segunda-feira, 12 de março de 2018

Quilombos: our life and trajectory is of struggle. - Quilombos: notre vie et notre trajectoire sont de lutte - Quilombos: nossa vida e trajetória é de luta

Today we won a victory, tomorrow we know we will have some loss.

We were invisible and now they see us, but they hate us twice.

Synonymous with black resistance, quilombos are historically places where slaves took refuge and rescued their African origins.


The word quilombo comes from the African language Quimbundo, which means: society formed by young warriors who belonged to the uprooted ethnic group of their communities. The Remaining Territory of Quilombola Community is an achievement of the achievements of the Afro-descendant community in Brazil, fruit of the various heroic resistances to the slavery and oppressive model established in Brazil, and the recognition of this historical injustice. 


Although it continues to permeate the sociocultural relations of Brazilian society as a system, slavery lasted until 1888 and was responsible for the entry into Brazil of more than 3.5 million men and women prisoners from the African continent.


With 20 years of existence, the National Coordination of Articulation of Quilombola Rural Black Communities - CONAQ continues in the daily struggle for the demarcation of the territories and sovereignty of the quilombola people in the country, in the face of institutional, environmental, social, cultural racism and especially in constant vigil so that the Laws are fulfilled, in favor of those who need it. There is no quilombola fight without female participation: "In the name of all the quilombola women who are deprived of their liberty, threatened with death and for all those who have fallen in the struggle, who have had their blood shed by agrarian conflict, by domestic violence; on behalf of every girl who is born; in the name of every woman who assumes the role of transforming the racist, macho, patriarchal society, is that we stand firm, stronger every day in our construction of a society with equality, respect, without racism. machismo, we continue to transform destiny and write the pages of the history of quilombola women, following in the footsteps of Dandara dos Palmares, Tereza de Benguela, Zacimba Gaba, Aqualtune and many other quilombola leaders whose history has been annulled.

Quilombola women in the work for: Equality, Justice, Territory and no right to less. "Presentation of Sussa (cultural manifestation) in Cavalcante / GO in Quilombola Kalunga Territory in the Quilombola Women Against Racism, Violence and Well Living Workshop.



Even communities already titled to this day suffer from the actions of farmers, companies, government agencies, among others. They claim that the land regularization process becomes bureaucratic and more agile, since this slowness implies an increase in conflicts. Conflicts with farmers are also major problems for the quilombola people. Expulsion from their lands and threats of death are artifices used to further oppress the black people. 


"We always denounce the prosecution, but we know that the delay is great. Sometimes we call INCRA, which, when it leaves, we continue to receive threats. Some were killed. In São Fidélis [Northern Rio de Janeiro], quilombolas from the community of São Benedito are outside their territories, but continue to receive threats, "adds Ivone Bernardo, adding that Acquiler is preparing a report on these conflicts.


The construction of identity and the perspective that gives form to belonging are based on territory and also on political-organizational criteria. In this sense, identity and territory are inseparable. The organization of the quilombola communities as an ethnic group made possible the resistance and defense of the territory, besides singling out their occupation. The process of territorialization of quilombola communities is strictly related to social organization.


The elements that constitute the groups as distinct and distinct from the national society, such as the quilombola communities, are no longer placed in terms of the cultural contents that enclose and define differences. Conceiving the quilombola communities from this perspective has raised some considerations about the manipulations that can be undertaken by the own social subjects belonging to the ethnic identity.


The documentary that we are doing seeks to highlight the identity of the communities and reinforce the struggle that has already been waged for the titling of the quilombola lands, from north to south of the state of Rio de Janeiro. It contains interviews with current and former regional and national quilombola leaders, of music and quilombola dances. At the moment the documentary is in the final period of the recordings and is scheduled for release in October 2018. by Marcos Lamore







Cultura não é o que entra pelos olhos e ouvidos,
mas o que modifica o jeito de olhar e ouvir. 

A cultura e o amor devem estar juntos.
Vamos compartilhar.

