sexta-feira, 26 de dezembro de 2014

Algérie : la Radio nationale a son musée


(Agence Ecofin) - C’est une première en Algérie. La Radio nationale a créé son musée qui retrace 58 ans d’existence, depuis la création de la radio « Voix de l'Algérie libre et combattante », puissant instrument de lutte contre le colonisateur français.





Lors de l’inauguration le 18 décembre dernier, le ministre de la Communication, Hamid Grine, a dit que le musée a la mission de préserver la mémoire de la Radio nationale. Pour lui, il s’agit d'un moyen de rendre hommage aux pères fondateurs : journalistes, animateurs, techniciens et ingénieurs.

Le musée renferme une mine d’archives de la radio qui retrace l’histoire de l’Algérie. Une bibliothèque multimédia permet l'accès à différentes données sous plusieurs formats : les photos des différents ministres de la Communication et directeurs de la radio, des chansons du patrimoine algérien et, surtout, des émissions inhérentes à l'histoire médiatique et culturelle du pays. Le musée de la Radio nationale algérienne renferme aussi différents types d'appareils de transmission et de réception utilisés depuis la fin des années 50 à nos jours.

L’accès à cet espace est libre et gratuit. Le ministre Hamid Grine a annoncé la création prochaine du musée de la télévision algérienne et un autre de la presse écrite.


 fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.agenceecofin.com/audiovisuel/2612-25395-algerie-la-radio-nationale-a-son-musee

Exploration into why a rich Temple-building civilization died out on Malta



The ancient Temple People civilization of Malta did not suffer invasions, widespread disease or famine, past research has shown. Why their culture died is a mystery.


Hagar Qim megalithic site in Malta


A large team of researchers is carrying out studies to determine why the Temple People’s civilization on the Mediterranean islands of Malta and Gozo ended. The Temple People had an incredibly rich culture with unique art, stone temples and structures, huge burial sites and advanced agriculture going back to 4000 BC and ending around 2900 BC.

The stone structures on the island are among the oldest free-standing stone structures in history, Malta Today says in a long story about the new research.

Mnajdra Temple, Malta

Mnajdra Temple, MaltaMnajdra Temple, Malta. Source: BigStockPhoto

The researchers will try to answer two questions: What killed off the Temple People? Why do some civilizations survive for many years in fragile environments and others don’t?

The Temple People had 30 temple complexes on Malta and Gozo in their 1,100-year history. They had intricate burial sites, complex rituals and animal sacrifices, Malta Today says.

Artwork flourished. Archaeologists and others have found hundreds of ancient statues. Some are famous as abundantly fertile “fat ladies”, but these are only around 15 percent of the statues found. Phallic and androgynous symbols are much more common.

The ‘Venus’ figure of Malta

The ‘Venus’ figure of MaltaThe ‘Venus’ figure of Malta (Wikimedia Commons)

“How the Islands managed to sustain such a rich culture is a mystery. Another mystery is how it all ended,” the story says.

The Temple People left no written documents to tell what their lives and society were like and why their civilization declined. So scientists have to examine physical clues to reconstruct the past and say how they lived and why they died out.

Archaeologists, biologists and geologists will do soil and pollen sampling, GPS and LiDAR studies and try to tie it in with what is known of the Temple People’s agriculture, architecture, art and why it all ended.

The group will take 12 core samples of soil and sediments down to the bedrock, which ranges from 6.56 feet (2 meters) to 65.6 feet (20 meters) deep. One of the researchers likened soil samples to taking a biopsy.

“If I find material in the core that is suggestive of a very wooded environment it means that the environment was wooded but then eroded. If erosion has taken place, it means that the landscape might not have been heavily terraced. Everything is linked,” said Nicholas Vella of the University of Malta.

Altar in Mjandra Temple, Malta

Altar in Mjandra Temple, MaltaAltar in Mjandra Temple, Malta. Source: BigStockPhoto

They will study the remains of mollusks found in the cores to determine the ecology and cultural habits of ancient people of Malta and a nearby island, Gozo. The species of snails on Malta are the same as 7,000 years ago. There are three main types of snails on Malta, said researcher Katrin Fenech: land snails, brackish water mollusks and marine mollusks. If you find a snail shell that needed shade in a dry, rocky place, one could assume the area had previously been treed before people arrived on Malta in Neolithic times.

