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segunda-feira, 17 de abril de 2017

Should the Elgin Marbles be returned to Greece? --- Σε περίπτωση που η Ελγίνεια Μάρμαρα να επιστραφούν στην Ελλάδα; --- Os Mármores Elgin devem ser devolvidos à Grécia?

The Elgin Marbles also known as the Parthenon Marbles, are a collection of Classical Greek art made under the supervision of the architect and sculptor Phidias and his assistants. 

They were originally part of the temple of the Parthenon and other buildings on the Acropolis of Athens. Following a public debate in Parliament and the subsequent exoneration of Elgin, the marbles were purchased from Elgin by the British government in 1816 and were passed to the British Museum, where they are on display in the purpose-built Duveen Gallery. Since then the marbles are placed in London and the British Government never gave them back to Greece when they belong.

The British Museum claims that the removal of the objects saved them from destruction, as they were not being protected at the time. However, times have changed. If the marbles are returned to Greece, they will be in a museum. Greece has built the New Acropolis Museum featuring state-of-the-art design and technology which ensures protection of its collection. What’s more, the New Acropolis Museum is a mere 300 meters from the Acropolis, allowing the marbles to be seen as intended—basking in the Greek sunlight. 

To fully appreciate the artistic and historical significance of the friezes, they should be viewed in their context of the Acropolis mount, a hillside covered with art venerating the gods watching over Athens. The British Museum has unequivocally stated that it will not return the marbles to Greece but, maybe the country has some options. Just as Italy leveraged its vast collections and archaeologically-rich resources against American museums, perhaps Greece could do the same. Over the past decade, museums across the U.S. returned looted objects to Italy after Italian officials threatened to withhold all Italian loans.

The fear of losing access to Italian objects pressured museums to comply with Italy’s demands. As Greece has a rich archaeological trove, bargaining may be successful. International fervor is rising over the dig at Amphipolis, an elaborate burial site in Northern Greece that may contain the remains of a relative of Alexander the Great. Prohibiting British archaeologists to access the site and barring any finds from going to British institutions may be one way to apply pressure for the return of some of the Parthenon Marbles. This type of action is necessary. The Parthenon is not just cultural heritage, but a symbol of Greece and the glory of Athens. They shouldn’t be in a different country than Greece.We can’t change the history and especially we can’t ‘’steal’’ history of other country.

In addition, following the global recession in 2008, Greece has found itself burdened by massive debts and forced to live under policies of austerity that the Financial Times has described as turning the country into a “quasi-slave" economy. Youth unemployed is about 50 per cent and suicide rates have soared. The country has also had to deal with hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing the brutal war in Syria and desperate poverty and religious extremism in other countries. Returning the sculptures would boost public morale and also tourism, a mainstay of the Greek economy.In conclusion, the Elgin Marbles should and have to be returned to their ‘’mother’’ in Greece. 

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti

Cultura não é o que entra pelos olhos e ouvidos,
mas o que modifica o jeito de olhar e ouvir. 

A cultura e o amor devem estar juntos.

Vamos compartilhar.

Culture is not what enters the eyes and ears, 
but what modifies the way of looking and hearing.

--gr via tradutor do google
Σε περίπτωση που η Ελγίνεια Μάρμαρα να επιστραφούν στην Ελλάδα;

Η Ελγίνεια Μάρμαρα, επίσης γνωστή ως Γλυπτών του Παρθενώνα, είναι μια συλλογή της κλασικής ελληνικής τέχνης γίνονται υπό την επίβλεψη του αρχιτέκτονα και γλύπτη Φειδία και τους βοηθούς του.

Ήταν αρχικά μέρος του ναού του Παρθενώνα και άλλα κτίσματα της Ακρόπολης των Αθηνών. Μετά από δημόσια συζήτηση στο Κοινοβούλιο και την επακόλουθη απαλλαγή του Έλγιν, τα μάρμαρα αγοράστηκαν από Έλγιν από τη βρετανική κυβέρνηση το 1816 και πέρασαν στο Βρετανικό Μουσείο, όπου εκτίθενται στον σκοπό κατασκευής Duveen Gallery. Από τότε τα μάρμαρα τοποθετούνται στο Λονδίνο και η βρετανική κυβέρνηση ποτέ δεν τους έδωσε πίσω στην Ελλάδα, όταν ανήκουν.

