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quinta-feira, 16 de novembro de 2017

In Washington, a sulphurous Bible museum opens near the Capitol. - À Washington, un sulfureux musée de la Bible ouvre près du Capitole. - Em Washington, um museu da Bíblia sulfuroso se abre perto do Capitólio.

A gigantic museum funded by a controversial evangelical family will be inaugurated Friday. With fake olive trees, hummus and falafel ...



Rarely has a museum sparked so much controversy and criticism before its opening, scheduled for Friday, November 17. First there is its founder and main funder, Steve Green. The Green has made a fortune at the head of Hobby Lobby, a chain of creative hobby stores with more than 500 branches across the country and 13,000 employees. They are hard-working evangelical Christians, who close their shops on Sundays, believe in the literal interpretation of the Bible and finance all kinds of Christian causes, universities, religious films, bookshops ...


The Green became famous in 2014, when they stood up to the Obama administration. They took legal action by refusing to pay the health insurance of their employees if it included the reimbursement of certain contraceptive methods, because that went against their religious ideas. The Supreme Court upheld them and they became ultra right heroes.

A stone's throw from Capitole


When they announced the construction of a Bible Museum in Washington, some thought they would make it a temple to the glory of the Christian fundamentalist. The nation is "in danger," said Steve Green, "because of ignorance of the teachings of God." According to him, the mission of the museum was to "give life to the living word of God", "to inspire confidence in the absolute authority and reliability of the Bible". He had even thought of distributing religious leaflets to the visitors.

Then there was the choice of the location of the museum in Washington, close to the Capitol. This has been interpreted as a propaganda and lobbying goal for conservative causes. Finally, there is the origin of the exhibits. The Green started collecting tablets and sacred texts in 2009. In a remarkably short time, they assembled more than 40,000 objects.

Antiques illegally exported

But a few months ago, they had to pay a $ 3 million fine for acquiring antiquities illegally exported from Iraq and returned more than 5,000 items. However, there are still doubts about the authenticity of certain pieces, including some Dead Sea Scrolls that they have exhibited in the museum. As a result, in the windows, a precise note: "Are these fragments true? The search continues. "


For our first visit, we did not really know what to expect when we arrived in front of the imposing building. First of all, it is clear that the museum's mission, at least officially, has changed. The goal, reads the website, is to "invite all people to take an interest in the history, the story and the impact of the Bible". In front of the reporters, Steve Green repeats in loop that "the role of the museum is not to marry a faith or to proselytize". "We just want to present the facts of the book. And it's up to the visitor to make up his own mind. "

Jesus, the false olive trees and the bleating of the goats

And it is true that the different exhibitions do not try to interpret or evangelize the crowds. No doubt because the museum has hired respected experts and academics who have striven to offer more balanced perspectives. Finally, we do not go out either converted or convinced. The museum is a mix of odds and ends, a bit confusing, which seems to have been designed for different audiences and leaves nothing to be desired.

There is a Disneyland part, where we see a reenactment of Nazareth under Jesus with fake olive trees and the bleat of the goats. A dive sound and light in the Old Testament with Cain and Abel, the Flood, the passage of the Red Sea ... A garden of Eden a little sad, probably because, as the program explains, at the latitudes of Washington, it is difficult to grow plants of Galilee. Not to mention a restaurant, called Manne, which offers, besides hummus and falafels, cheese macaroni and fries with aioli, well-known biblical food.



The top floor, instead, is for scholars who know their religious history on the fingertips. It shows how the Bible was inspired by older texts such as The Epic of Gilgamesh, limited to a small number to become, after Gutenberg, the most widely read book in the world. But it lacks explanations on how the Bible was written and transmitted, on the variants, the apocryphal gospels ... No doubt because, if we show the different versions and disagreements between Christians, it calls into question the reliability of text.