Culture is not what enters the eyes and ears, 
but what modifies the way of looking and hearing







--fr via tradutor do google
Quilombos: notre vie et notre trajectoire sont de lutte

Aujourd'hui nous avons gagné une victoire, demain nous savons que nous aurons une perte.

Nous étions invisibles et maintenant ils nous voient, mais ils nous détestent deux fois.

Synonyme de résistance noire, les quilombos sont historiquement des lieux où les esclaves se sont réfugiés et ont sauvé leurs origines africaines.
Le mot quilombo vient de la langue africaine Quimbundo, qui signifie: société formée par de jeunes guerriers qui appartenaient au groupe ethnique déraciné de leurs communautés. Le territoire restant de la communauté Quilombola est une réalisation des réalisations de la communauté afro-descendante au Brésil, fruit des diverses résistances héroïques au modèle d'esclavage et d'oppression établi au Brésil, et la reconnaissance de cette injustice historique. Bien qu'il continue à imprégner les relations socioculturelles de la société brésilienne en tant que système, l'esclavage a duré jusqu'en 1888 et a été responsable de l'entrée au Brésil de plus de 3,5 millions de prisonniers hommes et femmes du continent africain.

Avec 20 ans d'existence, la CONAQ continue la lutte quotidienne pour la démarcation des territoires et de la souveraineté du peuple quilombola dans le pays, face aux institutions institutionnelles, environnementales, sociales et culturelles. le racisme et surtout en veillant constamment à ce que les Lois s'accomplissent, en faveur de ceux qui en ont besoin. Il n'y a pas de lutte quilombola sans participation féminine: "Au nom de toutes les femmes quilombolas privées de liberté, menacées de mort et pour tous ceux qui sont tombés dans la lutte, qui ont eu leur sang versé par le conflit agraire, par la violence domestique, au nom de chaque fille qui naît, au nom de chaque femme qui assume le rôle de transformation de la société raciste, machiste et patriarcale, c'est que nous soyons fermes, plus forts chaque jour dans notre construction d'une société d'égalité, respect, sans racisme, machisme, nous continuons à transformer le destin et écrire les pages de l'histoire des femmes quilombolas, en suivant les traces de Dandara dos Palmares, de Tereza de Benguela, de Zacimba Gaba, d'Aqualtune et de nombreux autres chefs de quilombola dont l'histoire a été annulée .

Femmes Quilombola dans le travail pour: l'égalité, la justice, le territoire et pas le droit de moins. "Présentation de Sussa (manifestation culturelle) à Cavalcante / GO dans le territoire de Quilombola Kalunga dans l'atelier sur les femmes contre le racisme, la violence et le bien-être.


Même les communautés déjà titrées à ce jour souffrent des actions des agriculteurs, des entreprises, des agences gouvernementales, entre autres. Ils prétendent que le processus de régularisation foncière devient bureaucratique et plus agile, puisque cette lenteur implique une augmentation des conflits. Les conflits avec les agriculteurs sont également des problèmes majeurs pour les peuples quilombolas. L'expulsion de leurs terres et les menaces de mort sont des artifices utilisés pour opprimer davantage les Noirs. "Nous dénonçons toujours les poursuites, mais nous savons que le retard est grand, parfois nous appelons l'INCRA, qui, à son départ, continue à recevoir des menaces, certains ont été tués, à São Fidélis [nord de Rio de Janeiro], des quilombolas du La communauté de São Benedito est en dehors de son territoire, mais continue de recevoir des menaces », ajoute Ivone Bernardo, ajoutant qu'Acquiler prépare un rapport sur ces conflits.

La construction de l'identité et la perspective qui donne forme à l'appartenance sont basées sur le territoire et aussi sur des critères politico-organisationnels. En ce sens, identité et territoire sont inséparables. L'organisation des communautés quilombolas en tant que groupe ethnique a rendu possible la résistance et la défense du territoire, en plus de distinguer leur occupation. Le processus de territorialisation des communautés quilombolas est strictement lié à l'organisation sociale.

