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terça-feira, 26 de abril de 2016

The Cisterns of Tawila, or the Tawila Tanks, are the best-known historic site in Aden, Yemen. --- As cisternas de Tawila, ou os tanques Tawila, são o mais conhecido sítio histórico em Aden, Iêmen.

The site consists of a series of tanks of varying shape and capacity. They are connected to one another and located in Wadi Tawila to the southwest of Aden’s oldest district, Crater. 


Originally there were about 53 tanks, but only 13 remain following a succession of renovations, including those done by the British in the 19th century. The existing tanks have a combined capacity of about nineteen million gallons. The tanks were designed to collect and store the rain that flows down from the Shamsan massif through Wadi Tawila, and to protect the city from periodic flooding. The largest of the tanks are the Coghlan Tank at the center of the main site and the large, circular Playfair Tank, located at the lowest point, outside the main site.




Cisterns of Tawila

Old drawing of the Cisterns.

View of Cisterns looking
towards Jebal Shamsan



History.
The tanks were hewn from the volcanic rocks of Wadi Tawila and then lined with a special stucco that included volcanic ash to create a strong, natural cement that rendered the tanks’ walls impermeable in order to retain water for extended periods.

Visitors to the Tanks are often surprised by the words on a plaque near the Coghlan Tank: “Regarding the original construction of which nothing is accurately known…” There is indeed little hard evidence and there are few reliable sources of information about the Tanks. One favored hypothesis is that Himyar, a pre-Islamic Arabian kingdom that ruled parts of Yemen from 115 B.C. to 525 A.D., started to build water tanks in the area that eventually became the Cisterns of Tawila. The Himyarites are known to have employed water-catchment tanks in other areas under their rule. The proposed Himyaritic origins of the tanks may help explain a recessed, rectangular area in the Coghlan tank that, according to the Director of the site, could have been used in pre-Islamic times for animal sacrifice (a ritual that the Himyarites were known to perform for a variety of occasions, including drought).



The Tanks were mentioned in some manuscripts after the coming of Islam to Yemen in the 7th century A.D. “Aden has Tanks that store water when the rain falls,” wrote Al-Hamdani in the 10th century.

Al-Makdsi, writing three centuries later, also recorded the presence of wells and cisterns in Aden.

 By the time of the Rasulid dynasty (1229-1454 A.D.), the Tanks had fallen into disrepair. However, the Rassulids recognized the utility of the Tanks and began to restore them. This restoration has led some to claim that the Rassulids built the Tanks, thereby obscuring what are, in all probability, the far more ancient origins of the Tanks. After the Rassulids, the Tanks once again fell into disrepair, damaged by flooding and neglect and filled with the rubble of successive floods.

By the time of the British occupation of Aden (beginning in 1839), the Tanks had been almost completely buried by debris carried down the mountains by successive floods. Sir Robert L. Playfair rediscovered the tanks and recognized their potential value. Aden had no fresh water and was often cut off from mainland water supplies by hostile tribes. Playfair hoped that the Tanks, once repaired, could provide a reliable source of water for public consumption. The British accordingly set out to restore the tanks to their original function. However, in the process, the British modified the design and layout of the Tanks significantly from their original state. With the intention of storing the greatest quantity of water possible, British engineers replaced an intricate network of numerous, small, cascading cisterns along the valley walls with a few, larger tanks. The Tanks’ ability to both control floods and store water was thus hampered, and the site that tourists visit today is very much a Victorian British creation. Further, the remodeling destroyed what archaeological evidence might have been present with regards to the original site, and this, coupled with the scarcity of documentary evidence, has made learning more about the Tanks’ origins difficult.

Close-up of Cisterns

Today, the cisterns are primarily a public park and a tourist attraction. They have not been filled for at least fifteen years and do not serve the city’s water needs. They may still help with flooding, although the presence of structures in the saila, or flood course, that leads from the Tanks to the sea, impedes the flow of water. No significant restoration work has been conducted on the Tanks since the British colonial era ended in 1967. Time, floods, and visitors have taken their toll on the structures. In addition, construction on the tableland above the Tanks may threaten the entire system of wadis and dams that help channel floodwaters into the Tanks. The future of the Tanks remains uncertain.






Fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti






--br via tradutor do google

Cisternas de Tawila
Da Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

Cisternas de Tawila

Desenho velho dos Cisternas.

Vista de Cisternas olhando para Jebal Shamsan
As cisternas de Tawila, ou os tanques Tawila, são o mais conhecido sítio histórico em Aden, Iêmen. O local é composto por uma série de tanques de formato variável, e capacidade. Eles são ligados um ao outro e localizado em Wadi Tawila a sudoeste do distrito mais antigo de Aden, Crater. Originalmente, havia cerca de 53 tanques, mas apenas 13 permanecem na sequência de uma sucessão de reformas, incluindo aqueles feitos pelos britânicos no século 19. Os tanques existentes têm uma capacidade combinada de cerca de dezenove milhões de galões. Os tanques foram projetados para coletar e armazenar a chuva que flui para baixo a partir do maciço Shamsan através de Wadi Tawila, e para proteger a cidade de inundações periódicas. O maior dos tanques são o tanque Coghlan no centro do sítio principal eo grande, circular Playfair Tank, localizado no ponto mais baixo, fora do site principal.

História [editar]
Os tanques foram escavadas nas rochas vulcânicas de Wadi Tawila e depois revestidas com um estuque especial que inclui cinzas vulcânicas para criar um cimento forte, natural que rendeu paredes dos tanques impermeáveis, a fim de reter a água por períodos prolongados.

Visitantes para os tanques são muitas vezes surpreendidos com as palavras em uma placa perto do tanque Coghlan: "Em relação à construção original dos quais nada se sabe com precisão ..." Há, de fato evidências pouco difícil e há poucas fontes confiáveis ​​de informação sobre os tanques. Uma hipótese favorecida é que Himyar, um reino da Arábia pré-islâmica que governou partes do Iémen a partir de 115 aC a 525 dC, começou a construir tanques de água na área, que eventualmente se tornou o Cisternas de Tawila. Os Himiaritas são conhecidos por ter tanques de captação de água utilizados em outras áreas sob o seu domínio. As origens Himyaritic propostas dos tanques pode ajudar a explicar, uma área retangular rebaixada no tanque Coghlan que, segundo o diretor do site, poderia ter sido utilizado em tempos pré-islâmicos para o sacrifício dos animais (um ritual que os Himiaritas eram conhecidos executar para uma variedade de ocasiões, incluindo a seca) [1].

Tanks5.jpg
Os tanques foram mencionados em alguns manuscritos após a vinda do Islam para o Iêmen no século 7 dC "Aden tem tanques que armazenam água quando a chuva cai", escreveu Al-Hamdani no século 10. [2] Al-Makdsi, escrevendo três séculos depois, também registrou a presença de poços e cisternas em Aden. [3] na época da dinastia Rasulid (1229-1454 dC), os tanques tinham caído em desuso. No entanto, os Rassulids reconheceram a utilidade dos tanques e começou a restaurá-los. [4] Esta restauração levou alguns a afirmar que os Rassulids construiu os tanques, obscurecendo, assim, quais são, com toda a probabilidade, as mais antigas origens dos Tanques . Após as Rassulids, os tanques, mais uma vez caiu em desuso, danificadas por inundações e negligência e cheia de escombros de inundações sucessivas.