The Malta Today writer asked Fenech if rapid climate change may have contributed to the demise of the Temple People. She told him to define rapid and said there were periods of cooler, drier weather and warmer, wetter weather. But inadequate radiocarbon dating and core sampling has limited speculation about whether climate change contributed to the Temple People’s decline, Fenech said. The new studies, called Fragsus, will change that.

The Maltese researchers and others are looking at cores for pollen, soil composition, bone fragments, and volcanic tephra particles.

The research team is called Fragsus for Fragility and Sustainability in the Restricted Island Environments of Malta. The team includes 19 academics, 10 post-doctorate researchers and about 50 students from seven countries and five institutions. The institutions include the University of Malta, Malta Heritage and Cambridge University. The two primary areas of research are mortuary research and landscape research, the Fragsus website says.

Vella and two other Maltese researchers will study landscapes to determine how the people used land for raising animals and growing crops—two of the main sources of ancient Maltese diet.

The Temple People likely had cattle, sheep, goats, barley, wheat, lentils, olives and fruit, Malta Today says.

Fragsus will try to answer how the people raised their animals, what a day in their life looked like, why they didn’t fish much, how much trade there was with other civilizations, were people healthy, and who was being buried at these sites—the leaders of the settlements or everyone?

“We are quite sure how the Temple people did not die, but uncertain about why they did,” the story says.

Featured image: Hagar Qim megalithic site in Malta. Source: BigStockPhoto


By Mark Miller
- fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/exploration-why-rich-temple-building-civilization-died-out-malta-002496#sthash.pYpkF7m4.dpuf

Archaeologists unearth huge entryway with frescoes and rebel tunnels in Herod's palace

Archaeologists have uncovered a monumental entryway and corridor with arches and frescoes that led into the courtyard of King Herod’s hilltop palace complex, known as Herodium, in the Palestinian West Bank.
King Herod's Hilltop Palace (Herodium)

King Herod ruled Judea under the auspices of Rome when Jesus was born and attempted to have the baby Jesus killed when the Magi came to worship him. The Magi had told Herod the expected savior’s coming was announced by the rising of a bright star, the New Testament says. Jesus’ family fled to Egypt to escape Herod.

Archaeologists from Hebrew University of Jerusalem’s Institute of Archaeology, who have been excavating Herod’s palace for years, found exits to tunnels that were used by Jewish rebels in the second century.

Herodian Palace entry complexHerodian Palace entry complex

Palace entry complex discovered at Herodian Hilltop Palace by Hebrew University archaeologists (Credit: Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

This is the King Herod about whom his master, Roman Emperor Augustus, said, “I would rather be Herod’s pig than Herod’s son.” Herod had his own sons and some of his wives and a brother-in-law killed and also ordered boys in Bethlehem under age 2 slain in retaliation for the Magi’s role in Jesus’ escape.

“Herod's slaughter of the infant boys as accounted in the New Testament vividly reflects the pathological character of the king. He murdered members of his own family yet scrupulously observed Mosaic dietary laws and would eat no pork,” Bible-History.com says.

Herod's slaughter of infant boysHerod's slaughter of infant boys

Herod's slaughter of infant boys. 'Massacre of the Innocents' by Fra Angelico, c 1450 AD. (Wikimedia Commons)

However, there is a discrepancy between scriptures and recorded history. King Herod died in 4 B.C., four years before the Bible says Jesus was born.

King Herod built great cities and fortresses, was a patron of Greek culture in Judea and was a formidable warrior in battle, but he was a hated tyrant.

Hebrew University’s news website describes what the archaeologists found: 'The main feature of the entryway is an impressive corridor with a complex system of arches spanning its width on three separate levels These arches buttressed the corridor’s massive side-walls, allowing the king and his entourage direct passage into the Palace Courtyard. Thanks to the supporting arches, the 20-meter (65 feet) long and 6-meter (20 feet) wide corridor has been preserved to a height of 20 meters.'

Herodium excavationsHerodium excavations

Herodium excavations (Wikimedia Commons)

Archaeologists speculate the entryway was part of Herod's plan to transform Herodium into a volcano-shaped hill. They concluded the entrance was never used because it became redundant. Herod determined to convert the palace into a burial mound when he became sick and knew he would die. The corridor and most other structures on the hill were filled in, including a theater discovered in 2008. One edifice was left: Herod’s tomb.