Les éléments qui constituent les groupes distincts et distincts de la société nationale, tels que les communautés quilombolas, ne sont plus placés en termes de contenus culturels qui entourent et définissent les différences. Concevoir les communautés quilombolas dans cette perspective a soulevé quelques considérations sur les manipulations qui peuvent être entreprises par les propres sujets sociaux appartenant à l'identité ethnique.

Le documentaire que nous réalisons vise à mettre en évidence l'identité des communautés et à renforcer la lutte qui a déjà été menée pour l'attribution des titres de propriété des terres quilomboles, du nord au sud de l'État de Rio de Janeiro. Il contient des entretiens avec des chefs de file régionaux et nationaux de quilombolas, de musique et de danses quilombolas. Pour le moment, le documentaire est dans la dernière période des enregistrements et devrait sortir en octobre 2018.









--BR via tradutor do google
Quilombos: nossa vida e trajetória é de luta

Hoje conquistamos uma vitoria, amanhã sabemos que teremos alguma perda.
Éramos invisíveis e agora eles nos enxergam, mas nos odeiam em dobro.
Sinônimo de resistência negra, os quilombos são historicamente locais onde os escravos se refugiavam e resgatavam suas origens africanas.

A palavra quilombo é originária do idioma africano Quimbundo, que significa: sociedade formada por jovens guerreiros que pertenciam a grupo étnicos desenraizados de suas comunidades. O Território Remanescente de Comunidade Quilombola é uma concretização das conquistas da comunidade afro- descendente no Brasil, fruto das várias e heróicas resistências ao modelo esclavagista e opressor instaurado no Brasil colônia e do reconhecimento dessa injustiça histórica. Embora continue presente perpassando as relações socioculturais da sociedade brasileira, enquanto sistema, a escravatura vigorou até 1888 e foi responsável pela entrada no Brasil de mais de 3,5 milhões de homens e mulheres prisioneiros oriundos do continente africano.

Com 20 anos de existência, a Coordenação Nacional de Articulação das Comunidades Negras Rurais Quilombolas – CONAQ segue na luta diária pela demarcação dos territórios e soberania do povo quilombola no país, no enfrentamento ao racismo institucional, ambiental, social, cultural e principalmente na vigília constante para que as Leis sejam cumpridas, a favor daqueles(as) que dela necessitam. Não existe luta quilombola sem a participação feminina: “Em nome de todas as mulheres quilombolas que se encontram privadas de sua liberdade, ameaçadas de morte e por todas que tombaram na luta, que tiveram seu sangue derramado pelo conflito agrário, pela violência doméstica; em nome de cada menina que nasce; em nome de cada mulher que assume o papel de transformar a sociedade racista, machista, patriarcal, é que seguimos firmes, cada dia mais forte na nossas construção de uma sociedade com igualdade, respeito, sem racismo. machismo, seguimos transformando o destino e escrevendo as páginas da história das mulheres quilombolas, seguindo os passos de Dandara dos Palmares, Tereza de Benguela, Zacimba Gaba, Aqualtune e tantas outras líderes quilombolas que tiveram sua história anulada.

Mulheres Quilombolas na labuta por: Igualdade, Justiça, Território e nenhum direito a menos.”Apresentação da Sussa (manifestação cultural) em Cavalcante/GO no Território Quilombola Kalunga na Oficina de Mulheres Quilombolas Contra o Racismo, a Violência e pelo Bem Viver.


Mesmo comunidades já tituladas até hoje sofrem com a ação de fazendeiros, empresas, órgãos do governo, dentre outros. Reivindicam que o processo de regularização fundiária se desburocratize e seja mais ágil, pois essa lentidão implica no aumento dos conflitos. Os conflitos com fazendeiros também são grandes problemas para o povo quilombola. Expulsão de suas terras e ameaças de morte são artifícios utilizados para oprimir ainda mais o povo negro. “Sempre denunciamos ao Ministério Público, mas sabemos que a demora é grande. Às vezes chamamos o Incra, que, quando sai, continuamos a receber ameaças. Alguns foram mortos. Em São Fidélis [Norte do Rio de janeiro], os quilombolas da comunidade de São Benedito estão fora de seus territórios, mas continuam recebendo ameaças”, completa Ivone Bernardo, acrescentando que a Acquilerj está preparando um relatório sobre esses conflitos.