Até o momento da ocupação britânica de Áden (início em 1839), os tanques tinham sido quase completamente enterrado por detritos transportados para baixo as montanhas por inundações sucessivas. Sir Robert L. Playfair redescoberto os tanques e reconhecido o seu valor potencial. Aden não tinha água fresca e muitas vezes foi cortado de abastecimento de água do continente por tribos hostis. Playfair esperava que os tanques, uma vez reparado, poderia fornecer uma fonte confiável de água para consumo público. Os britânicos conformidade estabelecido para restaurar os tanques para sua função original. No entanto, no processo, o britânico modificou o design e layout dos Tanques significativamente do seu estado original. Com a intenção de armazenar a maior quantidade de água possível, engenheiros britânicos substituído uma intrincada rede de numerosas, pequenas cascatas cisternas ao longo das paredes do vale com alguns, tanques maiores. A capacidade dos tanques "para ambas as enchentes de controle e armazenar água foi, assim, prejudicado, eo local que os turistas visitam hoje é muito mais uma criação britânica vitoriana. Além disso, a remodelação destruiu o que evidência arqueológica pode ter estado presente em relação ao site original, e isso, juntamente com a escassez de provas documentais, fez aprender mais sobre as origens dos Tanques difíceis.


Close-up de Cisternas
Hoje, as cisternas são principalmente um parque público e uma atração turística. Eles não foram preenchidos por pelo menos quinze anos e não servem as necessidades de água da cidade. Eles podem ainda ajudar a inundações, embora a presença de estruturas no saila, ou curso de inundação, que conduz a partir dos tanques para o mar, impede o fluxo da água. No trabalho de restauração significativa foi conduzida sobre os tanques desde a era colonial britânica terminou em 1967. Tempo, inundações, e os visitantes têm feito as suas vítimas nas estruturas. Além disso, a construção, no planalto acima dos tanques pode ameaçar todo o sistema de barrancos e represas que ajudam a enchente de canal para os tanques. O futuro dos Tanques permanece incerto.






Archeologie - Surinaams Museum, Paramaribo, Suriname. --- Archaeology - Museum Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname. --- Arqueologia - Museu Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname

Plantage-eigenaar Christiaan Hering (1829-1907) is in de tweede helft van de negentiende eeuw de eerste die zich met de Surinaamse archeologie bezighoudt. Na hem ligt het onderzoek lang stil, Dick Geijskes (1907-1985) is rond de Tweede Wereldoorlog de eerste die zich in Suriname weer met archeologie bezighoudt. Hij doet opgravingen op de kunstmatige heuvel Hertenrits (1957) en te Kwatta Tingiholo (1961). Geijskes is een voorstander van een zelfstandige archeologische dienst. Deze dienst komt er in 1965, niet als zelfstandig instituut maar als onderdeel van het Surinaams Museum. Museumconservator Piet Bolwerk (geb. 1934) is de eerste chef, in 1973 volgt Arie Boomert (geb. 1946) hem op en van 1975 tot eind 1980 is Aad Versteeg (geb. 1944) als archeoloog aan het museum verbonden. Versteeg onderzoekt zo’n zestig archeologische sites. Ook het bestuurslid en bosbouwer Frans Bubberman (geb. 1928) is zeer actief. Hij ontdekt, vaak samen met medebestuurslid en geoloog Joost Janssen, meer dan tweehonderd sites.



Met het verzamelde materiaal wordt in Fort Zeelandia een archeologische opstelling over de vroegste bewoners van Suriname opgebouwd. De Archeologische Dienst wordt op 1 oktober 1980 een overheidsinstituut onder leiding van Ben Mitrasingh (geb. 1944). Hij vervult deze functie tot het eind van het decennium. Er komt geen opvolger en de Archeologische Dienst versloft. De collectie is sinds 2000 weer ondergebracht bij het Surinaams Museum, dat er met hulp van Versteeg opnieuw een presentatie van samenstelt. Het museum is ook weer actief in het archeologisch onderzoek.



De archeologische collectie bestaat voornamelijk uit aardewerk en is geheel precolumbiaans, ofwel: de archeologie in Suriname richt zich op vondsten van voor 1492. De eerste bewoners van Suriname laten zo’n tienduizend jaar geleden hun sporen na. Van deze vroegste groepen zijn er vondsten, maar is verder weinig bekend. We weten wel hoe Suriname vervolgens bevolkt raakt. Vanuit het westen komen, zo’n 2500 jaar geleden, de Arowakken naar het gebied. Deze landbouwers leven, nadat hun voorgangers verdreven zijn, vaak op kunstmatige heuvels zoals de Hertenrits en verbouwen cassave. Zo’n negenhonderd jaar geleden trekken Cariben vanuit het oosten het huidige Suriname binnen. Van beide taalgroepen is archeologische materiaal in het museum aanwezig. Hieronder vindt u enkele bijzondere stukken.








Fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti














--in via tradutor do google

archeology

Plantation owner Christian Hering (1829-1907) in the second half of the nineteenth century, the first dedicated to the Surinamese archeology. After him is the research still long, Dick Geijskes (1907-1985) is about the Second World War, the first one again dedicated to archeology in Suriname. He's doing excavations on the artificial hill Hertenrits (1957) and Kwatta Tingiholo (1961). Geijskes is a supporter of an independent archaeological department. This service comes in 1965, not as an independent institution but as part of the Suriname Museum. Museum Curator Peter Bolwerk (born 1934) is the first chef in 1973 following Arie Boomert (born 1946) him, and from 1975 to the end of 1980 Aad Versteeg (born 1944) as an archaeologist at the museum. Versteeg examines sixty archaeological sites. The board and forester French Bubberman (born 1928) is very active. He discovered, often together with fellow board member and geologist Joost Janssen, more than two hundred sites.

With the collected material is Fort Zeelandia built an archaeological formation of the earliest inhabitants of Suriname. The Archaeological Service is a government institution under the leadership of Ben Mitra Singh (born in 1944) on October 1, 1980. He holds this position until the end of the decade. There will be no successor and fresh loft Archaeological Service. The collection is again hosted by the Suriname Museum, that another presentation compiles with the help of Versteeg since 2000. The museum is also active again in archaeological research.

The archaeological collection consists mainly of pottery and is entirely Hispanic, either: archeology in Suriname focuses on findings from before 1492. The first inhabitants of Suriname let ten thousand years ago their marks. From this earliest groups are there findings, but is otherwise little is known. We know how Suriname then becomes populated. coming from the west, some 2,500 years ago, the Arawaks to the area. These farmers live after their predecessors were expelled, often on artificial hills like Hertenrits and grow cassava. attract some nine hundred years ago Caribbean from the east within the current Suriname. Both language groups are archaeological material in the museum. Below are some special pieces.







--br via tradutor do google

arqueologia

dono da plantação Christian Hering (1829-1907), na segunda metade do século XIX, a primeira dedicada à arqueologia do Suriname. Depois dele é a pesquisa ainda por muito tempo, Dick Geijskes (1907-1985) é sobre a Segunda Guerra Mundial, a primeira vez dedicado à arqueologia no Suriname. Ele está fazendo escavações na colina artificial Hertenrits (1957) e Kwatta Tingiholo (1961). Geijskes é um torcedor de um departamento arqueológico independente. Este serviço vem em 1965, não como uma instituição independente, mas como parte do Museu Suriname. Curador Peter Bolwerk (nascido em 1934) é o primeiro chef em 1973, após Arie Boomert (nascido em 1946) ele, e de 1975 a fim de 1980 Aad Versteeg (nascido em 1944) como arqueólogo no museu. Versteeg examina sessenta sítios arqueológicos. O conselho e silvicultor Francês Bubberman (nascido em 1928) é muito ativo. Ele descobriu, muitas vezes juntamente com o colega membro do conselho e geólogo Joost Janssen, mais de duas centenas de sites.

Com o material coletado é Fort Zeelandia construiu uma formação arqueológica dos primeiros habitantes do Suriname. O Serviço Arqueológico é uma instituição governamental sob a liderança de Ben Mitra Singh (nascido em 1944), em 01 de outubro de 1980. Ele ocupa este cargo até o final da década. Não haverá nenhum sucessor e fresco sotão Serviço Arqueológico. A coleção é novamente organizada pelo Museu Suriname, que outra apresentação compila com a ajuda de Versteeg desde 2000. O museu também está ativo novamente em pesquisa arqueológica.