The team found evidence of the Bar Kokhba Revolt period of 132-136 A.D. They found tunnels on the site dug by rebels to wage guerrilla war against the Roman occupiers. Wooden beams support the tunnels, which exited the hilltop palace through the corridor’s walls. Openings were hidden in the corridor just recently unearthed.

After excavations are complete, visitors to the Herodium hilltop fortress will be able to enter it the same way Herod did 2,000 years ago: through the arched corridor, into the courtyard. Officials also plan to allow direct access to the palace on the top of the hill from structures on the slope, such as the royal theater and the mausoleum via a monumental stairway previously unearthed.

Bible-History.com’s article about King Herod, called 'the Great,' says though he was Jewish he was disliked by Jews of the time. Later he was considered a great enemy of Christians and Jews for his attempt to assassinate the newborn Jesus and for killing the young boys.

'Although Herod had exceptional leadership skills, he was extremely disliked by the Jews. His attitude toward the Maccabean dynasty, to which he was related by marriage, along with his insolence and cruelty, angered them all the more. He even had his brother-in-law and several of his wives and sons executed,' Bible History says.

Herod Antipas was King Herod’s son. Herod Antipas ruled Galilee during Jesus' life and at the time of his crucifixion and death. He has been accused of conspiring to kill Jesus, but there is little or no historical or biblical support for this.

- fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/archaeologists-unearth-huge-entryway-herods-020147#sthash.F4yQsvGi.dpuf

Archaeologists unearth huge entryway with frescoes and rebel tunnels in Herod's palace

Archaeologists have uncovered a monumental entryway and corridor with arches and frescoes that led into the courtyard of King Herod’s hilltop palace complex, known as Herodium, in the Palestinian West Bank.
King Herod ruled Judea under the auspices of Rome when Jesus was born and attempted to have the baby Jesus killed when the Magi came to worship him. The Magi had told Herod the expected savior’s coming was announced by the rising of a bright star, the New Testament says. Jesus’ family fled to Egypt to escape Herod.
Archaeologists from Hebrew University of Jerusalem’s Institute of Archaeology, who have been excavating Herod’s palace for years, found exits to tunnels that were used by Jewish rebels in the second century.
Herodian Palace entry complex
Palace entry complex discovered at Herodian Hilltop Palace by Hebrew University archaeologists (Credit: Hebrew University of Jerusalem).
This is the King Herod about whom his master, Roman Emperor Augustus, said, “I would rather be Herod’s pig than Herod’s son.”  Herod had his own sons and some of his wives and a brother-in-law killed and also ordered boys in Bethlehem under age 2 slain in retaliation for the Magi’s role in Jesus’ escape.
“Herod's slaughter of the infant boys as accounted in the New Testament vividly reflects the pathological character of the king. He murdered members of his own family yet scrupulously observed Mosaic dietary laws and would eat no pork,” Bible-History.com says.
Herod's slaughter of infant boys
Herod's slaughter of infant boys. 'Massacre of the Innocents' by Fra Angelico, c 1450 AD.  (Wikimedia Commons)
However, there is a discrepancy between scriptures and recorded history. King Herod died in 4 B.C., four years before the Bible says Jesus was born.
King Herod built great cities and fortresses, was a patron of Greek culture in Judea and was a formidable warrior in battle, but he was a hated tyrant.
Hebrew University’s news website describes what the archaeologists found: 'The main feature of the entryway is an impressive corridor with a complex system of arches spanning its width on three separate levels These arches buttressed the corridor’s massive side-walls, allowing the king and his entourage direct passage into the Palace Courtyard. Thanks to the supporting arches, the 20-meter (65 feet) long and 6-meter (20 feet) wide corridor has been preserved to a height of 20 meters.'
Herodium excavations
Herodium excavations (Wikimedia Commons)
Archaeologists speculate the entryway was part of Herod's plan to transform Herodium into a volcano-shaped hill. They concluded the entrance was never used because it became redundant. Herod determined to convert the palace into a burial mound when he became sick and knew he would die. The corridor and most other structures on the hill were filled in, including a theater discovered in 2008. One edifice was left: Herod’s tomb.
The team found evidence of the Bar Kokhba Revolt period of 132-136 A.D. They found tunnels on the site dug by rebels to wage guerrilla war against the Roman occupiers. Wooden beams support the tunnels, which exited the hilltop palace through the corridor’s walls. Openings were hidden in the corridor just recently unearthed.
After excavations are complete, visitors to the Herodium hilltop fortress will be able to enter it the same way Herod did 2,000 years ago: through the arched corridor, into the courtyard. Officials also plan to allow direct access to the palace on the top of the hill from structures on the slope, such as the royal theater and the mausoleum via a monumental stairway previously unearthed.
Bible-History.com’s article about King Herod, called 'the Great,' says though he was Jewish he was disliked by Jews of the time. Later he was considered a great enemy of Christians and Jews for his attempt to assassinate the newborn Jesus and for killing the young boys.
'Although Herod had exceptional leadership skills, he was extremely disliked by the Jews. His attitude toward the Maccabean dynasty, to which he was related by marriage, along with his insolence and cruelty, angered them all the more. He even had his brother-in-law and several of his wives and sons executed,' Bible History says.
Herod Antipas was King Herod’s son. Herod Antipas ruled Galilee during Jesus' life and at the time of his crucifixion and death. He has been accused of conspiring to kill Jesus, but there is little or no historical or biblical support for this.
- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/archaeologists-unearth-huge-entryway-herods-020147#sthash.F4yQsvGi.dpuf