For the average visitor, the most interesting floor is one that describes the influence of the Bible on culture, music, architecture, science and, of course, American history. "The goal was not to give too much of an evangelical or American perspective," says Dr. Gordon Campbell, a specialist in religious studies at the University of Leicester, who advised the museum. Evangelicals also tend to see only the positive contributions of the Bible. The historians responsible for the project were therefore keen to rectify the prospect a little, without, they say, having been pressured by the Green. For example, in the debate on slavery, the Bible served both in the arguments of both sides. In one of the windows, we can see a Bible for slaves expurgated passages that could give them hope as the Exodus.

Mary has her wall

To prove that it is not a purely evangelical museum, there is, for example, a section of wall dedicated to Mary, whose role is much more important among Catholics. Madonna's pictures also include a photo of an Indian with her baby, an immigrant on Ellis Island. Not very politically correct for the Conservatives.
George Washington © Image of George Washington, "The Prayer at Valley" by Arnold FribergThe famous painting of The Prayer at Valley Forge, where George Washington is seen kneeling praying near his horse, is controversial © Image of George Washington, "The Prayer at Valley" by Arnold Friberg

There is only one painting that the museum absolutely wanted to exhibit despite the hostile opinion of the experts. This is Arnold Friberg's famous painting, The Prayer at Valley Forge, where George Washington is praying on his knees beside his horse. This is probably historically wrong. The first president of the United States was not religious and did not pray on his knees. But the painting has become a symbol. The notice notes that his religious feelings "are a subject of debate" and that this painting depicts an "imaginary moment". This may well displease evangelicals ...







http://www.lepoint.fr/monde/le-journal-de-trump/a-washington-un-sulfureux-musee-de-la-bible-ouvre-pres-du-capitole-15-11-2017-2172469_3241.php

Cultura não é o que entra pelos olhos e ouvidos,
mas o que modifica o jeito de olhar e ouvir. 

A cultura e o amor devem estar juntos.
Vamos compartilhar.

Culture is not what enters the eyes and ears, 
but what modifies the way of looking and hearing.







--fr
À Washington, un sulfureux musée de la Bible ouvre près du Capitole.

Un gigantesque musée financé par une famille évangélique controversée sera inauguré vendredi. Avec de faux oliviers, de l'houmous et des falafels...

Rarement un musée aura suscité autant de polémiques et de critiques avant son ouverture, programmée pour ce vendredi 17 novembre. Il y a d'abord son fondateur et principal bailleur de fonds, Steve Green. Les Green ont fait fortune à la tête d'Hobby Lobby, une chaîne de magasins de loisirs créatifs qui compte plus de 500 succursales dans tout le pays et emploie 13 000 personnes. Ce sont des chrétiens évangéliques purs et durs, qui ferment leurs magasins le dimanche, croient en l'interprétation littérale de la Bible et financent toutes sortes de causes chrétiennes, des universités, des films religieux, des librairies…
Les Green sont devenus célèbres en 2014, lorsqu'ils ont tenu tête à l'administration Obama. Ils ont intenté une action en justice en refusant de payer l'assurance santé de leurs employés si elle comportait le remboursement de certains moyens contraceptifs, car ça allait à l'encontre de leurs idées religieuses. La Cour suprême leur a donné gain de cause et ils sont devenus des héros de la droite ultra.

À deux pas du Capitole

Lorsqu'ils ont annoncé la construction d'un musée de la Bible à Washington, certains ont pensé qu'ils allaient en faire un temple à la gloire du fondamentaliste chrétien. La nation est « en danger », avait déclaré Steve Green, « à cause de l'ignorance des enseignements de Dieu ». Selon lui, la mission du musée était de « donner vie à la parole vivante de Dieu », d'« inspirer confiance dans l'autorité absolue et la fiabilité de la Bible ». Il avait même pensé distribuer à la sortie des tracts religieux aux visiteurs.
Il y a eu, ensuite, le choix de l'emplacement du musée à Washington, à deux pas du Capitole. Cela a été interprété comme un but de propagande et de lobbying pour les causes conservatrices. Il y a, enfin, l'origine des pièces exposées. Les Green ont commencé à collectionner des tablettes et des textes sacrés en 2009. En un temps remarquablement court, ils ont assemblé plus de 40 000 objets.

