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domingo, 21 de fevereiro de 2016

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. - The Death of the Buddha (Parinirvana)

When the Buddha was eighty he died near the city of Kushinagara, breaking free from the cycle of rebirth and reaching nirvana. This panel, which would have been set into the harmika at the top of a stupa (relic mound), shows the Buddha surrounded by lay and monastic mourners in various states of grief. 

Their reactions are contrasted with the perfect calm of the monk with his back turned, Subhadra, who realizes there is no reason for sorrow, as the Buddha has reached nirvana. Iconic images of the Buddha's death, based on the Gandharan prototype, became important icons for veneration across the Buddhist world in following centuries.

The Death of the Buddha (Parinirvana)
Period: Kushan period
Date: ca. 3rd century
Culture: Pakistan (ancient region of Gandhara)
Medium: Schist
Dimensions: H. 26 in. (66 cm); W. 26 in. (66 cm); D. 3 in. (7.6 cm)
Classification: Sculpture
Credit Line: Gift of Florence and Herbert Irving, 2015
Accession Number: 2015.500.4.1

Fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

Cultura e conhecimento são ingredientes essenciais para a sociedade.

A cultura é o único antídoto que existe contra a ausência de amor.

Vamos compartilhar.

Main Building

The Metropolitan Museum of Art's earliest roots date back to 1866 in Paris, France, when a group of Americans agreed to create a "national institution and gallery of art" to bring art and art education to the American people. The lawyer John Jay, who proposed the idea, swiftly moved forward with the project upon his return to the United States from France. Under Jay's presidency, the Union League Club in New York rallied civic leaders, businessmen, artists, art collectors, and philanthropists to the cause. On April 13, 1870, The Metropolitan Museum of Art was incorporated, opening to the public in the Dodworth Building at 681 Fifth Avenue. On November 20 of that same year, the Museum acquired its first object, a Roman sarcophagus. In 1871, 174 European paintings, including works byAnthony van Dyck, Nicolas Poussin, and Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, entered the collection.

On March 30, 1880, after a brief move to the Douglas Mansion at 128 West 14th Street, the Museum opened to the public at its current site on Fifth Avenue and 82nd Street. The architects Calvert Vaux and Jacob Wrey Mould designed the initial Ruskinian Gothic structure, the west facade of which is still visible in the Robert Lehman Wing. The building has since expanded greatly, and the various additions—built as early as 1888—now completely surround the original structure.

The Museum's collection continued to grow throughout the rest of the nineteenth century. The 1874–76 purchase of the Cesnola Collection of Cypriot art—works dating from the Bronze Age to the end of the Roman period—helped to establish the Met's reputation as a major repository of classical antiquities. When the American painter John Kensett died in 1872, thirty-eight of his canvases came to the Museum, and in 1889, the Museum acquired two works by Édouard Manet.

The Museum's Beaux-Arts Fifth Avenue facade and Great Hall, designed by the architect and founding Museum Trustee Richard Morris Hunt, opened to the public in December 1902. The Evening Post reported that at last New York had a neoclassical palace of art, "one of the finest in the world, and the only public building in recent years which approaches in dignity and grandeur the museums of the old world."

By the twentieth century, the Museum had become one of the world's great art centers. In 1907, the Museum acquired a work by Auguste Renoir, and in 1910, the Met was the first public institution in the world to acquire a work of art by Henri Matisse. The ancient Egyptian hippopotamus statuette that is now the Museum's unofficial mascot, "William," entered the collection in 1917. Today, virtually all of the Museum's twenty-six thousand ancient Egyptian objects, the largest collection of Egyptian art outside of Cairo, are on display. By 1979, the Museum owned five of the fewer than thirty-five known paintings byJohannes Vermeer, and now the Met's twenty-five hundred European paintings comprise one of the greatest such collections in the world. The American Wing now houses the world's most comprehensive collection of American paintings, sculpture, and decorative arts.

Today, tens of thousands of objects are on view at any given time in the Museum's two-million-square-foot building.

A comprehensive architectural plan for the Museum by the architects Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates was approved in 1971 and completed in 1991. Among the additions to the Museum as part of the master plan are the Robert Lehman Wing (1975), which houses an extraordinary collection of Old Masters, as well as Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art; The Sackler Wing (1978), which houses the Temple of Dendur; The American Wing (1980), whose diverse collection includes twenty-five recently renovated period rooms; The Michael C. Rockefeller Wing (1982) displaying the arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas; the Lila Acheson Wallace Wing (1987) of modern and contemporary art; and the Henry R. Kravis Wing (1991) devoted to European sculpture and decorative arts from the Renaissance to the beginning of the twentieth century.

