola do Golfo.
Por meados do século 19, o país foi centro de comércio preeminente do Golfo, emergindo como um Estado moderno. Comerciantes de países em todo o Golfo e além se estabeleceram nas ilhas.
Bahrein foi o primeiro estado do Golfo para descobrir petróleo, em 1932, e nos últimos 40 anos levou a transição regional para uma economia moderna. Posteriormente, como o primeiro país do Golfo a afastar-se da dependência do petróleo, que se tornaram a economia mais diversificada da região.
Em particular, o nosso país tornou-se o principal centro financeiro da região desde os anos 1980. Desde então, fabricação, logística, comunicações, serviços profissionais e imobiliário também se tornaram importantes setores. Durante todo este período, temos tomado muito cuidado para construir as habilidades e talentos do povo do Bahrain.
Em 2002, Bahrain tornou-se uma monarquia constitucional e um parlamento democraticamente eleito foi estabelecida. Isto marcou o início de um período de reforma em curso. O país também tem um quadro jurídico estabelecido e sistema regulatório respeitado.
Manama é a capital do Bahrain e também a sua maior cidade. Manama goza de uma reputação distinta como o turismo e centro cultural regional e internacional, como mostrado por sua seleção como a Capital da Cultura Árabe em 2012, e capital do turismo árabe em 2013, e Capital de Asian turismo em 2014.

Le Musée d'Histoire de Ouidah au Bénin. --- O Museu Histórico de Ouidah, em Benin.

Le Musée d'Histoire de Ouidah possède un grand nombre d'objets et d'illustrations d'importance historique et culturelle qui, recueillis ensemble, permettent au visiteur de comprendre le passé de la région. Les collections du musée sont assemblées selon les six thèmes principaux : Le Fort Portugais (le siège-même du musée), Le Royaume de Xwéda, Le Royaume du Dahomey, La Traite des Esclaves, Le Vaudou et Les Liens Culturels entre le Bénin et le Nouveau Monde.



Le musée est situé dans l'enceinte du Fort Portugais à Ouidah. À l'origine, c'était là où les Portugais faisaient du commerce des esclaves, et tout au long de son histoire jusqu'au moment où il fut pris par le royaume du Dahomey, le fort servait de site diplomatique portugais dans la zone. Après qu'il soit devenu, en 1961, la propriété du Dahomey, le gouvernement a commencé sa restauration et, en 1967, le fort est devenu le Musée d'Histoire de Ouidah.

Le fort couvre la surface d'un hectare environ et entre ses murs se trouvent une résidence des représentants officiels du Portugal, une chapelle, un garnison et des casernes. Les collections du musée sont abritées, pour la plupart, dans la résidence et les expositions temporaires dans la chapelle.

Le musée accueille d'importantes collections accumulées à la suite de plusieurs fouilles archéologiques de la zone de Savi et de Ouidah, y compris celles dirigées par Merrick Posnansky de l'Université de Californie à Los Angeles, par Ken Kelly de l'Université de Caroline du Sud et par Neil Norman de l'Université de Virginie. En dehors des universités américaines citées, le musée coopère, dans le cadre d'un programme de recherche, avec l'Université d'Abomey-Calavi au Bénin.

Le musée est administré par la conservatrice, Micheline Egounlety, et emploie plusieurs guides hautement qualifiés. Il fait partie du réseau des musées régi par le Ministère de la Culture de l'Artisanat et du Tourisme.

Ouidah est connue pour le rôle principal qu'elle a joué dans la traite des esclaves au cours des XVIIe, XVIIIe et XIXe siècles, où presque un million de personnes a été embarqué sur des navires et, depuis la plage de Ouidah, transporté à travers l'Atlantique. À l'origine, pourtant, Ouidah (autrefois Gléwé) n'était qu'un petit village dans un petit royaume de Xwéda, qui parvenait à subvenir aux besoins de ses habitants grâce à l'agriculture, la chasse et la pêche dans les lagunes côtières – loin des dangers de la mer et des marées.