Antiquités exportées illégalement

Mais, il y a quelques mois, ils ont dû payer 3 millions de dollars d'amende pour avoir acquis des antiquités exportées illégalement d'Irak et ont rendu plus de 5 000 objets. Il reste cependant des doutes sur l'authenticité de certaines pièces, dont quelques manuscrits de la mer Morte qu'ils ont exposés dans le musée. Du coup, dans les vitrines, une notice précise : « Est-ce que ces fragments sont vrais ? La recherche continue. »

Pour notre première visite, on ne savait pas très bien à quoi s'attendre en arrivant devant le bâtiment imposant. Tout d'abord, il est clair que la mission du musée, du moins officiellement, a changé. Le but, lit-on sur le site internet, est d'« inviter tous les gens à s'intéresser à l'histoire, au récit et à l'impact de la Bible ». Devant les journalistes, Steve Green répète en boucle que « le rôle du musée n'est pas d'épouser une foi ou de faire du prosélytisme ». « Nous voulons juste présenter les faits du livre. Et c'est au visiteur de se faire sa propre opinion. »

Jésus, les faux oliviers et le bêlement des chèvres

Et il est vrai que les différences expositions n'essaient pas de donner d'interprétation ou d'évangéliser les foules. Sans doute car le musée a embauché des experts et des universitaires respectés qui se sont efforcés d'offrir des perspectives plus balancées. Finalement, on ne sort ni converti ni convaincu. Le musée est un mélange de bric et de broc un peu déroutant, qui semble avoir été conçu pour différents publics et laisse sur sa faim.
Il y a une partie Disneyland, où l'on voit une reconstitution de Nazareth sous Jésus avec de faux oliviers et le bêlement enregistré des chèvres. Une plongée son et lumière dans l'Ancien Testament avec Caïn et Abel, le Déluge, le passage de la mer Rouge… Un jardin de l'Eden un peu tristounet, sans doute parce que, comme l'explique le programme, aux latitudes de Washington, il est difficile de faire pousser des plantes de Galilée. Sans oublier un restaurant, baptisé Manne, qui offre, outre de l'houmous et des falafels, des macaronis au fromage et des frites à l'aïoli, nourriture biblique bien connue.


Le dernier étage, lui, s'adresse plutôt à des érudits qui connaissent leur histoire religieuse sur le bout des doigts. On y montre comment la Bible s'est inspirée de textes plus anciens comme L'Épopée de Gilgamesh, limité à un petit nombre jusqu'à devenir, après Gutenberg, le livre le plus lu au monde. Mais il manque des explications sur la manière dont la Bible a été écrite et transmise, sur les variantes, les évangiles apocryphes… Sans doute parce que, si l'on montre les différentes versions et les désaccords entre chrétiens, cela remet en question la fiabilité du texte.

Pour le visiteur lambda, l'étage le plus intéressant est celui qui décrit l'influence de la Bible sur la culture, la musique, l'architecture, la science et, bien sûr, l'histoire américaine. « Le but était de ne pas donner une perspective trop évangélique ou trop américaine », explique le Dr Gordon Campbell, un spécialiste d'études religieuses à l'université de Leicester, qui a conseillé le musée. Les évangéliques ont aussi tendance à ne voir que les apports positifs de la Bible. Les historiens responsables du projet ont donc tenu à rectifier un peu la perspective, sans, disent-ils, avoir subi de pressions de la part des Green. Par exemple, dans le débat sur l'esclavage, la Bible a servi à la fois dans les arguments des deux camps. Dans une des vitrines, on peut voir une bible pour les esclaves expurgée des passages qui pouvaient leur donner espoir comme l'Exode.