Masp recebe proteção de sua área externa



Segundo publicação no Diário Oficial do último dia 18, o Conselho de Defesa do Patrimônio Histórico, Arqueológico, Artístico e Turístico (Condephaat) de São Paulo aprovou por unanimidade proposta específica de regulamentação para proteção da área envoltória do Museu de Arte de São Paulo (Masp). Segundo o Condephaat, o Parque Tenente Siqueira Campos (Parque Trianon) está agora incluído no projeto de proteção, além da "via pública que os conecta" (o trecho da Avenida Paulista), e mais os espaços públicos adjacentes, as áreas verdes na parte posterior da edificação e os lotes laterais do museu.

Segundo a reunião do colegiado do Condephaat, a proposta "qualifica a ideia do destaque, ambiência e visibilidade do bem tombado". O processo é o de número 62136/2013. O Masp é tombado pelas três instâncias de patrimônio - o último tombamento foi o federal, em 2003. Mas, desde meados deste ano, novas resoluções dos patrimônios municipal (Conpresp) e estadual (Condephaat) estavam, na prática, acabando com a proteção que delimitava um raio de 300 metros em volta do bem tombado.

A decisão coincide com a nova fase que vive o Masp, que elegeu uma diretoria renovada no dia 17 de setembro e iniciou um processo de profissionalização de sua gestão. Desde então, o museu conseguiu cerca de R$ 15 milhões em doações de pessoas físicas e patrocínios. Também assumiu uma pendência antiga com a Previdência Social, que vinha sendo contestada judicialmente, o que elevou sua dívida em mais R$ 10 milhões. Ainda assim conseguiu, após anos endividado, entrar em 2015 com uma reserva de caixa.

O "choque de gestão", no entanto, teve efeitos colaterais. A partir do próximo ano, o preço do ingresso saltará de R$ 15 para R$ 25. O valor dá direito à visitação de todas as exposições em cartaz, mas torna o museu o mais caro da cidade.

Um outro efeito da nova direção é uma série de demissões no museu, o que incluiu funcionários antigos, de cerca de 20 anos de trabalho na instituição. Segundo o presidente do Masp, Heitor Martins, as saídas de funcionários são naturais. "Nós nomeamos um novo diretor artístico e um novo diretor de operações. Essas pessoas estão montando suas novas equipes. Há uma nova gestão nos quadros também", admitiu.

Maior museu de arte da América Latina, o Masp atrai arquitetos e estudiosos do mundo, dada sua configuração original e seu grande vão livre, de 74 metros quadrados, além do rico acervo, que já foi avaliado em US$ 2 bilhões (na verdade, o valor é incalculável).

O edifício foi projetado por Lina Bo Bardi em 1958, para abrigar o museu criado pelo empresário Assis Chateaubriand na década de 40. Chateaubriand incumbiu Bardi, marido de Lina, de montar o acervo que começou a funcionar em 1947 na sede dos Diários Associados, na Rua 7 de Abril. Bardi comprou obras raras, como por exemplo seis telas de Modigliani. O prédio foi construído por Figueiredo Ferraz e inaugurado em 7 de novembro de 1968 pela rainha Elizabeth II, da Inglaterra.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti https://br.noticias.yahoo.com/masp-recebe-prote%C3%A7%C3%A3o-%C3%A1rea-externa-110000422.html

Stymied By Snow - Monet painted more than 100 snow paintings, ....