La première rencontre entre Ouidah et les Européens eut lieu au cours du XVIe siècle. Même si la traite des esclaves le long de la Baie du Bénin débuta aussitôt après, ce n'est qu'à la fin du XVIIe siècle que les marchands européens commencèrent à acheter des esclaves au royaume de Xwéda à large echelle, en établissant des forts et des comptoires dans la ville de Gléwé. Ce commerce assurait la prospérité au royaume jusqu'au moment de son invasion militaire, en 1727, par le royaume du Dahomey : ses citoyens furent tués, capturés et dispersés et le commerce avec les Européens passa aux main des Dahoméens.

La ville de Ouidah resta sous le contrôle des Dahoméens jusqu'à la colonisation de ces dernier par la France. La traite des esclaves fut extrêmement intense : vers le milieu du XVIIIe siècle la population de Ouidah atteignait le nombre de 10 000 habitants alors que l'économie était à son apogée. L'année 1818 a vu l'installation de Francisco Félix de Souza, connu par les Dahoméens sous le nom de Chacha, à la tête, au nom du royaume, de l'entreprise négrière. Ses descendants conservent jusqu' aujourd'hui une position importante dans la société de Ouidah.

Dans la mesure où les gouvernements européens dénonçaient la traite des esclaves comme brutale et injustifiable, le commerce négrier à travers l'Atlantique entrait dans son déclin. À la fin du XIXe siècle la ville de Ouidah commença à concentrer son activité économique sur l'exportation, beaucoup moins lucrative, de l'huile de palme. Alors même que le commerce négrier était bien à son déclin, commençait la répatriation de descendants des esclaves exportés vers le Nouveau Monde. Ils constituaient, pour la plupart, une troisième génération des réduits à l'esclavage au Brézil. De retour au Bénin (et particulièrement à Ouidah), ils apportèrent beaucoup de leurs coutumes et traditions. Aujourd'hui encore, plusieurs examples de l'architecture afro-brézilienne témoignent de cette période-là.

Le royaume du Dahomey (y compris Ouidah) fut colonisé par les Français en 1902 ; en 1962, pourtant, il obtint l'indépendance

Ouidah est le centre le plus important de la religion vaudou au Bénin et, probablement, dans le monde. En 1992, la ville accueillit le premier festival mondial consacré à l'art et à la culture du Vaudou. Par ailleurs, le jour du festival annuel du Vaudou à Ouidah, le 10 janvier, a été déclaré fête nationale.










fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti


Cultura e conhecimento são ingredientes essenciais para a sociedade.

A cultura é o único antídoto que existe contra a ausência de amor.

Vamos compartilhar.



--br via tradutor do google
O Museu Histórico de Ouidah, em Benin.

O Museu Histórico de Ouidah tem um grande número de objetos e ilustrações significado histórico e cultural, reunidos, permitem ao visitante compreender o passado da região. As colecções do museu são montados de acordo com seis temas principais: Fort Português (sede do museu), o Reino de Xwéda, O Reino do Daomé, o comércio de escravos, Voodoo e as ligações culturais entre Benin e novo mundo.

O museu está localizado no interior do Forte Português em Ouidah. Originalmente, este era o lugar onde o Português estavam negociando escravos, e ao longo de sua história até que foi tomada pelo Reino de Daomé, o forte serviu como local diplomática Português na área. Depois, tornou-se, em 1961, a propriedade do Daomé, o governo começou a sua restauração e, em 1967, o forte tornou-se o Museu Histórico de Ouidah.

O forte cobre a superfície de um hectare e suas paredes são uma residência de funcionários de Portugal, uma capela, uma guarnição e quartéis. coleções do museu estão alojados principalmente na residência e exposições temporárias na capela.

O museu abriga importantes coleções acumuladas como resultado de várias escavações arqueológicas na área da Savi e Ouidah, incluindo as dirigidas por Merrick Posnansky, da Universidade da Califórnia, Los Angeles, por Ken Kelly, da Universidade da Carolina Sul e Neil Norman, da Universidade de Virginia. Dimensionamento em universidades americanas, o museu coopera, como parte de um programa de pesquisa com a Universidade de Abomey, no Benim.