A coleção arqueológica consiste principalmente de cerâmica e é totalmente latino-americano, ou: arqueologia no Suriname concentra-se em resultados de antes de 1492. Os primeiros habitantes do Suriname que os dez mil anos atrás, suas marcas. A partir desta primeiros grupos estão lá achados, mas de resto é pouco se sabe. Sabemos como Suriname, em seguida, torna-se povoada. vindo do oeste, cerca de 2.500 anos atrás, os Arawaks para a área. Esses agricultores viver depois de seus antecessores foram expulsos, muitas vezes em colinas artificiais como Hertenrits e crescer mandioca. atrair alguns 900 anos atrás Caraíbas do leste dentro do atual Suriname. Ambos os grupos de idioma são material arqueológico no museu. Abaixo estão algumas peças especiais.

"So this is the strong sex." Women in Psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud Museum, Berggasse 19, 1090 Vienna. --- "Então este é o sexo forte". Mulheres em psicanálise. Sigmund Freud Museum, Bergasse 19, 1090 Viena.

RADICAL INNOVATOR AND STAUNCH CONSERVATIVE: ANNA FREUD’S WARTIME WORK AND CONTRIBUTION TO PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY AND PRACTICE

LECTURE BY INGE PRETORIUS



Although Anna Freud’s professional roots were in Vienna, it was her war-time work in London that formed the foundation of her developmental theory of child psychology. This presentation will begin with Anna Freud’s work in the Hampstead War Nurseries, focussing on the innovations she introduced that are now widely practiced in child-care settings. She highlighted how important the children’s earliest relationships were for their later development and showed that early intervention could mitigate the development of later emotional and behavioural difficulties. Her capacity for penetrating observation and her clear theoretical conceptualisation gave rise to her “double approach” of gathering data – observation and reconstruction – to create a psychoanalytic child psychology. Her contribution to psychoanalysis will be discussed as well as her commitment to use psychoanalytic understanding to influence policy-making. She engaged with structures and institutions in a constructive and political way. Rarely seen photos and letters from the Anna Freud Centre archives will illustrate the presentation.


Inge-Martine Pretorius, PhD and DPsych, qualified as a Child and Adolescent Psychotherapist at the Anna Freud Centre (AFC) in London. She is the manager of the Parent-Toddler Service at the AFC where she runs a weekly parent-toddler group. She is a Clinical Tutor for Psychoanalytic Developmental Psychology at University College London and the AFC where she organises and teaches the MSc Child Development course. She is the curator of the AFC archives. She works part-time in the NHS, running a Child Psychotherapy Service in a Children’s Centre in a deprived area of London.. She has published in the field of molecular genetics and psychoanalysis and is co-editor with Marie Zaphiriou Woods, of Parents and toddlers in groups: a psychoanalytic developmental approach. Routledge: London and New York (2011).

Part of the programme accompanying the exhibition "So this is the strong sex." Women in Psychoanalysis


May 30, 2016, 8 p.m. 
Moderator: Monika Pessler
Admission free






Fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

A Late Antique Christian king from Z. afar, southern Arabia.

Southern Arabia was an important trading partner for the Roman world but owing to geography and politics its archaeology has been less intensively studied than that of neighbouring regions. 



A succession of kingdoms rose and fell in the last centuries BC and first centuries AD, but in the late Roman period the dominant power was H. imyar, with its capital at Z. afar. In 2008 a relief sculpture ¯ was discovered at the site depicting a crowned ruler accompanied by symbols of office. This study reviews the arguments surrounding the date of the sculpture, but more importantly throws light on the cultural and political connections that it embodies. 

The proposal is that it represents an Aksumite puppet-ruler of the sixth century, at a key moment in the history of the H. imyarite kingdom. The crowned king of Z. afar is significant not only in itself but also in helping to delineate the cultural and political ¯ stage on to which Islam was shortly to emerge.