It’s as if the technical challenges of recording the fluffy white stuff convincingly are so debilitating, there’s no room left for inspiration.


For Dutch artist Hendrick Avercamp, who painted landscapes teeming with ice-skaters early in the 17th century, unusual climatic conditions liberate a holiday spirit among his stolid burghers. Avercamp’s snow is theatrical backdrop, much as in the ballet Les Patineurs, and every bit as tinselly. Invigorated by the freeze, his skaters do not reflect on the irony that what temporarily quickens their pulses is itself a deadening force: trees stand black-branched, birds wheel in search of non-existent food. Later in the century, Dutch landscapists explored the stillness snow imposes, sometimes by moonlight. Such scenes invite reflection, as if the association of snow and Christmas were firmly established 400 years ago, the snow a metaphor for the physical hardships of the Nativity. Alternatively these images may simply be exercises in tonality, like the later wintry cityscapes of Childe Hassam.

Monet painted more than 100 snow paintings, including ‘The Magpie’ of 1868–9, Argenteuil views and, inevitably, soggy haystacks. Several surprise on account of the breadth of the artist’s palette. Snow proved an ideal foil for ‘impressions’ of light, sunshine that is pink, blue-grey, palest buff or white. Yet, while many successfully capture aspects of the reality of the snowy experience, it is the artist’s prowess, rather than a deeper profundity, that impresses the viewer.


Hendrick_Avercamp_-_Winter_Landscape_-_WGA1082
Matthew Dennison argues that painting snowy scenes poses a particularly vexing challenge even for great artists, suggesting that a “sense of something lacking characterises much ‘snowy’ art”:

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://dish.andrewsullivan.com/2014/12/24/stymied-by-snow/

(Image: Hendrick Avercamp’s “Winter Scene on a Canal,” early 17th century, via Wikimedia Commons)

A Love Letter To Louise Bourgeois, A Feminist Icon Whether She Likes It Or Not

In honor of Louise Bourgeois' birthday, we are revisiting an article we published earlier this year.

Louis Bourgeois is a feminist art icon, even if she -- in some mythical afterlife populated by giant spiders and contorted, alien figures -- would hate the label. When she was alive, she was aloof on the subject. "Some of my works are, or try to be feminist, and others are not feminist," she proclaimed in an interview with the San Francisco Museum of Art.

"I am lucky to have been brought up by a mother who was a feminist and fortunate enough to have married a husband who was a feminist, and I have raised sons who are feminists," Germaine Greer quoted her as saying in The Guardian, not long after Bourgeois' death in 2010. The artist, famous for her mammoth sculptures of spiders, pointedly leaves herself out of the list, insinuating not a rejection of the -ism, necessarily, but perhaps a bit of condescension toward critics eager to associate her with the term, no matter her opinions.



Louise Bourgeois, Spider, 2003. Collection The Easton Foundation. Photo: Christopher Burke.

Bourgeois does owe a lot to the feminist movement. Born in Paris in 1911, she spent many of her early years known merely as the wife of Robert Goldwater, the American art historian with whom she moved to New York in the late 1930s. Though she drew, painted, sculpted and printed throughout the 1940s and '50s, Bourgeois didn't receive real art world attention until her 50s. She had to wait more than a few years before she moved from the periphery of art critics' minds to somewhere closer to the center. During that time, the feminist movement was blooming.

"The specific agent of change was feminism, the most pervasive and radical of the many 'pluralist' constituencies of the last ten years," Robert Storr wrote in Art in America back in 1983, around eight years after she graced the cover of Artforum and one year after her retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art. "And more particularly the insistence of feminist artists and critics we look hard at for whatever was formerly considered 'marginal' in art, and hardest of all at the very notion that a 'mainstream' existed."