O museu é administrado pelo conservador, Micheline Egounlety e emprega vários guias altamente qualificados. É parte da rede de museus reguladas pelo Ministério da Cultura, Artesanato e Turismo.

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Ouidah é conhecida pelo papel de liderança que desempenhou no comércio de escravos durante os séculos XVII, XVIII e XIX, onde quase um milhão de pessoas estavam a bordo dos navios e para a praia de Ouidah, transportado através Atlântico. Originalmente, no entanto, Ouidah (anteriormente glewe) era uma pequena cidade em um pequeno reino Xwéda, que conseguiu prever seu povo através da agricultura, caça e pesca nas lagoas costeira - longe dos perigos do mar e das marés.

O primeiro encontro entre Ouidah e os europeus ocorreu durante o século XVI. Embora o comércio de escravos ao longo do Golfo do Benim começou logo após, não foi até o final do século XVII, comerciantes europeus começaram a comprar escravos no reino de larga escala Xwéda, estabelecendo forte e contadores na cidade de glewe. Este comércio garantiu a prosperidade do reino até à sua invasão militar em 1727 pelo Reino de Dahomey: seus cidadãos foram mortos, capturados e dispersos e o comércio com os europeus foi para as mãos de Dahomey.

A cidade de Ouidah permaneceu sob o controle de Dahomey para a colonização de estes últimos pela França. O comércio de escravos foi extremamente intensa: a meados do século XVIII, a população de Ouidah atingiu o número de 10.000 habitantes, quando a economia estava em seu auge. O ano de 1818 viu a instalação de Francisco Félix de Souza, conhecido por Dahomey como o Chacha, cabeça, para o reino do negócio comércio de escravos. Seus descendentes mantiveram até hoje uma posição importante na companhia de Ouidah.

Na medida em que os governos europeus denunciou o tráfico de escravos como brutal e injustificável, o tráfico de escravos através do Atlântico entrou no seu declínio. No final do século XIX, a cidade de Ouidah começou a focar seus negócios na exportação de óleo de palma muito menos lucrativo. Mesmo que o comércio de escravos era muito para o seu declínio, começou a repatriação de descendentes de escravos exportados para o Novo Mundo. Eles foram, na sua maior parte, uma terceira geração escravizado no Brasil. Back in Benin (especialmente em Ouidah), trouxeram muitos de seus costumes e tradições. Hoje, muitos exemplos da arquitetura Africano-brézilienne testemunham esse período.

O reino de Dahomey (incluindo Ouidah) foi colonizado pelos franceses em 1902; em 1962, ainda que ganhou a independência

Ouidah é o centro mais importante da religião vodu em Benin e provavelmente no mundo. Em 1992, a cidade sediou o primeiro festival mundial dedicado à arte e cultura da Voodoo. Além disso, o dia do festival anual de Voodoo em Ouidah, 10 de janeiro, foi declarado feriado nacional.

The Morgan Library & Museum, New York City.


For nearly a century, the Morgan Library & Museum has played a leading role in the field of master drawings. All the major European schools are represented in the collection, with particular strengths in Italian, French, British, Dutch, Flemish, and German masters. The collection also includes drawings by American artists as well as a growing number of modern and contemporary works on paper. The Morgan’s collection is thus unusual in that it represents, in increasing depth, continuity as well as innovation throughout the entire history of drawing.

Drawings Online aims to provide the public and specialists with a digital library of over 10,000 images, representing works of art spanning the fifteenth through nineteenth centuries. Included are approximately 2,000 images of versos of drawings that contain rarely seen sketches or inscriptions by the artist.

Due to copyright or other restrictions, images of twentieth and twenty-first century drawings may be unavailable.

Drawings Online is generously underwritten by the Joseph F. McCrindle Foundation and the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, with additional funding from the David L. Klein, Jr. Foundation.