Το Βρετανικό Μουσείο ισχυρίζεται ότι η αφαίρεση των αντικειμένων τους έσωσε από την καταστροφή, δεδομένου ότι δεν προστατεύεται κατά το χρόνο. Ωστόσο, οι καιροί έχουν αλλάξει. Αν τα μάρμαρα επιστραφούν στην Ελλάδα, θα είναι σε ένα μουσείο. Η Ελλάδα έχει κατασκευαστεί το Νέο Μουσείο της Ακρόπολης διαθέτει state-of-the-art design και την τεχνολογία που εξασφαλίζει την προστασία της συλλογής της. Επιπλέον, το Νέο Μουσείο της Ακρόπολης είναι μόλις 300 μέτρα από την Ακρόπολη, επιτρέποντας τα μάρμαρα πρέπει να θεωρηθεί ως στόχο-προσκυνητή στο ελληνικό ήλιο.

Για να εκτιμήσουμε πλήρως την καλλιτεχνική και ιστορική σημασία των ζωφόρων, θα πρέπει να εξεταστεί στο πλαίσιο του του όρους της Ακρόπολης, πλαγιά ενός λόφου που καλύπτεται με την τέχνη να λατρεύει τους θεούς παρακολουθούν πάνω από την Αθήνα. Το Βρετανικό Μουσείο έχει κατηγορηματικά δήλωσε ότι δεν θα επιστρέψει τα μάρμαρα στην Ελλάδα, αλλά, ίσως η χώρα έχει κάποιες επιλογές. Ακριβώς όπως η Ιταλία μόχλευση τεράστιες συλλογές και αρχαιολογικά πλούσια σε πόρους εις βάρος των αμερικανικών μουσείων, ίσως η Ελλάδα θα μπορούσε να κάνει το ίδιο. Κατά την τελευταία δεκαετία, τα μουσεία σε όλη την ΗΠΑ επέστρεψε αρχαιοτήτων στην Ιταλία μετά την ιταλική υπαλλήλους απείλησε να παρακρατήσει όλα τα ιταλικά δάνεια.

Ο φόβος της απώλειας της πρόσβασης στην ιταλική αντικείμενα πιέζονται τα μουσεία για να συμμορφωθεί με τις απαιτήσεις της Ιταλίας. Δεδομένου ότι η Ελλάδα έχει μια πλούσια αρχαιολογική αδέσποτος, διαπραγμάτευση μπορεί να είναι επιτυχής. Διεθνής θέρμη αυξάνεται πάνω από την ανασκαφή στην Αμφίπολη, ένα περίτεχνο χώρο ταφής στη Βόρεια Ελλάδα που μπορεί να περιέχουν τα λείψανα ενός συγγενή του Μεγάλου Αλεξάνδρου. Η απαγόρευση Βρετανοί αρχαιολόγοι για να αποκτήσετε πρόσβαση στην ιστοσελίδα και η οποία αποκλείει τυχόν ευρήματα από το να πηγαίνουν στο βρετανικό ιδρύματα μπορεί να είναι ένας τρόπος για να ασκήσει πίεση για την επιστροφή μέρους των Γλυπτών του Παρθενώνα. Αυτό το είδος της δράσης είναι απαραίτητη. Ο Παρθενώνας δεν είναι μόνο πολιτιστική κληρονομιά, αλλά ένα σύμβολο της Ελλάδα και η δόξα της Αθήνας. Δεν θα πρέπει να είναι σε διαφορετική χώρα από Greece.We δεν μπορεί να αλλάξει την ιστορία και κυρίως δεν μπορούμε να «» κλέψουν»» την ιστορία της άλλης χώρας.