For a woman who loathed the term "woman artist," it seems to many so important that she was a woman artist at the time she rose to recognition. Amidst the hyper masculine aesthetic of the Abstract Expressionists and the coy fraternity of Surrealism, she quite literally forged ahead, casting "anti-form" creatures from marble and bronze. From her "Femme Maison (Woman House)" paintings created circa 1946-47, in which the bodies of nude women are forcefully squished into the confining spaces of a home, to her 1968 sculpture, "Janus Fleuri," a piece curiously sexualized if not for its inclusion of imagery that resembles both male and female genitalia, themes of femininity and gender roles reared their heads.

Louise Bourgeois, Lady in Waiting, 2003. Collection The Easton Foundation. Photo: Christopher Burke.

A fascination with the body is apparent throughout her career. While men like Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman were swimming in color fields, she rendered her self-portrait as a torso, pieced together with bizarre bulges and crevices that seem endlessly out of place. "That, she said, was how she felt about her physical self," Michael McNay wrote, "and by extension, how women generally felt, even while they studied copies of Vogue or Harper's Bazaar."

The list could go on: There's the 1968 piece, "Fillette," which was obviously a massive penis sculpture, one that happened to make its way into a photograph by Robert Mapplethorpe. There's the 1974 tableau, "The Destruction of the Father," a gathering of mammary-like objects and penile knobs said to represent the "sacrificial evisceration of a body," more specifically "a pompous father, whose presence deadens the dinner hour night after night." There's the 1984 "Nature Study," appearing like a headless sphinx covered in breasts and equipped with Doberman Pinscher-esque claws.



Louise Bourgeois, Untitled, 2000. Private Collection, Courtesy Hauser & Wirth. Photo: Christopher Burke.

She might not have been singing the song of feminist sirens, but her work relentlessly juxtaposed male and female forms, revealing hybrid bodies and aggressive amalgamations of phallic and yonic imagery; sexual subject matter from a woman's gaze.

Her vocalized stance on a woman's social position versus that of a man's was at times confusing. She seemed simultaneously angry at the idea that masculinity and its own brand of ego were wrapped up in a penis, and disappointed that feminine beauty often went hand-in-hand with passivity.

"It's a dialogue between a man and a woman," Bourgeois recounted in another interview with SFMOMA, cryptically titled "Louis Bourgeois on Gender Roles." She outlines an interesting, if not depressing scenario attached to a phantom piece of art, a retelling that's almost incomprehensible as a total story, but a strange exchange nonetheless that gives glimpses of her own sentiments toward men and women.

Louise Bourgeois, Untitled, 2002. Collection The Easton Foundation. Photo: Christopher Burke.

"You know what men are like," she says to an unidentified male companion. "For example, it's about a man who discovers a vaccine. He discovers a vaccine, he's a bigwig. As for her, she stumbles upon a little sofa at the auction rooms. Understand? That's the relationship. If that doesn't convince you, I can give you other examples. For example, when he speaks. Of course, when he speaks the world stops in its tracks. Whereas she, she just chitchats. And when it's time for dinner, he's the chef. He prepares this wonderful meal! Whereas she, she just cooks. Just cooks. And he feels good, he whistles. He whistles like a blackbird. Whereas she whistles to herself. And when he feels good he touches you, right? He touches you. Whereas she, she brushes against you. To no effect... like pissing in the wind."

It wasn't until the 1990s that she went the way of the spider. Sculpting for heights of 35 feet, she created her first arachnid in 1999 and they quickly proliferated, as spiders are wont to do. Titled "Maman," the spindly creatures and their egg sacs, made from stainless steal, marble and bronze, stood as tributes to Bourgeois' mother, Josephine. "The Spider is an ode to my mother. She was my best friend. Like a spider, my mother was a weaver... spiders are helpful and protective, just like my mother."

Louise Bourgeois, Untitled, 2001. Collection The Easton Foundation. Photo: Christopher Burke.

Dark, ominous, and absent of the smooth curves of femininity, "Maman" projected a very different female object in places like Bilbao, Tokyo and Ottawa. Frightening yet maternal, sinister yet life-giving, antagonistic yet martyred -- these contradictions seemed Bourgeois' way of breaking through the gender binary, up until her last days at the age of 98. "I have fantastic pleasure in breaking everything," she once said. Yet towards the end of her life, she created, with delicacy, particularly in the realm of tapestry. This was yet another way of honoring her mother, and achieved a sense of "reparation."



Louise Bourgeois, Spider, 2007. Collection The Easton Foundation. Photo: Frédéric Delpech.