A construção da identidade e a perspectiva que dá forma ao pertencimento são fundadas no território e, também, em critérios político-organizativos. Nesse sentido, identidade e território são indissociáveis. A organização das comunidades quilombolas como um grupo étnico tornou possível a resistência e defesa do território, além de singularizar sua ocupação. O processo de territorialização das comunidades quilombolas está estritamente relacionado com a organização social.

Os elementos que constituem os grupos enquanto próprios e distintos da sociedade nacional, como as comunidades quilombolas, deixam de ser colocados em termos dos conteúdos culturais que encerram e definem diferenças. Conceber as comunidades quilombolas a partir dessa perspectiva tem levantado algumas ponderações sobre as manipulações que podem ser empreendidas pelos próprios sujeitos sociais pertencentes à identidade étnica.

O Documentário que estamos fazendo procura evidenciar a identidade das comunidades e reforçar a luta que ja vem sendo travada para titulação das terras quilombolas, de norte a sul do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Contem entrevistas com atuais e ex lideranças quilombolas regionais e nacionais, de musica e danças também quilombolas.No momento o documentário está no período final das gravações e está previsto para lançamento em outubro de 2018.

Why a single work of art can reach $ 1 billion soon. - Por que uma única obra de arte pode atingir US $ 1 bilhão em breve. - 为什么一件艺术品很快就会达到10亿美元。 - لماذا يمكن أن يصل عمل فني واحد إلى مليار دولار في وقت قريب.

Report organized by two companies specializing in pricing in the arts market estimated that in 2017, auction sales increased by 40% after two years of decline

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SALVATOR MUNDI ', PAINTED ABOUT 1500 BY LEONARDO DA VINCI, IS EXPOSED IN OCTOBER 2017, BEFORE THE AUCTION IN NEW YORK

After a fall of 10% in 2015 and 23% in 2016, world market sales of works of art had a strong increase in 2017, from 40% in total, reaching about US $ 15 billion. The data are part of the report "The art market in 2017", organized in partnership between the French Artprice and the Chinese Artron, companies specialized in data collection and pricing of works of art. 

The report concerns sales at open auctions around the world. Sales of paintings, drawings, sculptures, photographs, printed art, videos, tapestry, but not antiques and furniture are accounted for. 

The largest market was the Chinese, which accrued sales of $ 5.1 billion. It is followed by the United States, with sales of nearly $ 5 billion. In this country, the results were boosted by the sale of a single painting, "Salvator Mundi", which depicts Jesus and was painted in about 1500 by Leonardo da Vinci. 

It was sold for $ 450 million at the Christie's auction house in New York, the equivalent of 9 percent of US art sales, and 3 percent of world sales - the previous world record was less than $ 180 millions. In China, a series of 12 paintings by painter Qi Baishi was sold for $ 140 million, a record for a Chinese artist. 

According to the report, these stratospheric prices are drawn especially by the "museum industry". "For the first time in history, the edge of the market is not being defined by the whim of billionaires but by acquisition strategies designed to generate future revenue from the influx of museum visitors," the report said. "Salvator Mundi" was bought anonymously over the phone. 

After the purchase, the American newspaper The New York Times published an article stating that the purchase had been made by a dark prince of Saudi Arabia, Bader bin Abdullah bin Mohammed. Then the American also The Wall Street Journal said that behind bin Abdullah would be, in turn, Mohammed Bin Salman. He is an important prince of the crown, that is, he has power in fact in the state. Salman has a variety of roles in government and is described in a BBC article as the country's most influential political figure. 

The Louvre Museum in Abu Dhabi reported shortly afterwards that the work would be exhibited at the institution, inaugurated in November 2017, and that in fact the Ministry of Culture of the country had entrusted Abdullah to the purchase. Christie's auction house confirmed that the purchase had come from the ministry. The Saudi version of the Louvre has among its objectives to promote tourism of high standard.