Marie a son pan de mur

Pour prouver qu'il ne s'agit pas d'un musée uniquement évangélique, il y a, par exemple, un pan de mur consacré à Marie, dont le rôle est nettement plus important chez les catholiques. Parmi les images de madones, on trouve également une photo d'une Indienne avec son bébé, d'une immigrée à Ellis Island. Pas très politiquement correct pour les conservateurs.
George Washington ©  Image of George Washington, "The Prayer at Valley" by Arnold FribergLa fameuse peinture de La prière à Valley Forge, où on voit George Washington à genoux en train de prier près de son cheval, fait polémique © Image of George Washington, "The Prayer at Valley" by Arnold Friberg

Il y a un seul tableau que le musée a absolument tenu à exposer malgré l'avis hostile des experts. C'est la fameuse peinture d'Arnold Friberg, La Prière à Valley Forge, où on voit George Washington en train de prier à genoux près de son cheval. C'est sans doute historiquement faux. Le premier président des États-Unis n'était pas religieux et ne priait pas à genoux. Mais le tableau est devenu un symbole. La notice remarque tout de même que ses sentiments religieux « sont un sujet de débat » et que ce tableau dépeint un « moment imaginaire ». Ce qui risque fort de déplaire aux évangéliques…










--br via tradutor do google
Em Washington, um museu da Bíblia sulfuroso se abre perto do Capitólio.

Um museu gigantesco financiado por uma controversa família evangélica será inaugurado na sexta-feira. Com oliveiras falsas, hummus e falafel ...

Raramente um museu provocou tantas controvérsias e críticas antes da sua abertura, agendada para sexta-feira, 17 de novembro. Primeiro, há seu fundador e principal financiador, Steve Green. O Green fez uma fortuna na cabeça do Hobby Lobby, uma cadeia de lojas de passatempo criativas com mais de 500 agências em todo o país e 13 mil funcionários. Eles são cristãos evangélicos que trabalham, que fecham suas lojas aos domingos, acreditam na interpretação literal da Bíblia e financiam todo tipo de causas cristãs, universidades, filmes religiosos, livrarias ...
O Green tornou-se famoso em 2014, quando se depararam com o governo Obama. Eles adotaram ações legais ao se recusar a pagar o seguro de saúde de seus empregados se incluísse o reembolso de certos métodos contraceptivos, porque isso foi contra suas idéias religiosas. O Supremo Tribunal manteve-os e eles se tornaram heróis ultra-certos.

A uma curta distância do Capitole

Quando anunciaram a construção de um Museu da Bíblia em Washington, alguns pensaram que o tornariam um templo para a glória do fundamentalista cristão. A nação está "em perigo", disse Steve Green, "por causa da ignorância dos ensinamentos de Deus". Segundo ele, a missão do museu era "dar vida à palavra viva de Deus", "inspirar confiança na autoridade absoluta e confiabilidade da Bíblia". Ele até pensou em distribuir folhetos religiosos para os visitantes.

Depois, houve a escolha da localização do museu em Washington, perto do Capitólio. Isso tem sido interpretado como uma propaganda e objetivo de lobby para causas conservadoras. Finalmente, há a origem das exposições. O Green começou a coletar comprimidos e textos sagrados em 2009. Em um tempo extremamente curto, reuniram mais de 40.000 objetos.
Antiguidades exportadas ilegalmente

Mas há alguns meses, eles tiveram que pagar uma multa de US $ 3 milhões por adquirir antiguidades ilegalmente exportadas do Iraque e devolvido mais de 5.000 itens. No entanto, ainda existem duvidas sobre a autenticidade de certas peças, incluindo alguns Pergaminhos do Mar Morto que exibiram no museu. Como resultado, nas janelas, uma nota precisa: "Esses fragmentos são verdadeiros? A busca continua".