With the expansion of the building complete, the Metropolitan Museum has continued to refine and reorganize its collection. In 1998, the Arts of Korea gallery opened to the public, completing a major suite of galleries devoted to the arts of Asia. The Ancient Near Eastern Art galleries reopened to the public in 1999 following a renovation. In 2007, several major projects at the south end of the building were completed, most notably the fifteen-year renovation and reinstallation of the entire suite of Greek and Roman Art galleries. Galleries for Oceanic and Native North American Art also opened in 2007, as well as the new Galleries for Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Paintings and Sculpture and the Ruth and Harold D. Uris Center for Education.

On November 1, 2011, the Museum's New Galleries for the Art of the Arab Lands, Turkey, Iran, Central Asia, and Later South Asia opened to the public. On the north side of the Museum, the Met's New American Wing Galleries for Paintings, Sculpture, and Decorative Arts reopened on January 16, 2012, signaling the completion of the third and final phase of The American Wing's renovation.

Thomas P. Campbell became the ninth director of The Metropolitan Museum of Art in January 2009, following the thirty-one-year tenure of Philippe de Montebello. During the fiscal year that ended on June 30, 2014, the Metropolitan Museum welcomed 6.2 million visitors from around the world to the main building on Fifth Avenue and The Cloisters museum and gardens. Through fellowships and professional exchanges, ongoing excavation work, traveling exhibitions, and many other international initiatives, the Museum continues in the twenty-first century to fulfill its mission and serve the broadest possible audience.

Read the history of The Cloisters museum and gardens, the Museum's branch in northern Manhattan dedicated to the art and architecture of medieval Europe.

Museu General Primo Pelissari, en Regencia Augusta, no Espirito Santo, Brasil, --- Museum General Primo Pelissari in Regencia Augusta, in Espirito Santo, Brazil,

Desde que a lama tomou o rio Doce e em seguida o mar de Regência, no norte do Estado, produtores culturais, artistas e moradores passaram a realizar eventos para reafirmar a cultura local e manter aceso o turismo na região, que sofre os impactos da tragédia. Dessa forma, além de shows, eventos de carnaval, palestras, entre outras iniciativas, Regência acaba de reativar o Museu do General Primo Pelissari, um espaço em homenagem ao artista de mesmo nome (foto ao lado). 

Conhecido também como General Pelissari, ele foi um dos grandes artistas da arte naif de Regência. A Vila inclusive tem essa marca importante, de ser um polo de grandes artistas naif que precisam de visibilidade não só para destacar a arte produzida no local, mas também para discutir e explorar esse cenário cultural em uma época tão dramática para a Regência. Em sintonia com essas causas, o sociólogo Hauley Valim acaba de reativar o museu que concentra obras de General Pelissari. 

Foi a partir de um mestrado sobre a tradicional festa do Caboclo Bernardo, que Hauley desenvolveu proximidade com uma das organizadoras da festa e ex-mulher do General Pelisari, Tia Mariquinha. A aproximação o fez pensar na reabertura do museu, que estava fechado devido aos problemas de saúde de Tia Mariqinha. Ele então encabeçou a iniciativa e desde a semana do carnaval o museu reabriu suas portas ao público. 

"Diante da situação em que os dois principais atrativos de Regência foram afetados, o rio e o mar, vi a necessidade de fazer com que esse acervo de grande importância ganhe visibilidade e mostre para os turistas e visitantes que Regência é muito mais rica", destaca Hauley, que atualmente se divide entre Linhares e Regência para poder manter o trabalho no museu. 

Aliás, o funcionamento do museu ainda está em processo de afinação. Por enquanto as visitas precisam ser agendadas previamente pelos interessados para que Hauley possa acompanhar tudo, já que se divide em outras ocupações. Contudo, essa fase ainda é inicial, a pretensão é de que o museu fique aberto diariamente, além de promover e receber outras ações. O espaço já está inscrito na Semana Nacional dos Museus, que gera visibilidade nacional, e acontece em maio. 