2

Individual investors also have a role Although it highlights the role of museums, the report recognizes that works of art are viewed by collectors as an investment. Speculation, and not just the quest for aesthetic enjoyment, is an engine for expenditures on works of art. 

"In an era in which Western savers are suffering the impact of negative interest rates from the European Central Bank and near zero rates of the Central Bank, the art market has truly become a genuine alternative to reliable and sustainable investment," he says. the document. 

In an editorial opening the report, Wan Jie, president and founder of Artron Art Group, makes a similar observation. He points out that works are seen as commodities, that is, goods that can be traded, bought and resold. 

"The concept of art as a commodity is increasingly recognized by the wider public," he says. He points out that "elites in the financial industry and the real estate and technology industries are starting to create their own collections." 

In addition, the art market is a notorious destination of money obtained by illicit means - something that is not quoted in the report. As with the Salvator Mundi sale, it is common for acquisitions to take place anonymously, with discretion. 

It is difficult to assess the value of a work, whose prices can vary widely from moment to moment. International auction houses accept cash payments, and require little information. It is possible to buy a work with dirty money, store it on the walls of a residence or in a safe and resell them anonymously when money is needed.




by André Cabette Fábio.






Cultura não é o que entra pelos olhos e ouvidos,
mas o que modifica o jeito de olhar e ouvir. 

A cultura e o amor devem estar juntos.
Vamos compartilhar.

Culture is not what enters the eyes and ears, 
but what modifies the way of looking and hearing







--br

Por que uma única obra de arte pode atingir US $ 1 bilhão em breve.


O relatório organizado por duas empresas especializadas em preços no mercado de artes estimou que, em 2017, as vendas de leilões aumentaram 40% após dois anos de declínio

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SALVADOR MUNDI ', PINTADO SOBRE 1500 POR LEONARDO DA VINCI, ESTÁ EXPORTO EM OUTUBRO DE 2017, ANTES DA LEILÃO EM NEW YORK


Após uma queda de 10% em 2015 e de 23% em 2016, as vendas de obras de arte no mercado mundial tiveram um forte aumento em 2017, de 40% no total, atingindo cerca de US $ 15 bilhões. Os dados fazem parte do relatório "O mercado da arte em 2017", organizado em parceria entre o francês Artprice e o Artron chinês, empresas especializadas em coleta de dados e preços de obras de arte.

O relatório diz respeito a vendas em leilões abertos em todo o mundo. São contabilizadas as vendas de pinturas, desenhos, esculturas, fotografias, arte impressa, vídeos, tapeçarias, mas não antiguidades e mobiliário.

O maior mercado foi o chinês, que acumulou vendas de US $ 5,1 bilhões. É seguido pelos Estados Unidos, com vendas de quase US $ 5 bilhões. Neste país, os resultados foram impulsionados pela venda de uma única pintura, "Salvator Mundi", que retrata Jesus e foi pintada em cerca de 1500 por Leonardo da Vinci.

Foi vendido por US $ 450 milhões na casa de leilões Christie's em Nova York, o equivalente a 9% das vendas de arte dos EUA e 3% das vendas mundiais - o recorde mundial anterior foi inferior a US $ 180 milhões. Na China, uma série de 12 pinturas do pintor Qi Baishi foi vendida por US $ 140 milhões, um recorde para um artista chinês.

De acordo com o relatório, esses preços estratosféricos são desenhados especialmente pela "indústria do museu". "Pela primeira vez na história, a vantagem do mercado não está sendo definida pelo capricho dos bilionários, mas pelas estratégias de aquisição projetadas para gerar receita futura do influxo de visitantes dos museus", afirmou o relatório. "Salvator Mundi" foi comprado anonimamente por telefone.