Para a nossa primeira visita, nós realmente não sabíamos o que esperar quando chegamos em frente ao edifício imponente. Em primeiro lugar, é claro que a missão do museu, pelo menos oficialmente, mudou. O objetivo, lê o site, é "convidar todas as pessoas para se interessarem pela história, a história e o impacto da Bíblia". Na frente dos repórteres, Steve Green repete em loop que "o papel do museu não é se casar com uma fé ou proselitismo". "Nós só queremos apresentar os fatos do livro. E cabe ao visitante se decidir".
Jesus, as falsas oliveiras eo balanço das cabras

E é verdade que as diferentes exposições não tentam interpretar ou evangelizar as multidões. Sem dúvida, porque o museu contratou especialistas e acadêmicos respeitados que se esforçaram para oferecer perspectivas mais equilibradas. Finalmente, não saímos convertidos ou convencidos. O museu é uma mistura de probabilidades e fins, um pouco confuso, que parece ter sido projetado para diferentes públicos e não deixa nada a desejar.

Há uma parte da Disneylândia, onde vemos uma reconstituição de Nazaré sob Jesus com oliveiras falsas e balas das cabras. Um som de mergulho e luz no Antigo Testamento com Caim e Abel, o dilúvio, a passagem do Mar Vermelho ... Um jardim do Éden um pouco triste, provavelmente porque, como o programa explica, nas latitudes de Washington, é difícil cultivar plantas da Galiléia. Para não mencionar um restaurante, chamado Manne, que oferece, além de hummus e falafels, macarrão com queijo e batatas fritas com aioli, comida bíblica bem conhecida.


The top floor, instead, is for scholars who know their religious history on the fingertips. It shows how the Bible was inspired by older texts such as The Epic of Gilgamesh, limited to a small number to become, after Gutenberg, the most widely read book in the world. But it lacks explanations on how the Bible was written and transmitted, on the variants, the apocryphal gospels ... No doubt because, if we show the different versions and disagreements between Christians, it calls into question the reliability of text.

For the average visitor, the most interesting floor is one that describes the influence of the Bible on culture, music, architecture, science and, of course, American history. "The goal was not to give too much of an evangelical or American perspective," says Dr. Gordon Campbell, a specialist in religious studies at the University of Leicester, who advised the museum. Evangelicals also tend to see only the positive contributions of the Bible. The historians responsible for the project were therefore keen to rectify the prospect a little, without, they say, having been pressured by the Green. For example, in the debate on slavery, the Bible served both in the arguments of both sides. In one of the windows, we can see a Bible for slaves expurgated passages that could give them hope as the Exodus.

Mary has her wall

To prove that it is not a purely evangelical museum, there is, for example, a section of wall dedicated to Mary, whose role is much more important among Catholics. Madonna's pictures also include a photo of an Indian with her baby, an immigrant on Ellis Island. Not very politically correct for the Conservatives.
George Washington © Image of George Washington, "The Prayer at Valley" by Arnold FribergThe famous painting of The Prayer at Valley Forge, where George Washington is seen kneeling praying near his horse, is controversial © Image of George Washington, "The Prayer at Valley" by Arnold Friberg

There is only one painting that the museum absolutely wanted to exhibit despite the hostile opinion of the experts. This is Arnold Friberg's famous painting, The Prayer at Valley Forge, where George Washington is praying on his knees beside his horse. This is probably historically wrong. The first president of the United States was not religious and did not pray on his knees. But the painting has become a symbol. The notice notes that his religious feelings "are a subject of debate" and that this painting depicts an "imaginary moment". This may well displease evangelicals ...


Professors, students and museum professionals celebrated the 30th anniversary of the Master's Program in Museology - Professores, estudantes e profissionais de museus celebraram o 30º aniversário do Mestrado em Museologia

The UQAM-UdeM Joint Master's Program in Museology is celebrating its thirtieth anniversary.