The ancient site of Z. afar is located in the al-Nu ¯ gˇud highlands of the Yemen, close to the ¯ modern village of Qaryat Z. afar (14 ¯ ◦ 12 40 N, 44◦ 24 13 E, GPS). On the south-western slope of the mountain site 500m to the north is the substantial structure known as the Stone Building (Figure 1 and Figure S1 in the online supplement). 



It was here during excavation in 2008 that the upper half of a relief crowned figure with musnad letters (Old South Arabian) was discovered (Figures 2 and 3). In the previous season, four registers of reliefs 9m in length had been revealed in situ in the same building (Figure 4). The standing relief figure of 2008, designated z607, was situated in the courtyard of the building at the southern end of the eastern wall (Figure 5). A nearly identical but fragmented relief followed a year later. 

A range of potential historical associations came to mind in seeking to identify and contextualise the new figure, which measured 1.7m high. The subject of this paper is the dating of the sculpture. From a wide range of possibilities (Yule 2009, 2012) it is argued that the likely age range can be narrowed to the short period between the Aksumite victory over H. imyar in AD 525 and the downfall of Z. afar and the decline of the H ¯ . imyarite kingdom from around AD 541–543. Z. afar was the traditional capital of the H ¯ . imyarite tribal confederacy and the centre of an empire which, together with its allies, dominated 2.5 million square kilometres of Arabia (an area about three-quarters the size of Western Europe) for some 250 years (Gajda 1998; Muller 2007). 



It is the second-largest archaeological site in Arabia, although considerably ¨ smaller than Ma’rib, the core of which alone is larger than the entire mapped rectangle surface of Z. afar. H ¯ . imyarite tribes appear first at the end of the last century BC in an inscription in the defences in the Wadi al-Bana which protected the entrance to H. ad.ramawt from the port of Qani’. During the second quarter of the first century AD the anonymous ¯ Periplus Mari Erythraei, and at about the same time Pliny’s Natural History, make further note of H. imyar (Natural History 6.161; Healey 1991). These sources also briefly describe Z. afar (Sapphar), which is “ ¯ ...nine days’ march inland from the Red Sea, the residence of Charibael, the legitimate king of the two nations, namely of the Homerite and Sabaean” (Periplus Maris Erythraei 23; Casson 1989; Muller 2001). ¨ During and after its meteoric rise to power in the late third century AD H. imyar encountered vicissitudes from without and within, as illustrated by the interregna in the royal calendar and a growing list of royal territorial titles (Yule 2007: 49). 

Great member tribes vied with each other continually for position, as in more recent times in the Yemen. In the wider geographical context, H. imyar was caught between the world power of Christian Byzantium and the Sasanian empire, locked in a deadly struggle. Judaism had been adopted by the H. imyarite upper class before the early fourth century AD through the prestige of Jerusalem and its omnipotent paternal god (Yule 2013a: 48). 


Then, as now, politics intertwined inextricably with religion. The Byzantines and Aksumites sought influence in agriculturally rich south-western Arabia, and the local Jewish gentry were threatened by a flood of Christian Habaˇsites, that is, Aksumites. War broke out in AD 523 and resulted 18 months later in the defeat of the tribal coalition of the H. imyarite king Yusuf As’ar Yath’ar, the ‘Lord of the Curls’ of Arabic tradition. Following ¯ their victory, the Aksumites probably set about to break the power of the Jewish aristocracy of the H. imyarite tribes and their allies. As Christian Robin (2006) has observed, the H. imyarite Age has, until recently, been poorly understood; its late pre-Islamic inhabitants being purportedly poor, isolated, illiterate, lacking a stable political system and living as nomads in the desert. 

Patchy textual sources which often lapse into partisanship were the only available evidence for the history of Christianity in Z. afar and H ¯ . imyar. Conservative studies, written at a time when little material was available, denigrated the H. imyarite period and its culture as decadent (e.g. Schmidt 1997–98). Recent research contradicts this value judgement. Since the 1970s, the tempo of research in Old South Arabia (OSA) has accelerated, and with new archaeological studies there has come a general reinterpretation of H. imyar as a crucible of Judaism, Christianity and the nascent Islam.




Fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti



The National Museum (Yangon), (Burmese: အမျိုးသား ပြတိုက်), located in Dagon, Yangon, is the one of the national museum of Burmese art, history and culture in Myanmar. --- O Museu Nacional (Yangon), (birmanês: အမျိုးသား ပြတိုက်), localizado na Dagon, Yangon, é a do Museu Nacional de Arte da Birmânia, história e cultura em Myanmar.

Founded in 1952, the five-story museum has an extensive collection of ancient artifacts, ornaments, works of art, inscriptions and historic memorabilia, related to history, culture and civilization of Burmese people.

Bayingyis Birmânia


The National Museum of the Union of Burma was first opened in June, 1952 at the Jubilee Hall Building on Shwedagon Pagoda Road, Yangon. The museum was moved to a larger location at 24/26 Pansodan Street in 1970, and to its present location in 1996. The new five story National Museum has been open to public since 18 September 1996.

Bayingyis: o povo de olhos verdes da Birmânia que descende dos portugueses


Burmese culture

The Burmese Epigraphy and Calligraphy hall on the Ground Floor contains exhibits on the origins and development of Burmese script/alphabet throughout history, as well as exhibits on other ancient and ethnic scripts.


In the hall on culture are exhibits on Burmese rural life, covering social, economic and cultural traditions and modes of transport. Examples include a traditional Burmese bullock cart, still in use in many parts of the country, an offering bowl for monks, gilded and wrought with mosaics of semi-precious stones, and personal ornaments and jewelry worn by the Burmese people since ancient times.


The Halls of Arts covers the progress of the Burmese art, beginning with the cave paintings of from stone age to the Bagan, Innwa, Taungoo, Konbaung and Yadanabon periods to 20th century contemporary art. The works of famous artists are on display.


In the Hall of Performing Arts are many musical instruments and an ornate saingwaing (traditional Burmese orchestra) as well as marionettes used in classical dramas and operas.


The Hall of Ethnic Culture on Fourth floor shows national dresses and traditional artifacts of various ethnic groups of Myanmar.


Fourth floor of the museum consists of halls for the Buddha Images, dating back to the Pyu Period and up to the present day.



Historic periods

In the exhibit hall on Natural History are many fossils dating back millions of years, including a 40-million-year-old an anthropoid primate, found in the Pondaung region in Upper Myanmar.

The hall of Pre-historic Times houses a replica of the Padalin Cave, complete with its over 10,000-year-old stone age drawings, stone weapons of the neolithic period, and bronze weapons of a later age. The hall also has exhibits on Pyu period (1st-to-9th century) artifacts such as clay pots, urns, votive tablets and necklaces as well as those found in archaeological excavations at the ancient Pyu city of Sriksetra.


In the hall of Burmese History are exhibits on the pagodas, temples, monasteries and ordination halls of the Bagan Period and the marvelous murals of the Pinya, Innwa, Taungoo, and Konbaung periods. Rare ancient votive tablets with moldings from scenes of the jataka stories are also on display.

The Royal Regalia hall houses displays of beautifully ornamented objects used in royal ceremonies of ancient kings from different periods.

The Throne Room houses miniature models of the eight kinds of thrones of ancient Burmese kings and the magnificent Royal Lion Throne of the last Burmese monarch King Thibaw in all its original majesty, used in Hluttaw Hall (or Hall of Council of Ministers).



The Yadanabon Period Exhibit hall has displays on clothing fashions, furniture and other household articles of the time such as a palanquin used by King Thibaw's Chief Abbot.






Fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti


Bayingyis Birmânia

National Museum of Myanmar

အမျိုးသား ပြတိုက်

Cultura e conhecimento são ingredientes essenciais para a sociedade.

A cultura é o único antídoto que existe contra a ausência de amor

Vamos compartilhar.