A proposta é promover diversas ações durante a Semana Nacional dos Museus. Uma dessas atividades será a realização de uma oficina com crianças de uma escola local. As etapas de realização serão baseadas na forma como General Pelissari produzia sua arte, que era construída a partir de material encontrado no rio e mar, desde os naturais, como conchas, até os recicláveis. A oficina irá então apresentar às crianças o processo de criação da arte de Pelissari, levá-las ao rio para coletarem materiais, orientá-las na produção de peças e, posteriormente, expor essas novas produções à comunidade. 

"Pelissari tinha um modo muito particular de produzir sua arte, ele coletava os materiais na natureza, levava ao sítio de Tia Mariquinha e lá estudava as formas que aqueles materiais poderiam 'incorporar'. Ele criava a partir de formas imaginárias, fazendo telas e esculturas com técnica de sobreposição de cores", conta Hauley. Todo esse modo peculiar da arte de Pelissari está exposto no museu. Aliás, nem todas as obras, já que algumas peças não puderam ser limpas, pois estão em um estágio muito frágil de seus matérias, por isso Hauley busca alternativas para que elas possam ser levadas ao processo de restauração futuramente.

Tudo foi realizado por Hauley a partir de iniciativa própria. Ele conversou com Tia Mariquinha e a família Pelissari, organizou a limpeza, pintura e reorganização do espaço, a partir também de colaborações e, agora, coloca o museu novamente na rota turística da Vila de Regência. 

O Museu do General Primo Pelissari está aberto a visitações mediante agendamentos nesses primeiros meses. Para agendar basta fazer contato com Hauley por meio da página oficial do museu em rede social.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

Cultura e conhecimento são ingredientes essenciais para a sociedade.

A cultura é o único antídoto que existe contra a ausência de amor.

Vamos compartilhar.

--in via tradutor do google

Museum General Primo Pelissari in Regencia Augusta, in Espirito Santo, Brazil,
Since the mud took the Sweet river and then the sea of ​​Regency, in the northern state, cultural producers, artists and residents began to hold events to reaffirm the local culture and keep alive the tourism in the region, which suffers the tragedy of impacts . Thus, in addition to concerts, carnival events, lectures, among other initiatives, Regency has just reactivate the General Museum Primo Pelissari, an area named after the artist of the same name (photo).

Also known as General Pelissari, he was one of the great artists of naive art of Regency. The village even has this important milestone, to be a center of major naive artists who need visibility not only to highlight the art produced on site, but also to discuss and explore this cultural scene in such a dramatic time for the Regency. In line with these causes, Hauley Valim sociologist just reactivate the museum that focuses works of General Pelissari.
It was from a master of the traditional celebration of the Caboclo Bernardo, who Hauley developed proximity to one of the party organizers and former wife of General Pelisari, Aunt Mariquinha. The approach made him think about the reopening of the museum, which was closed due to health problems Tia Mariqinha. He then headed the initiative and from the carnival week the museum reopened its doors to the public.

"Given the situation in which the two main attractions of Regency were affected, the river and the sea, saw the need to make this very important acquis gain visibility and show tourists and visitors Regency is much richer" highlights Hauley, which is currently divided between Linhares and Regency in order to keep the work in the museum.
In fact, the museum's operation is still in the tuning process. For now the visits must be scheduled in advance by the parties concerned to Hauley can keep track of everything, as is divided into other occupations. However, this phase is still early, the claim is that the museum be open daily, and promote and take other actions. The space is already enrolled in the National Museum Week, which creates national visibility, and takes place in May.

The proposal is to promote various actions during the National Week of Museums. One of these activities will be conducting a workshop with children from a local school. The realization of steps will be based on how General Pelissari produced his art, which was built from material found in the river and sea from the natural, such as shells, even recyclable. The workshop will then present to the children the process of creating art Pelissari, take them to the river to collect materials, guide them in the production of parts and then expose those new productions to the community.

"Pelissari had a very particular way of producing his art, he collected the materials in nature, leading to Aunt Mariquinha site and there studying the ways that those materials could 'enter'. He created from imaginary forms, making paintings and sculptures with color overlay technique, "says Hauley. All this peculiar way Pelissari art is exhibited in the museum. Incidentally, not all works, since some parts could not be cleaned because they are in a very fragile stage of their materials, so Hauley seeking alternatives so that they can be brought to the restoration process in the future.

Everything was done by Hauley from own initiative. He talked to Aunt Mariquinha and Pelissari family, organized the cleaning, painting and reorganization of space, as well as collaborations and now put the museum back on the tourist route of the Regency Village.