More than 200 alumni, professors, students and museum professionals celebrated the 30th anniversary of the Master's Program in Museology on November 10 at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (MMFA). This multidisciplinary program has been offered jointly with the Université de Montréal since 1987. "This was the first masters program in museology in Quebec," says Jennifer Carter, professor in the Department of Art History and Program Director at the University of Montreal. UQAM.


The invitations to participate in this reunion were launched by Jennifer Carter and Christine Bernier, Associate Professor of Art History and Program Director at the Université de Montréal. They benefited from a boost from museology students, the UQAM Alumni Office and the Université de Montréal communications team to organize the event, in which the students participated. Deans Jean-Christian Pleau, Faculty of Arts, UQAM, and Frédérick Bouchard, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Université de Montréal.


Upon arrival, participants were welcomed by Nathalie Bondil, Executive Director and Chief Curator of the MMFA. "The high number of participants reveals an attachment to this professional program that has proven its worth by deploying its students and graduates in several museums, venues and heritage sites, both in Quebec and abroad," says Joëlle Ganguillet, Director from the Graduate Office. "It was moving to see all these alumni - there was even a graduate of the first cohort! - as well as many of the former directors and former directors of the program, "says Jennifer Carter.

Common resources

The master's program in museology is limited to 20 students per university per year, for a cohort of 40 students. "They have to take mandatory courses in both institutions," says Jennifer Carter. The benefits are undeniable, because they have access to the professorial and documentary resources of our two universities. "A course is particularly popular: one that allows fifteen students to go to the École du Louvre, in Paris, during two weeks in the second year of the program.



The three-month, full-time internship is very important in the curriculum, adds the professor. "This allows students to understand the ecosystem of a museum or cultural venue and work with the team in place." Students do internships in Montreal, Quebec, the rest of Canada, and than internationally, especially in France.

"Thirty years is a generation," notes Jennifer Carter. This means that our graduates have become, in turn, internship supervisors, employers and mentors for current students. "

A transformed environment

Museum practices have changed a lot in the last 30 years and the training offered must reflect these changes, she says. "In museums, we think much more about the needs and interests of visitors," she says. We take care of the communication with them, we make them participate, we involve the communities in a process of co-creation of the exhibitions. The museum is now fully aware of its social and not just cultural role. "



The profile of students has also changed, says Jennifer Carter. "At the time, we mainly taught people who were already working in museums and who wanted to improve. Today, a large number of students come directly from the baccalaureate, including programs in art history, history, anthropology, law and natural sciences. "

Museology is not a discipline, she continues, but rather a field that brings together different disciplines with research methods and practices of their own. "At UQAM, for example, the program is multi-faculty. There are professors from the history of art, but also communications, education and pedagogy, history and sociology. "

In 2005, UQAM created a doctorate in museology, mediation and heritage, the only program of its kind in North America. "This postgraduate program creates a pool of researchers who greatly enrich the field of museology," concludes Jennifer Carter.










Cultura não é o que entra pelos olhos e ouvidos,
mas o que modifica o jeito de olhar e ouvir. 

A cultura e o amor devem estar juntos.
Vamos compartilhar.

Culture is not what enters the eyes and ears, 
but what modifies the way of looking and hearing.






--fr
Trente ans au musée!

Le programme conjoint de maîtrise en muséologie UQAM-UdeM fête son trentième anniversaire.

Plus de 200 diplômés, professeurs, étudiants et professionnels du milieu muséal ont célébré les 30 ans du programme de maîtrise en muséologie le 10 novembre dernier au Musée des beaux-arts de Montréal (MBAM). Ce programme pluridisciplinaire est offert conjointement avec l'Université de Montréal depuis 1987. «Il s'agissait du premier programme de maîtrise en muséologie au Québec», rappelle Jennifer Carter, professeure au Département d'histoire de l'art et directrice du programme à l'UQAM. 