Após a compra, o jornal americano The New York Times publicou um artigo afirmando que a compra havia sido feita por um negro príncipe da Arábia Saudita, Bader bin Abdullah bin Mohammed. Então o americano também The Wall Street Journal disse que, por trás de bin Abdullah, seria, por sua vez, Mohammed Bin Salman. Ele é um importante príncipe da coroa, isto é, ele tem poder na verdade no estado. Salman tem uma variedade de papéis no governo e é descrito em um artigo da BBC como a figura política mais influente do país.

O Museu do Louvre em Abu Dhabi relatou pouco depois que o trabalho seria exibido na instituição, inaugurado em novembro de 2017, e que, de fato, o Ministério da Cultura do país confiou a Abdullah à compra. A casa de leilões de Christie confirmou que a compra veio do ministério. A versão saudita do Louvre tem entre seus objetivos promover o turismo de alto padrão.

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Os investidores individuais também têm um papel Embora destaque o papel dos museus, o relatório reconhece que as obras de arte são vistas pelos colecionadores como um investimento. A especulação, e não apenas a busca do gozo estético, é um mecanismo para despesas com obras de arte.

"Numa época em que os poupadores ocidentais sofrem o impacto das taxas de juros negativas do Banco Central Europeu e taxas quase zero do Banco Central, o mercado de arte realmente se tornou uma alternativa genuína ao investimento confiável e sustentável", diz ele. o documento.

Em uma editorial abrindo o relatório, Wan Jie, presidente e fundador da Artron Art Group, faz uma observação semelhante. Ele ressalta que as obras são vistas como mercadorias, isto é, bens que podem ser negociados, comprados e revendidos.

"O conceito de arte como mercadoria é cada vez mais reconhecido pelo público em geral", diz ele. Ele ressalta que "as elites no setor financeiro e as indústrias de imóveis e tecnologia estão começando a criar suas próprias coleções".

Além disso, o mercado de arte é um destino notório de dinheiro obtido por meios ilícitos - algo que não é citado no relatório. Tal como acontece com a venda de Salvator Mundi, é comum que as aquisições ocorram anonimamente, com discrição.

É difícil avaliar o valor de uma obra, cujos preços podem variar amplamente de um momento para outro. As casas de leilão internacionais aceitam pagamentos em dinheiro e requerem pouca informação. É possível comprar um trabalho com dinheiro sujo, armazená-lo nas paredes de uma residência ou em um cofre e revendê-los anonimamente quando o dinheiro é necessário.








--chines simplificadpo via google

为什么一件艺术品很快就会达到10亿美元。


由两家专门从事艺术品市场定价的公司组织的报告估计,2017年拍卖会在两年下降后增长40%

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SALVATOR MUNDI',由Leonardo DA VINCI拍摄约1500张,于2017年10月曝光,之前拍卖于纽约


在2015年下降10%和2016年下降23%之后,2017年全球艺术品市场销售额增幅从40%上升至约150亿美元。这些数据是“2017年艺术市场”报告的一部分,该报告由法国Artprice和中国艺术家之间的合作伙伴组织,这些公司专门从事艺术作品的数据收集和定价。

该报告涉及全球公开拍卖的销售情况。销售绘画,素描,雕塑,照片,印刷艺术品,录像带,挂毯,但不包括古董和家具。

最大的市场是中国,销售额达到51亿美元。其次是美国,销售额接近50亿美元。在这个国家里,出售单幅作品“Salvator Mundi”促成了这一成果,该作品描绘了耶稣,并由Leonardo da Vinci在约1500年创作。

它在纽约佳士得拍卖行以4.5亿美元的价格拍出,相当于美国艺术品销售额的9%,占全球销售额的3% - 之前的世界纪录不到1.8亿美元。在中国,画家齐白石的一系列12幅作品以1.4亿美元的价格成交,这是中国艺术家的创作纪录。

据报道,这些平流层价格是由“博物馆行业”特别吸引的。报告称:“这是历史上第一次,市场的边缘并非由亿万富豪的心血来定义,而是由收购战略来设计,以便博物馆参观者涌入未来的收入。” “Salvator Mundi”是通过电话匿名购买的。