General Primo Pelissari Museum is open to visitations by scheduling these early months. To schedule just make contact with Hauley through the official website of the museum on social network.

Ancient Greek manuscripts reveal life lessons from the Roman empire

Newly translated textbooks from the second and sixth centuries aimed at language learners also provide pointers on shopping, bathing, dining and how to deal with drunk relatives

The twelfth-century manuscript Zwettl 1, folio 11r.

How to live, the Latin way. A 12th-century manuscript with material copied from the earlier texts – an important source for Professor Dickey in her research. Photograph: Zisterzienserstift Zwettl

Ever been unsure about how to deal with a drunken family member returning from an orgy? A collection of newly translated textbooks aimed at Greek speakers learning Latin in the ancient world might hold the solution.

Professor Eleanor Dickey travelled around Europe to view the scraps of material that remain from ancient Latin school textbooks, or colloquia, which would have been used by young Greek speakers in the Roman empire learning Latin between the second and sixth centuries AD. The manuscripts, which Dickey has brought together and translated into English for the first time in her forthcoming book Learning Latin the Ancient Way: Latin Textbooks in the Ancient World, lay out everyday scenarios to help their readers get to grips with life in Latin. Subjects range from visiting the public baths to arriving at school late – and dealing with a sozzled close relative.

'Great infamy have you accumulated for yourself … But now you don’t want to vomit, do you?'

An English translation of an except from the Latin text

“Quis sic facit, domine, quomodo tu, ut tantum bibis? Quid dicent, qui te viderunt talem?” runs the scene from the latter, which Dickey translates as: “Who acts like this, sir, as you do, that you drink so much? What would they say, the people who saw you in such a condition?

“Is this a fitting way for a master of a household who gives advice to others to conduct himself? It is not possible (for things) more shamefully nor more ignominiously to happen than you acted yesterday,” the scolder continues, adding: “infamiam maximam tibi cumulasti”, or “Great infamy have you accumulated for yourself … But now you don’t want to vomit, do you?”

The recipient of the attack is suitably chastened in the scenario: “I certainly am very much ashamed,” he replies. “I don’t know what to say, for so upset have I been that no explanation to anyone can I give.”

“Roman dinner parties were not always decorous affairs; participants might drink more than was sensible and while under the influence might do things that they would later regret,” writes Dickey in her book, which is published tomorrow by Cambridge University Press. “The colloquia do not describe any of these scenes, but they do include a scene in which a character is rebuked for his (unspecified) behaviour while drunk. It is unclear what the relationship between the scolder and the miscreant is, though some type of family connection seems likely.”

The colloquia show the language learners how to deal with getting to school late – a boy told that “yesterday you slacked off and at midday you were not at home”. He successfully escapes from censure by putting the blame on his very important father, whom he had accompanied “to the praetorium” where he was “greeted by the magistrates, and he received letters from my masters the emperors”.

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The Latin learners are provided with examples of how to deal with visits to sick friends and preparations for dinner parties. They are also briefed on trips to the market to wrangle over prices (“How much is the cape?” “Two hundred denarii.” “You’re asking a lot; accept a hundred denarii”) and an excursion to the bank.

“We don’t know if they would have roleplayed the scenes with other students,” said Dickey, a professor of classics at the University of Reading. “But my hunch is that they did.”

Dickey said the texts were very commonly used. “We know this because they survive in lots of different medieval manuscript versions. At least six different versions were floating around Europe by 600 AD,” she said. “This is actually more common than many better-known ancient texts: there was only one copy of Catullus, and fewer than six of Caesar. Also, we have several papyrus fragments – since only a tiny fraction survive, when you have more than one papyrus fragment, for sure a text was popular in antiquity.”

'Maledicis me, malum caput? crucifigaris!' translates to: 'Do you revile me, villain? May you be crucified!'

The oldest versions of the texts exist as fragments on papyri in Egypt, where the climate meant they survived. Due to the size of these fragments, Dickey had to refer to medieval manuscripts from across Europe. “They have been copied and copied over many centuries, with everyone introducing more mistakes, so they’re not that readable. As an editor, I had to find all the different manuscripts and try to work out what the mistakes were, so I could get to the original text.”

Dickey shows how the students had glossaries to help them get to grips with the new language, collecting together lists of words on useful subjects such as sacrifices (“exta” means entrails, “victimator” is a calf-slaughterer and “hariolus” is a soothsayer) and entertainment. “They’re definitely not the same sorts of words as we’d need,” said Dickey.