--br via tradutor do google
O Museu Nacional (Yangon), (birmanês: အမျိုးသား ပြတိုက်), localizado na Dagon, Yangon, é a do Museu Nacional de Arte da Birmânia, história e cultura em Myanmar.

Fundada em 1952, o museu de cinco andares tem uma extensa coleção de artefatos antigos, ornamentos, obras de arte, inscrições e recordações históricas, relacionadas com a história, cultura e civilização do povo birmanês.

O Museu Nacional da União da Birmânia foi inaugurado em junho de 1952, no edifício da Câmara Jubilee em Shwedagon Pagoda Road, Yangon. O museu foi transferido para um local maior em 24/26 Pansodan Rua em 1970, e para sua posição atual em 1996. O novo cinco andares Museu Nacional foi aberto ao público desde 18 de Setembro de 1996.



cultura birmanesa
O salão birmanês Epigrafia e Caligrafia no piso térreo contém exposições sobre as origens eo desenvolvimento da birmanês script / alfabeto ao longo da história, bem como exposições sobre outros scripts antigos e étnicas.

No hall de cultura são exposições sobre a vida rural birmanês, cobrindo tradições e modos de transporte sociais, económicos e culturais. Os exemplos incluem um carro de boi birmanês tradicional, ainda em uso em muitas partes do país, uma tigela de oferta para os monges, dourado e forjado com mosaicos de pedras semi-preciosas e adornos pessoais e jóias usados ​​por o povo birmanês desde os tempos antigos.

The Halls of Arts abrange o progresso da arte birmanês, começando com as pinturas rupestres de de idade da pedra para os períodos de Bagan, Innwa, Taungoo, Konbaung e Yadanabon à arte contemporânea do século 20. As obras de artistas famosos estão em exibição.

No Salão de Artes Cênicas muitos instrumentos musicais e um saingwaing ornamentado (orquestra birmanês tradicional), bem como marionetes usado em dramas clássicos e óperas.

O Hall da cultura étnica no quarto andar mostra vestidos nacionais e artefatos tradicionais de vários grupos étnicos de Mianmar.

Quarto andar do museu é composto de salas para as imagens de Buda, que remonta ao Período Pyu e até os dias atuais.

períodos históricos
No salão de exposições de História Natural são muitos fósseis que datam de milhões de anos, incluindo a 40 milhões de anos de idade, um primata antropóide, encontrado na região de Pondaung no Alto Myanmar.

O salão dos tempos pré-históricos abriga uma réplica da Padalin Cave, completo com seus desenhos idade da pedra mais de 10.000 anos de idade, armas de pedra do período neolítico, e armas de bronze de uma idade mais avançada. O salão também tem exposições sobre período Pyu (1º-se do século 9) artefatos como potes de barro, urnas, placas votivas e colares, bem como aqueles encontrados em escavações arqueológicas na cidade antiga Pyu de Sriksetra.

No hall de História da Birmânia são exposições sobre os pagodes, templos, mosteiros e salas de coordenação do Período Bagan e os murais maravilhosos dos períodos Pinya, Innwa, Taungoo, e Konbaung. Raros antigos placas votivas com molduras de cenas das histórias jataka também estão em exposição.
O salão real Regalia abriga exposições de objetos lindamente ornamentados usadas em cerimônias reais de antigos reis de diferentes períodos.

As casas Throne Room modelos em miniatura dos oito tipos de tronos de reis birmaneses antigos e o magnífico Royal Lion Trono do último monarca birmanês Rei Thibaw em toda sua majestade original, usado em Hluttaw Hall (ou Salão do Conselho de Ministros).

O salão de exposições Período Yadanabon tem exposições sobre moda vestuário, móveis e outros artigos de uso doméstico da época, como um palanquim usado pelo Chefe Abbot do Rei Thibaw.

http://www.myanmar.com/Ministry/culture/index.htm

Bayingyis Birmânia

Museu Nacional de Myanmar

အမျိုးသား ပြတိုက်