Les invitations à participer à ces retrouvailles avaient été lancées par Jennifer Carter et Christine Bernier, professeure agrégée en histoire de l'art et directrice du programme à l'Université de Montréal. Celles-ci ont bénéficié d'un coup de pouce d'étudiants en muséologie, du Bureau des diplômés de l'UQAM et de l'équipe des communications de l'Université de Montréal afin d'organiser l'événement, auquel ont participé les doyens Jean-Christian Pleau, de la Faculté des arts de l'UQAM, et Frédérick Bouchard, de la Faculté des arts et des sciences de l'Université de Montréal.

À leur arrivée, les participants ont été accueillis par Nathalie Bondil, directrice générale et conservatrice en chef du MBAM. «Le nombre élevé de participants révèle un attachement à ce programme professionnel qui a fait ses preuves en déployant ses étudiants et diplômés dans plusieurs musées, lieux de diffusion et sites patrimoniaux, tant au Québec qu'à l'étranger, affirme Joëlle Ganguillet, directrice du Bureau des diplômés. «C'était émouvant de revoir tous ces anciens étudiants – il y avait même une diplômée de la première cohorte! – ainsi que plusieurs des anciens directeurs et anciennes directrices du programme», souligne pour sa part Jennifer Carter.

Des ressources en commun

Le programme de maîtrise en muséologie est contingenté à 20 étudiants par université par année, pour une cohorte de 40 étudiants. «Ceux-ci doivent suivre des cours obligatoires dans les deux institutions, explique Jennifer Carter. Les bénéfices sont indéniables, car ils ont ainsi accès aux ressources professorales et documentaires de nos deux universités.» Un cours est particulièrement populaire: celui qui permet à une quinzaine d'étudiants d'aller à l'École du Louvre, à Paris, pendant deux semaines, lors de la deuxième année du programme.

Le stage de trois mois, à temps plein, est très important dans le cursus, ajoute la professeure. «Cela permet aux étudiants de comprendre l'écosystème d'un musée ou d'un lieu de diffusion culturel et de travailler avec l'équipe en place.» Les étudiants effectuent des stages à Montréal, au Québec, dans le reste du Canada ainsi qu'à l'international, notamment en France. 

«Trente ans, cela représente une génération, note Jennifer Carter. Cela signifie que nos diplômés sont devenus, à leur tour, des superviseurs de stage, des employeurs ainsi que des mentors pour les étudiants actuels.»

Un milieu transformé

Les pratiques muséales ont beaucoup changé depuis ces 30 dernières années et les formations offertes doivent refléter ces changements, souligne la professeure. «Dans les musées, on pense beaucoup plus aux besoins et aux intérêts des visiteurs, dit-elle. On soigne la communication avec ces derniers, on les fait participer, on implique les communautés dans un processus de co-création des expositions. Le musée est aujourd'hui pleinement conscient de son rôle social et non uniquement culturel.»

Le profil des étudiants a aussi changé, souligne Jennifer Carter. «À l'époque, on enseignait surtout à des gens qui travaillaient déjà dans des musées et qui souhaitaient se perfectionner. Aujourd'hui, un grand nombre d'étudiants provient directement du baccalauréat, notamment des programmes d'histoire de l'art, d'histoire, d'anthropologie, du droit et des sciences naturelles.»

La muséologie n'est pas une discipline, poursuit-elle, mais plutôt un champ qui regroupe différentes disciplines comportant des méthodes de recherche et des pratiques qui leur sont propres. «À l'UQAM, par exemple, le programme est multi-facultaire. On y retrouve des professeurs issus de l'histoire de l'art, mais aussi des communications, de l'éducation et de la pédagogie, de l'histoire et de la sociologie.»

L'UQAM a créé en 2005 un doctorat en muséologie, médiation et patrimoine, le seul programme du genre en Amérique du Nord. «Ce programme de troisième cycle crée un bassin de chercheurs qui enrichissent grandement le champ de la muséologie», conclut Jennifer Carter.








--br
Trinta anos no museu!
O UQAM-UdeM Joint Master's Program em Museologia está comemorando seu trigésimo aniversário.