Επιπλέον, μετά την παγκόσμια ύφεση το 2008, η Ελλάδα έχει βρεθεί επιβαρυνθεί με τεράστια χρέη και αναγκάζονται να ζουν σύμφωνα με τις πολιτικές της λιτότητας που οι Financial Times χαρακτήρισε ως μετατρέποντας τη χώρα σε μια οικονομία «οιονεί σκλάβων». Νέων ανέργων είναι περίπου 50 τοις εκατό και την αυτοκτονία τιμές έχουν εκτοξευθεί στα ύψη. Η χώρα έχει επίσης να ασχοληθεί με εκατοντάδες χιλιάδες πρόσφυγες που εγκαταλείπουν τη βάρβαρη πολέμου στη Συρία και την απελπιστική φτώχεια και τον θρησκευτικό εξτρεμισμό και σε άλλες χώρες. Η επιστροφή των γλυπτών θα ενισχύσει τη δημόσια ηθικό, αλλά και τον τουρισμό, ένα στήριγμα της σύναψης ελληνική economy.In, τα Ελγίνεια Μάρμαρα πρέπει και πρέπει να επιστραφεί τους «» μητέρα «» στην Ελλάδα.

--br via tradutor do google
Os Mármores Elgin devem ser devolvidos à Grécia?

Os mármores de Elgin conhecidos também como os mármores do Parthenon, são uma coleção da arte grega clássica feita sob a supervisão do arquiteto e do escultor Phidias e de seus assistentes.

Eles eram originalmente parte do templo do Partenon e outros edifícios na Acrópole de Atenas. Após um debate público no Parlamento e a subsequente exoneração de Elgin, os mármores foram adquiridos a Elgin pelo governo britânico em 1816 e passaram para o Museu Britânico, onde estão expostos na construída Galeria Duveen. Desde então os mármores são colocados em Londres e o governo britânico nunca os devolveu à Grécia quando eles pertencem.

O Museu Britânico afirma que a remoção dos objetos salvou-os da destruição, como eles não estavam sendo protegidos no momento. No entanto, os tempos mudaram. Se os mármores forem devolvidos à Grécia, estarão em um museu. A Grécia construiu o Novo Museu da Acrópole com o estado-da-arte de design e tecnologia que garante a proteção de sua coleção. Além disso, o Novo Museu da Acrópole fica a apenas 300 metros da Acrópole, permitindo que os mármores sejam vistos como se pretendesse - basking na luz solar grega.

Para apreciar plenamente o significado artístico e histórico dos frisos, eles devem ser vistos no contexto da montagem da Acrópole, uma colina coberta de arte venerando os deuses vigiando Atenas. O Museu Britânico inequivocamente afirmou que não vai devolver os mármores para a Grécia, mas, talvez o país tem algumas opções. Assim como a Itália alavancou suas vastas coleções e recursos arqueologicamente ricos contra os museus americanos, talvez a Grécia pudesse fazer o mesmo. Durante a última década, museus em todo os Estados Unidos devolveram objetos saqueados a Itália depois que autoridades italianas ameaçaram reter todos os empréstimos italianos.

O medo de perder o acesso a objetos italianos pressionou os museus a cumprir as exigências da Itália. Como a Grécia tem um tesouro arqueológico rico, negociação pode ser bem sucedida. O fervor internacional está aumentando sobre a escavação em Amphipolis, um local de enterro elaborado em Greece do norte que pode conter os remains de um parente de Alexander o grande. Proibir arqueólogos britânicos de aceder ao local e proibir qualquer descoberta de ir para instituições britânicas pode ser uma forma de aplicar pressão para o regresso de alguns mármores do Partenon. Este tipo de ação é necessária. O Partenon não é apenas um patrimônio cultural, mas sim um símbolo da Grécia e da glória de Atenas. Eles não devem estar em um país diferente do que Greece.We não pode mudar a história e, especialmente, não podemos "roubar" a história de outro país.