购买后,美国“纽约时报”刊登了一篇文章,称这笔交易是由沙特阿拉伯黑暗王子Bader bin Abdullah bin Mohammed进行的。然后,美国“华尔街日报”也说,在阿卜杜拉之后的是穆罕默德·本·萨勒曼。他是王室的重要王子,也就是说,他在国家中拥有权力。萨尔曼在政府中扮演着多种角色,并在BBC的文章中被描述为该国最具影响力的政治人物。

不久之后,阿布扎比的卢浮宫博物馆报道说,该工作将在该机构展出,于2017年11月落成,实际上该国文化部已委托阿卜杜拉进行采购。佳士得拍卖行确认购买来自该部。沙特版卢浮宫的目标之一是促进高标准的旅游业。



个人投资者也可以发挥作用虽然它强调了博物馆的作用,但报告认识到艺术作品被收藏家视为投资。投机,而不仅仅是寻求审美享受,是艺术品支出的引擎。

“在西方储户受到欧洲中央银行负利率影响和中央银行利率接近零的时代,艺术品市场真正成为可靠和可持续投资的真正替代品,”他说。该文件。

在一篇社论开篇报道中,阿特龙艺术集团总裁兼创始人万杰也做了类似的观察。他指出,作品被视为商品,即可以交易,购买和转售的商品。

“艺术作为一种商品的概念越来越受到广大公众的认可,”他说。他指出,“金融业的精英以及房地产和科技行业正在开始创建自己的收藏品。”

此外,艺术市场是以非法手段获得的臭名昭着的资金目的地 - 这在报告中没有引用。与Salvator Mundi的销售一样,收购通常是匿名进行的,并且是谨慎的。

很难评估一件作品的价值,这些作品的价格可能会不时变化。国际拍卖行接受现金支付,并且需要很少的信息。可以用脏钱购买作品,将其存放在住宅的墙壁上或保险箱中,并在需要钱时匿名转售。






--árabe via tradutor do google
لماذا يمكن أن يصل عمل فني واحد إلى مليار دولار في وقت قريب.


وقدر تقرير نظمته شركتان متخصصتان في تسعير سوق الفنون أنه في عام 2017 ، ارتفعت مبيعات المزادات بنسبة 40٪ بعد عامين من الانخفاض

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"SALVATOR MUNDI" ، الذي تم تصويره في عام 1500 من قبل ليوناردو دا فينسي ، تم عرضه في أكتوبر 2017 ، قبل المزاد في نيويورك


بعد انخفاض بنسبة 10 ٪ في عام 2015 و 23 ٪ في عام 2016 ، زادت مبيعات السوق العالمية للأعمال الفنية زيادة قوية في عام 2017 ، من 40 ٪ في المجموع ، ووصلت إلى حوالي 15 مليار دولار أمريكي. البيانات هي جزء من تقرير "سوق الفن في عام 2017" ، نظمت بالشراكة بين Artprice الفرنسية و Artron الصينية ، والشركات المتخصصة في جمع البيانات وتسعير الأعمال الفنية.

يتعلق التقرير بالمبيعات في المزادات المفتوحة حول العالم. يتم احتساب مبيعات اللوحات والرسومات والمنحوتات والصور الفوتوغرافية والفن المطبوع والفيديو والمنسوجات ، ولكن ليس التحف والأثاث.

وكان السوق الصيني هو أكبر سوق ، حيث حققت مبيعات بلغت 5.1 مليار دولار. وتليها الولايات المتحدة ، حيث تبلغ مبيعاتها حوالي 5 مليارات دولار. في هذا البلد ، تعززت النتائج من خلال بيع لوحة واحدة ، "سالفاتور موندي" ، والتي تصور يسوع ورسمها في حوالي عام 1500 من قبل ليوناردو دا فينشي.

بيعت بمبلغ 450 مليون دولار في دار كريستيز للمزادات في نيويورك ، أي ما يعادل 9٪ من مبيعات الفن الأمريكي ، و 3٪ من المبيعات العالمية - الرقم القياسي العالمي السابق كان أقل من 180 مليون دولار. في الصين ، تم بيع مجموعة من 12 لوحة للرسام تشى باى شى مقابل 140 مليون دولار ، وهو رقم قياسي للفنان الصينى.