A complex of buildings in the heart of New York City, The Morgan Library & Museum began as the private library of financier Pierpont Morgan (1837–1913), one of the preeminent collectors and cultural benefactors in the United States. As early as 1890 Morgan had begun to assemble a collection of illuminated, literary, and historical manuscripts, early printed books, and old master drawings and prints.

Mr. Morgan's library, as it was known in his lifetime, was built between 1902 and 1906 adjacent to his New York residence at Madison Avenue and 36th Street. Designed by Charles McKim of the architectural firm McKim, Mead & White, the library was intended as something more than a repository of rare materials. Majestic in appearance yet intimate in scale, the structure was to reflect the nature and stature of its holdings. The result was an Italian Renaissance-style palazzo with three magnificent rooms epitomizing America's Age of Elegance. Completed three years before McKim's death, it is considered by many to be his masterpiece. In 1924, eleven years after Pierpont Morgan's death, his son, J. P. Morgan, Jr. (1867–1943), known as Jack, realized that the library had become too important to remain in private hands. In what constituted one of the most momentous cultural gifts in U.S. history, he fulfilled his father's dream of making the library and its treasures available to scholars and the public alike by transforming it into a public institution. 

Over the years—through purchases and generous gifts—The Morgan Library & Museum has continued to acquire rare materials as well as important music manuscripts, early children's books, Americana, and materials from the twentieth century. Without losing its decidedly domestic feeling, the Morgan also has expanded its physical space considerably. 

In 1928, the Annex building was erected on the corner of Madison Avenue and 36th Street, replacing Pierpont Morgan's residence. The Annex connected to the original McKim library by means of a gallery. In 1988, Jack Morgan's former residence—a mid-nineteenth century brownstone on Madison Avenue and 37th Street—also was added to the complex. The 1991 garden court was constructed as a means to unite the various elements of the Morgan campus.

The largest expansion in the Morgan's history, adding 75,000 square feet to the campus, was completed in 2006. Designed by Pritzker Prize–winning architect Renzo Piano, the project increases exhibition space by more than fifty percent and adds important visitor amenities, including a new performance hall, a welcoming entrance on Madison Avenue, a new café and a new restaurant, a shop, a new reading room, and collections storage. Piano's design integrates the Morgan's three historical buildings with three new modestly scaled steel-and-glass pavilions. A soaring central court connects the buildings and serves as a gathering place for visitors in the spirit of an Italian piazza.






fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti


Cultura e conhecimento são ingredientes essenciais para a sociedade.

A cultura é o único antídoto que existe contra a ausência de amor.

Vamos compartilhar.

Meshkinfam Art Museum, Iran.

The building, in which the Museum stands, is approximately a century old and belongs to the Forugh-ol-molks, members of the famous Qavam family. The structure itself is approximately 1100 square meters, has three stories. Including a basement. This building, representing traditional Persian and Islamic architecture, is divided into two sections, namely the outer (biruni) and the inner and more intimate quarters (andaruni). It has two separate courtyards, the main structure, the fountain, the bath, and the kitchen, in addition to other quarters. 



The structure is located in the old part of the city of Shiraz, in an area known as Sangeh Siah (The black stone), behind Imam-zadeh Bibi Dukhtaran.

From 1950 to the mid 1970s the building was used as an elementary school. However, since 2001 the council for the Cultural Development of the Province of Fars motioned to have the building renovated and restructured by local agencies, and the city Municipality, and converted into the Meshkinfam Museum of Art.

The contents of the Museum include hundreds of art pieces collected by the Meshkinfam family over a period of more than half a century. The collection can be divided into two parts. The first is the art work of the Meskhinfam family and the second is the art of contemporary artists of Fars Province, divided into separate classifications, depending on the type of art is represents.

Carvings and Reliefs
In this section the works of Habib Meshkinfam (1915-2001) on various stones could be seen, which includes flowers, animals, Islamic texts including verses from the Holy Quran, which are carved in a masterful fashion both in an embossed and indented form. Besides these, one can notice other works, such as slabs of stone ready to be carved, initial and original drafts of carvings, plans, and tools, and handwritten orders for stone carvings by Karbalai Gholam-hussein Hajjar Shirazi, father of Hajji Habib Meshkinfam (A.D. 1871-1951) and grandfather of the present artist, founder of the Meshkinfam Museum. It is to be noted that a number of the carvings of Hajji Habib Meshkinfam is presently located in the Hafezieh, Shah Cheragh and in other historic places.