Her defiance, her arguably unmatched persistence, her visual tenacity -- these qualities will forever cement Bourgeois' place in feminist art history. Not because she's a woman artist -- a label hardly derogatory -- but because she pushed the boundaries of what it meant to make art.

“Feminist art is not some tiny creek running off the great river of real art," as Andrea Dworkin declared. "It is not some crack in an otherwise flawless stone. It is, quite spectacularly I think, art which is not based on the subjugation of one half of the species." Bourgeois should be proud to count herself amongst those who made feminist art.

All images included in this post are courtesy of Hauser & Wirth unless otherwise noted.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/12/25/louise-bourgeois-birthday_n_6373616.html



STEPHANE DE SAKUTIN via Getty Images


-----------//  BRASIL, SÃO PAULO, IBIRAPUERA

Imagem 5/15: Obra "Aranha" (1997) faz parte do acervo permanente do MAM (Museu de Arte Moderna), no parque do Ibirapuera, em São Paulo, e pode ser vista na marquise do local. Acima, registro de 2005 -----------//





























More: Women in ArtLouis Bourgeois Hauser & WirthLouis Bourgeois SpidersHauser & Wirth ZürichThe Easton FoundationLouis Bourgeois RetrospectiveLouis BourgeoisFemale ArtistsLouise Bourgeois L'araignée Et Les Tapisseries

Exotic hoard artefacts found in field hint at long-distance Bronze Age sea travel, say archaeologists in Wales

Exotic weapons buried in field could have arrived in Wales by long-distance sea travel from England or France


Metal detectorists, farmers and archaeologists have helped discover a Bronze Age hoard in west Wales© National Museum Wales

Archaeologists investigating a 2.5-kilogram hoard of sword blades, scabbards and knives found by a metal detectorist in January 2013 say the plough-disturbed artefacts could have been delivered to Wales by sea from southern England or northern France.

Two blade fragments, a scabbard fitting, a multi-edged knife and six copper ingot fragments were discovered by Adrian Young a few metres apart from each other in the corner of a field in Marloes and St Brides .

The Coroner for Pembrokeshire has now officially declared the hoard treasure, with archaeologists at National Museum Wales dating it to between 2,800 and 3,000 years ago.

“The combination of objects found in this hoard hints at the long-distance sea travel of finished objects during the Late Bronze Age, from southern England and northern France to west Wales,” says Adam Gwilt, the Principal Curator for Prehistory at National Museum Wales.

“The swords, scabbard and knife are exotic types, not typical for the region.

“We can now see that copper ingot fragments are common components within hoards from Pembrokeshire, similar to a pattern also seen in Cornwall.”

An as-yet-undecided public museum collection will acquire the hoard once it has been independently valued.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://www.culture24.org.uk/history-and-heritage/archaeology/art511370-exotic-hoard-artefacts-found-in-field-hint-at-long-distance-bronze-age-sea-travel-say-archaeologists-in-wales





What do you think? Leave a comment below.

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A Major Exhibition Considers the Colorful Legacy of Sonia Delaunay

PARIS — In our period of the rampant merging of art and fashion, it is refreshing to revisit where this hybridization more or less began in the modernist period with the first retrospective since 1967 of Sonia Terk Delaunay (born Sophie Stern or Illinichtna Sara Stern). It is a richly colorful exhibition of applied poetic abstraction, with 400 rather stylistically consistent works that stretch from the Belle Époque to the 1970s. It includes her bold paintings and monumental murals, gouaches, prints, posters, clothing, bindings, artists’ books, household and fashion items, textiles, and three reconstructions of immersive environments.
Sonia Delaunay, “Couverture du catalogue de l'exposition de Stockholm, Autoportrait” (1916) (all images courtesy Musée d'art moderne)
Sonia Delaunay, “Couverture du catalogue de l’exposition de Stockholm, Autoportrait” (1916) (all images courtesy Musée d’art moderne)

Sonia Delaunay, "Couverture de Berceau" (1911)
Sonia Delaunay, “Couverture de Berceau” (1911)


The majority her work is based in the theory of simultanisme, a proclaiming of the constructive and dynamic power of color. The show illustrates the fertile uniqueness of Sonia Delaunay by stressing her sustained dialogue with simultanisme even as she takes on the connection of art and technology by shuffling back and forth between various art forms. Her consistency of formal research, based in the synthetic, makes this show especially pertinent to our time.