Além disso, após a recessão global em 2008, a Grécia se viu sobrecarregada por enormes dívidas e forçada a viver sob políticas de austeridade que o Financial Times descreveu como transformando o país em uma economia "quase escravo" .Os jovens desempregados são cerca de 50 O país também teve de lidar com centenas de milhares de refugiados que fogem da brutal guerra na Síria e da pobreza desesperada e do extremismo religioso em outros países. Retornar as esculturas aumentaria a moral pública e também o turismo, um pilar Da economia grega.Em conclusão, os Mármores Elgin deve e deve ser devolvido à sua "mãe" na Grécia.

Museum of Flops it's in Sweden. --- Museu dos Falhanços. na Suécia.

On June 7, West, a collector and self-described innovation researcher, will debut 51 failed products in a museum exhibition in the Swedish city of Helsingborg, all in the name of honoring the creative process.

Visitors will get reacquainted with familiar names like Betamax and Blockbuster, and perhaps meet lesser-known flops — Twitter Peek, anyone? — all of which West has been collecting for the past year.

"Even the biggest baddest most competent companies fail," West tells Business Insider. "The trick is to create an organizational culture that accepts failure so that you can fail small ... rather than failing big."

West says it's been difficult trying to secure the items in his collection, given they're all discontinued. The project is a labor of love.

Many of the products lasted only a few years. The smartphone and gaming device Nokia N-Gage, for instance, was on sale from 2003 to 2005.

Nokia released the device as a challenger to the Nintendo Game Boy, but critics quickly took issue with its odd design and button layout.

Nokia tried to upgrade with the redesigned N-Gage QD in 2004, but ultimately sold only a few million units before discontinuing the device altogether.

Even further back was the Apple Newton, which ran for a bit longer between 1993 and 1998. The poor handwriting software and high cost contributed to its demise.

The Newton first retailed for $699. Adjusting for inflation, the device would cost $1,178 today.

Hospitals made brief use of it in the mid-1990s, but ultimately Apple struggled to capture market share from the Palm Pilot — another digital assistant of the time.

The one saving grace: Steve Jobs later retooled Apple's approach to personal computing to create the iPhone and iPad.

A lesser-known flop is the CueCat, a barcode reader launched in 2000 that few consumers found any use for. The idea was to direct people to a website — via scanning a magazine, for example — rather than typing in the URL.

Back in 2009, when Twitter was still relatively new, a company called Peek released the TwitterPeek. It was a $200 device that only accessed Twitter — something few people decided was important enough to buy.

Peek Inc., the parent company of the device, launched its first product in 2008. The device, also known as the Peek, solely sent emails.

Since 2012, the company has shifted away from personal devices to focus on cloud technology.

Kodak's DC40 digital camera was among the first of its kind when it was released in 1995, but it's considered a failure largely because of Kodak's eventual bankruptcy in 2012, West says. The company failed to consider how big online photo-sharing would get.

In the 1970s, Sony's Betamax was viewed as the superior choice to VCR. It was faster and offered a clearer picture. But Sony's failure to capture the video-rental market sent it scrambling for market share.

The so-called "Format Wars" ended soon after JVC began gobbling up market share; however, Sony didn't officially stop manufacturing Betamax players until 2002.

And it wasn't until 2016 that the company stopped making the cassette tapes that had long been irrelevant.

The video renal market eventually went bust, however. As Netflix began shipping movies directly to people's homes (and as streaming video became more popular), Blockbuster found itself struggling to entice buyers. It went bankrupt in 2010.

Beverage companies are known for creative (and sometimes puzzling) innovations. One casualty was Coke II, or New Coke as it was first branded, which replaced Classic Coke on shelves in early 1984.

Within months, customers demanded that Coke begin selling its original formula again. New Coke was eventually discontinued in 2002.

The story isn't all bad: Though New Coke has been called a failure, sales of Classic Coke ended up surpassing Pepsi by the end of 1985. New Coke may have left a positive impact after all.

A clearer failure was Coke BlaK. The coffee-flavored soda was released in 2006 and promptly discontinued in 2008 after complaints about the poor taste combination and excessive caffeine.