There’s a phrasebook section on excuses (“You did what I told you?” “Not yet “Why?” “I (shall) do it soon, for I’m in a hurry to go out”), and a varied one on insults. “Maledicis me, malum caput? crucifigaris!” or “Do you revile me, villain? May you be crucified!” is one particularly vicious one, along with: “And does he revile (me), that animal-fighter? Let me go, and I shall shake out his teeth.”

“When we think of the Romans, it’s mainly of the rich and famous generals, emperors and statesmen,” Dickey told the Guardian. “But those people are clearly atypical: they’re famous precisely because they were remarkable. Historians try to correct this bias by telling us about the masses of ordinary Romans, but rarely do we have works written by or about these people. These colloquia give us real, contemporary stories about their lives and I hope my work gives a fairer and truer vision of ancient society.”

Insights into the intended readers’ times are provided by a scene played out during a visit to the public baths. Here, wrestling is followed by anointing with oil, before time in the sweatrooms and the hot pools. “Let’s use the dry heat room and go down that way to the hot pool,” one character suggests. “Go down, pour hot water over me. Now get out. Throw yourself into the pool in the open air. Swim!” “I have swum.”

“We learn all kinds of things we didn’t know here. When they come from the baths, they take a shower and scrape themselves off with a ‘strigil’,” said Dickey. A strigil was a metal scraper used to remove dirt after an activity such as wrestling, and the characters have washed and swum since they wrestled. Dickey believes the only plausible reason for then showering and scraping is that their bath has made the characters dirtier than they were previously. “We knew the baths were dirty, but not that they were this dirty.”

Fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

Cultura e conhecimento são ingredientes essenciais para a sociedade.

A cultura é o único antídoto que existe contra a ausência de amor.

Vamos compartilhar.

Rainha Margarida inaugura museu, Skagen, --- Queen Margaret inaugurated museum, Skagen.

A monarca dinamarquesa visitou o museu Skagen, no norte do país, após longas obras de beneficiação do espaço. O museu tem uma das mais importantes coleções de arte de pintores daquela zona e existe desde 1908.

Após demoradas obras de remodelação, o Museu de Skagen voltou a abrir ao público e a primeira visitante não podia deixar de ser a rainha Margarida da Dinamarca, uma das grandes impulsionadores e defensoras deste espaço de cultura.

O Museu foi fundado em 1908 na sala de jantar do Hotel Brondums e entre os fundadores do espaço estavam os artistas Michael Anker, P. S. Kroyer e Laurits Tuxen, assim como o farmaceutico local e o dono do hotel, que cedeu o espaço.

A ideia inicial foi a de angariar fundos para a construção de um verdadeiro museu local e ficou decidido que a sala de jantar do hotel seria sempre transferida para as novas instalações.

Depois de diversos locais provisórios, o museu acabaria mesmo por ser construído, com um projeto do arquiteto real Jacob Blegvad.

Atualmente o museu possui mais de 1800 obras de arte no seu acervo e todos os artistas relevantes daquela região estão ali representados. Este é o quinto museu mais popular da Dinamarca, com mais de 160 mil visitantes anuais, e sempre foi objeto de especial carinho por parte da rainha Margarida.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

Cultura e conhecimento são ingredientes essenciais para a sociedade.

A cultura é o único antídoto que existe contra a ausência de amor.

Vamos compartilhar.

--in via tradutor google
Queen Margaret inaugurated museum, Skagen.

The Danish monarchy visited Skagen Museum, in the north, after extensive refurbishment work space. The museum has one of the most important painters of that area of ​​art collections and exists since 1908.

After lengthy renovation works, the Skagen Museum reopened to the public and a first time visitor could not fail to be the Queen of Denmark Margaret, one of the foremost advocates and defenders of this cultural space.

The Museum was founded in 1908 in the dining Hotel Brondums room and among the founders of space were the artists Michael Anker, P. S. Kroyer and Laurits Tuxen, as well as local pharmaceutical and the hotel's owner, who donated the space.

The initial idea was to raise funds for the construction of a true local museum and it was decided that the hotel's dining room would always be transferred to the new facility.

After several temporary locations, the museum would be built by the same, with a real design by architect Jacob Blegvad.

Currently the museum has more than 1,800 works of art in its collection and all relevant artists from that region are represented there. This is the fifth most popular museum of Denmark, with more than 160,000 visitors annually, and has always been the object of special affection by Queen Margaret.