Calligraphy
This section includes three separate but yet interconnected sections as follows:
a) The works of the famous calligrapher, Habib Meshkinfam
b) The works of Hajji Habib’s circle
c) The works of famous calligraphers of Fars and Iran

Habib Meshkinfam learned the art of calligraphy as a supplementary art to stone carvings from Ebrahim Meshin Qalam, the great master of calligraphy in Shiraz, who is noted for his own particular Nastaliq style. He was in contact with other contemporary artists of his time and his workshop was a gathering place of artists for nearly half a century. Numerous works of his on calligraphy, poetry, and architecture which is on display in this Museum, emerged from this very circle.

In the section on works of famous calligraphists of Fars and Iran, works of such grand masters such as Mirza Koucheck Vessal Shirazi, Mohammad Qudsi Shirazi, Fath Ali Hejab Shirazi, Agha Hashem Esfahani and others will be on display.

These very special art pieces were a life long project and part of the private collection of Habib Meshkinfam. This section also includes the names, photographs and works of other famous, famous calligraphists of fame belonging to the Fars province, and includes the inkpot and calligraphic tools and materials belonging to Habib Meshkinfam.

Painting
The paintings in the Meshkinfam Museum of Art consist of a very special and expensive collection comprising modern artists of Fars, including that of Hasan Meshkinfam, as follows:

Works of contemporary Artists of Fars
In this section the works of about 330 artists, representing the works of three generations of contemporary artists of Fars is on display. These works have been collected over a 30 year period by Hasan Meshkinfam. Some of these individuals are now renowned artists in Iran or abroad. Together with this collection, carvings and statues by Hedayatollah Yusefi and an archive of photographs and documents of Past and contemporary artists of Fars.

Paintings of Hasan Meshkinfam
In the past 30 years, Hasan Meshkinfam has created numerous and diverse art works which can be divided as follows in accordance with the subject and techniques involved.

Water colors have been his favorite medium and this includes scenic sights from Shiraz and Fars to scenes in the form of Naturalism, Pointillism, Impressionism to other more flowing and romantic forms. Meshkinfam’s sketches can also be divided into several groups. The first represent bazaars, streets, passes and old mills of Shiraz with it’s characteristic representations of people and places in the early eighties. The second is sketches of modern images of Fars and include hundreds of drafts from academic and artistic personalities of modern Fars and Iran, drafted from real life. The third is a set of sketches from the famous poet Nima. 

These sketches were inspired by the poetry of Nima Youshij in commemoration of his 100th birthday held in 1996 and uses diverse techniques of silk print, collage, monotypes and drafting.

Oil paintings of Meshkinfam can also be divided into various periods representing Realism, Impressionism, Fauvism, Surrealism and Romanticism and include nearly 100 different pieces.

An imitative study of the great works of art is an experience which an artist experiences during his lifetime. A portion of Meshkinfam’s works during the past three decades represents his interest of great masters which is put on display in a separate section of the Museum. This includes imitation of such artists as Correggio, Raphael, Rubens, Delacroix, Constable, Shishkin, Wyeth, Doré, Zund and others.

The Museum also includes a section entitled "Meshkinfam from the perspective of others". This includes tens of sketches and paintings covering the years 1973-2003 painted live by artists and various personalities whose names appear on each piece of work. To compliment these works is the handwritings of contemporary artists and personalities commenting on the works of Meshkinfam.

Photography
This section includes photographs from contemporary personalities of Fars including more than 200 academic and artistic characters.

They were taken by Meshkinfam himself over a period of more than two decades and include a biography of the personalities involved. To compliment this collection is an archive of photographs of other distinguished personalities of Fars, collected from various sources.



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fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti


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