In the 1980s, Colgate produced a line of frozen dinners, encouraging people to eat a branded dinner before brushing their teeth with Colgate toothpaste. West describes the flop succinctly: "Brand extension failure."

Speaking of brand extensions, the motorcycle company Harley-Davidson released its own line of perfumes and colognes in 1996. They were called "Hot Road" and contained woody notes with hints of tobacco.

But perhaps the most unsettling failure in West's collection is the Rejuvenique facial mask, which delivered mild electric shocks to the wearer's face.

The electricity would contract the facial muscles in an effort to lift and tone. It was released in 1999 to less-than-enthusiastic reviews.

Source: Time

Cultura não é o que entra pelos olhos e ouvidos,
mas o que modifica o jeito de olhar e ouvir. 

A cultura e o amor devem estar juntos.

Vamos compartilhar.

Culture is not what enters the eyes and ears, 
but what modifies the way of looking and hearing.

Museu dos Falhanços. na Suécia.
Um perfume com fragrância de couro da Harley Davidson, uma lasanha da Colgate, uma Coca-Cola com sabor a café e uma máscara para eletrochoques faciais são alguns exemplos de invenções fracassadas.

Chama-se "Museu dos Falhanços" e vai reunir alguns dos maiores flops da história recente. Invenções lançadas por marcas conhecidas e que não conquistaram, de todo, público e que o psicólogo Samuel West decidiu reunir e mostrar. Conta a edição online da revista Quartz que West está "cansado" do "mundo a adorar o sucesso". "Cada fracasso é excecionalmente espetacular, enquanto o sucesso é repetitivamente nauseabundo", salienta o investigador. "A verdadeira inovação exige aprender com as complexidades de cada falha", uma habilidade que, segundo West, "a maioria das empresas não conseguem aprimorar" .

O museu vai ser Inaugurado em junho em Helsingborg, na Suécia, e vai tentar tirar o estigma ao fracasso pessoal e profissional. Colgate, a empresa de dentífrico, tentou apostar nas refeições congeladas nos anos 80 com a lasanha de carne, mas descobriu que as pessoas não estavam particularmente ansiosas para comprar comida da sua empresa de pasta de dentes.

A Coca-Cola Blak, uma bebida de Coca-Cola com sabor de café, durou apenas dois anos (2006 a 2008). E a Harley Davidson, a marca de motociclos de culto, derrapou com o seu perfume "Hot Road". com uma fragrância a couro de moto.

Outros produtos falharam devido a seu design terrível. Como o Nokia N-Gage, o smartphone e o sistema de jogos portáteis, lançado em 2003. Foi muito mal projetado: tinha que ser desmontado para mudar jogos; o número de jogos era reduzido e para abri-lo só com muita força.

Depois, há os produtos que não foram em si um fracasso, mas foram parte integrante do pensamento que, em última análise condenou as suas empresas. Um dos exemplos que pode ser visto no Museu é o DVD Blockbuster: Isso foi, naturalmente, um movimento desastroso. A falha de adaptação do Blockbuster garantiu sua falência em 2013 e preparou o caminho de sucesso da Netflix.

Da mesma forma, a câmara digital da Kodak poderia ter facilitado o domínio contínuo da empresa - se os gestores tivessem logo percebido que a partilha de fotos online era o futuro. Em vez disso, continuou a promover a impressão de fotos e entrou em falência em 2012, meses antes de o Facebook comprar Instagram por mil milhões de dólares.

Alguns produtos são inacreditáveis mesmo, como uma máscara terrível promovida pela atriz Linda Evans em 1999, que supostamente embelezava o rosto através de choques elétricos várias vezes por mês.

Samuel West quer que a sua exposição incentive a sociedade a respeitar o fracasso, em vez de o ridicularizar ou ignorar. "A aprendizagem é o único processo que transforma a falha em sucesso", diz West. "Então, se você não aprender com seus fracassos então você está realmente lixado." Simples como isso", sublinha o psicólogo.