Starting with her Fauvist color inspired works — that use various degrees of abstraction — Sonia Delaunay appears to be both an inventive and prolific creator, taking inspiration from the dynamism of modern life. She is a major precursor of a color abstraction that takes textiles and fashion seriously — she went so far as to resurface a sports car so as to match a dress. I noticed, in particular, a superb dress she made for Nancy Cunard that was adorned with rhythmic, joyful colors.
“Studio REP Modèles devant voiture simultanée” (1925)
“Studio REP Modèles devant voiture simultanée” (1925)


The show unravels chronologically, walking us step-by-step through the artistic advancement of the artist, establishing her specific place within the European avant-garde (her role as a pioneer in color-based abstraction) by highlighting the importance of her work to the applied arts.

Born 1885 in now war-torn Odessa (Ukraine) of a foreman father and a mother who could barely read, she discovered art through her maternal uncle Henri Terk, a wealthy member of the Jewish bourgeoisie in St. Petersburg. In 1904, she attended the Fine Arts Academy in Karlsruhe, Germany before coming to Paris in 1906, where she discovered Paul Gauguin and the Fauves: dedicating herself to the beauty of pure tones and solid colors. In 1907, she met Wilhelm Uhde, an art dealer, critic, and early collector of modernist painting by Picasso and Matisse. Their friendly marriage allows her to acquire French nationality.
Sonia Delaunay, “Manteau pour Gloria Swanson” (c. 1924)
Sonia Delaunay, “Manteau pour Gloria Swanson” (c. 1924)


After finding her authentic partner, Robert Delaunay (who she married in 1910 and who died in 1941), they jointly proclaimed (in 1921) the coming of a new art of Orphism based on the constructive and dynamic power of color and the simultaneous fusing of motion-with-color.

In 1913 the Delaunays showed their works in the Salon des Indépendants and the Herbst Salon, the latter being the first Orphist Salon, which also hosted works by Picabia, Metzinger, Gleizes, Léger, and a number of Futurist painters. Unlike others associated with Orphism, the Delaunays would return to this style (what they thought of as a universal language) throughout their lives, creating works that featured the joyous dance of rhythmic color. Sonia Delaunay’s work has a tendency towards non-representation that relies heavily on the fresh sensuality of colors in smooth transitions between forms (a concept derived from Neo-Impressionist color theory).
“Hélice, décoration pour le « Palais de l’Air », Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques, Paris” (1937)
“Hélice, décoration pour le Palais de l’Air, Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques, Paris” (1937)


Surprised by the outbreak of the First World War during their time in Spain, the Delaunays decided to extend their stay and settle in Vigo, where Sonia, a keen observer of flamenco music and dance, executed a series of large format paintings while also taking on theater costume and fashion projects.

The following decade marked the development of a period of semi-abstraction for her, as evidenced by “Propeller design for the Palace of the Air, International Exhibition of Arts and Technology in Modern Life, Paris” (1937), which was first presented at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (International Exhibition of Arts and Technology in Modern Life) the same year it was painted.
Sonia Delaunay, “Prismes électriques” (1913–1914)
Sonia Delaunay, “Prismes électriques” (1913–1914)


In the post-war period, she undergoes a profound renewal that culminates in the late 1960s, often calling on the free rhythm heard in jazz.

In our time, where many contemporary power artists have disgustingly worked for luxury brands, a move that has, in effect, revealed the high-end art market itself as a luxury goods business, Sonia Delaunay’s show was particularly revealing of the importance of scale. The connection between art and fashion, in-and-of-itself, is not very problematic (nor very major). It is the exploitation of that connection, on the global corporate scale, that chafes.
Sonia Delaunay (1885-1979). "Rythme couleur". Huile sur toile. 1964. Paris, musée d'Art moderne. Dimensions : 97,5 x 195,5 cm
Sonia Delaunay (1885-1979). “Rythme couleur” (1964), oil on canvas, Paris, musée d’Art moderne.
Sonia Delaunay’s Les couleurs de l’abstraction continues at the Musée d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris (11 Avenue du Président Wilson, Paris XVIe) until February 22, 2015.

fonte: @edisonmariotti #edisonmariotti http://hyperallergic.com/171415/a-major-exhibition-considers-the-colorful-legacy-of-sonia-delaunay/