Mais de 200 alunos, professores, estudantes e profissionais de museus celebraram o 30º aniversário do Mestrado em Museologia em 10 de novembro no Museu de Belas Artes de Montreal (MMFA). Este programa multidisciplinar foi oferecido em conjunto com a Université de Montréal desde 1987. "Este foi o primeiro programa de mestrado em museologia em Quebec", diz Jennifer Carter, professora do Departamento de História da Arte e Diretora de Programas da Universidade de Montreal. UQAM.

Os convites para participar desta reunião foram lançados por Jennifer Carter e Christine Bernier, professora associada de história da arte e diretora do programa na Université de Montréal. Eles se beneficiaram de um impulso dos estudantes de museologia, do UQAM Alumni Office e da equipe de comunicação da Université de Montréal para organizar o evento, no qual os alunos participaram. Deans Jean-Christian Pleau, Faculdade de Letras, UQAM e Frédérick Bouchard, Faculdade de Letras e Ciências, Université de Montréal.

Na chegada, os participantes foram recebidos por Nathalie Bondil, Diretora Executiva e Curadora-Chefe do MMFA. "O elevado número de participantes revela um apego a este programa profissional que provou seu valor ao implantar seus alunos e graduados em vários museus, locais e patrimônio, tanto no Quebec como no exterior", diz Joëlle Ganguillet, diretora do escritório de graduação. "Ele estava se movendo para ver todos esses alunos - até mesmo um graduado da primeira coorte! -, bem como muitos dos ex-diretores e ex-diretores do programa", diz Jennifer Carter.

Recursos comuns

O programa de mestrado em museologia é limitado a 20 estudantes por universidade por ano, para uma coorte de 40 alunos. "Eles têm que tomar cursos obrigatórios em ambas as instituições", diz Jennifer Carter. Os benefícios são inegáveis, porque eles têm acesso aos recursos professoriais e documentários de nossas duas universidades. "Um curso é particularmente popular: um que permite que quinze alunos passem para a École du Louvre, em Paris, durante duas semanas no segundo ano do programa.

O estágio de três meses, em tempo integral, é muito importante no currículo, acrescenta o professor. "Isso permite que os alunos compreendam o ecossistema de um museu ou local cultural e trabalhem com a equipe no lugar". Os alunos realizam estágios em Montreal, Quebec, o resto do Canadá e do internacional, especialmente na França.

"Trinta anos é uma geração", observa Jennifer Carter. Isso significa que nossos graduados se tornaram, por sua vez, supervisores de estágio, empregadores e mentores para estudantes atuais. "

Um ambiente transformado

As práticas do museu mudaram muito nos últimos 30 anos e o treinamento oferecido deve refletir essas mudanças, ela diz. "Nos museus, pensamos muito mais sobre as necessidades e interesses dos visitantes", diz ela. Nós cuidamos da comunicação com eles, os fazemos participar, envolvemos as comunidades em um processo de co-criação de exposições. O museu está agora plenamente consciente do seu papel social e não apenas cultural. "

O perfil dos estudantes também mudou, diz Jennifer Carter. "Na época, nós ensinamos principalmente pessoas que já trabalhavam em museus e que queriam melhorar. Hoje, um grande número de estudantes vem diretamente do bacharelado, incluindo programas de história da arte, história, antropologia, direito e ciências naturais".

A museologia não é uma disciplina, ela continua, mas sim um campo que reúne diferentes disciplinas com métodos de pesquisa e práticas próprias. "Na UQAM, por exemplo, o programa é multi-faculdade. Existem professores da história da arte, mas também das comunicações, educação e pedagogia, história e sociologia".

Em 2005, a UQAM criou um doutorado em museologia, mediação e herança, o único programa desse tipo na América do Norte. "Este programa de pós-graduação cria um grupo de pesquisadores que enriquecem muito o campo da museologia", conclui Jennifer Carter.