ووفقاً للتقرير ، فإن هذه الأسعار في الستراتوسفير ترسمها بشكل خاص "صناعة المتاحف". وقال التقرير "لأول مرة في التاريخ ، لا يتم تحديد حافة السوق بأهواء المليارديرات ولكن من خلال استراتيجيات الاستحواذ المصممة لتوليد عائدات مستقبلية من تدفق زوار المتاحف". تم شراء "Salvator Mundi" بشكل مجهول عبر الهاتف.

بعد الشراء ، نشرت صحيفة "نيويورك تايمز" الأمريكية مقالًا يفيد بأن عملية الشراء قد تم إجراؤها من قبل أمير الظلام في المملكة العربية السعودية ، بدر بن عبد الله بن محمد. ثم الأمريكية أيضا قالت صحيفة وول ستريت جورنال إن خلف بن عبد الله سيكون بدوره ، محمد بن سلمان. إنه أمير هام للتاج ، أي أنه يتمتع بالسلطة في الواقع في الدولة. سلمان لديه مجموعة متنوعة من الأدوار في الحكومة ويوصف في مقالة لهيئة الإذاعة البريطانية بأنها الشخصية السياسية الأكثر نفوذا في البلاد.

وأفاد متحف اللوفر في أبو ظبي بعد فترة وجيزة أن العمل سيعرض في المؤسسة ، التي افتتحت في نوفمبر 2017 ، وأن وزارة الثقافة في البلاد قد عهدت عبد الله إلى الشراء. أكدت دار كريستيز للمزادات أن الشراء قد جاء من الوزارة. إن النسخة السعودية من متحف اللوفر من بين أهدافه تشجيع السياحة على مستوى عالٍ.



وللمستثمرين الأفراد دور على الرغم من أنه يسلط الضوء على دور المتاحف ، إلا أن التقرير يعترف بأن الأعمال الفنية ينظر إليها من قبل جامعي الأعمال كاستثمار. المضاربة ، وليس فقط السعي إلى التمتع الجمالي ، هو محرك للنفقات على الأعمال الفنية.

ويضيف: "في حقبة عانى فيها المدخرين الغربيين من تأثير أسعار الفائدة السلبية من البنك المركزي الأوروبي وبنسب قريبة من البنك المركزي ، أصبحت سوق الفن حقا بديلا حقيقيا للاستثمارات الموثوقة والمستدامة". المستند.

في افتتاحية افتتاحية للتقرير ، أدلى وان جي ، رئيس ومؤسس مجموعة Artron Art Group ، بملاحظة مماثلة. ويشير إلى أنه ينظر إلى الأعمال على أنها سلع ، أي السلع التي يمكن تداولها وشراؤها وإعادة بيعها.

ويقول: "إن مفهوم الفن كسلعة أصبح معترفاً به بشكل متزايد من قبل الجمهور الأوسع". ويشير إلى أن "النخب في الصناعة المالية وصناعات العقارات والتكنولوجيا بدأت في إنشاء مجموعاتها الخاصة".

بالإضافة إلى ذلك ، فإن سوق الفن هو مقصد سيء السمعة من الأموال التي تم الحصول عليها بوسائل غير مشروعة - وهو أمر غير وارد في التقرير. كما هو الحال مع بيع Salvator Mundi ، فمن الشائع أن تتم عمليات الاستحواذ بدون تحديد الهوية ، مع تقدير.

من الصعب تقييم قيمة العمل الذي يمكن أن تختلف أسعاره بشكل كبير من لحظة إلى أخرى. تقبل بيوت المزادات الدولية المدفوعات النقدية ، وتتطلب القليل من المعلومات. من الممكن شراء عمل بالأموال القذرة أو تخزينه على جدران سكن أو في خزنة وإعادة بيعها بشكل مجهول عند الحاجة إلى المال.