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quinta-feira, 24 de março de 2016

Polônia inaugura museu em Markowa para honrar heróis que salvaram judeus.. --- Polska inauguruje muzeum w Markowej Aby uhonorować bohaterów, którzy ratowali Żydów.. --- Poland inaugurates museum in Markowa to honor heroes who saved Jews.

A família Ulma, cujos oito membros foram assassinados pelos nazistas em 1944 por tentar salvar um grupo de judeus, dá nome ao museu que abriu suas portas recentemente na Polônia para honrar a memória dos heróis que morreram durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial por socorrer seus vizinhos.


"Trata-se do primeiro museu da Polônia que lembra estes poloneses que ajudaram judeus durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial", declarou à Agência Efe seu diretor, Mateusz Szpytma, que ressaltou que, graças a estas pessoas, entre 30.000 e 40.000 poloneses de religião hebreia conseguiram escapar da perseguição nazista.


Szpytma incide no contexto histórico, com uma "Polônia sob ocupação alemã, uma ocupação extremamente cruel que deixou seis milhões de poloneses mortos, a metade deles judeus".

Nessa situação e, "apesar da ameaça de morte, houve gente que ajudou os judeus, autênticos heróis", ressaltou.

Só na Europa Oriental as autoridades nazistas contemplavam a pena de morte por escondê-los, enquanto em outros regiões, como na França ou Países Baixos, os castigos eram mais benevolentes.

O museu fica em Markowa, um pequeno povoado rural da região polonesa dos Sub-Cárpatos, onde até 1944 viveu a família Ulma, cujo nome foi eternizado nestas instalações.

Em 1939 Markowa contava com aproximadamente 4.400 habitantes, deles 120 judeus, em sua maioria assassinados pelos nazistas em 1942.

No entanto, e graças aos camponeses da comarca, 21 deles conseguiram salvar suas vidas e emigrar depois da guerra a Estados Unidos, Canadá e Israel.

Entre estes camponeses se encontravam Jozef e Wiktoria Ulma, que então tinham seis filhos (com idades entre oito e dois anos) e que decidiram esconder oito judeus em sua casa.

Não está claro como as autoridades nazistas se deram conta do fato, mas em 24 de março de 1944 a polícia militar alemã se apresentou na fazenda dos Ulma e assassinou os judeus escondidos e todos os membros da família, inclusive as crianças. Wiktoria estava então grávida de seu sétimo filho.

A família Ulma foi distinta com o título de Justo entre as Nações pelo Instituto Yad Vashem de Israel, da mesma forma que outros 6.400 poloneses que arriscaram sua vida para salvar judeus.

O museu se centra em histórias que, como a dos Ulma, aconteceram na província de Sub-Cárpatos, e mostra o heroísmo de alguns poloneses, mas também os dilemas que enfrentaram perante o temor de perder a vida por ajudar os outros.

São expostas também as relações polonesas-judaicas antes da guerra e a forma como a ocupação alemã modificou uma convivência que até então tinha sido pacífica.

O museu esteve em construção durante quase oito anos e fica em um edifício que lembra uma casa camponesa típica.

Seu "coração" é uma sala iluminada que reproduz o lar da família Ulma e inclusive abriga alguns móveis originais, como a mesa de carpinteiro de Jozef e algumas fotografias feitas por ele, fotógrafo amador.

O museu foi erguido por iniciativa das autoridades da província de Sub-Cárpatos e espera ser o primeiro de outros centros que lembrem a pouco conhecida história dos poloneses que arriscaram sua vida para socorrer seus compatriotas judeus.

Hoje na quase não há vestígios da forte presença judia que existia até antes da guerra, como a bela sinagoga do século XVIII de Lancut ou o cemitério de Lezajsk, onde está enterrado o rabino Tzadik Elimelech, um dos pais do Hassidismo.

A abertura do museu coincidiu com as críticas do governo polonês ao historiador e professor de Princeton, Jan Tomasz Gross, autor de vários ensaios sobre como os poloneses foram em alguns casos cúmplices no massacre de seus vizinhos de religião hebreia.

"Os alemães assassinavam os judeus e os poloneses que os socorriam e, apesar de isso, houve poloneses que arriscaram sua vida para ajudar-lhes, embora também seja preciso lembrar que houve situações contrárias e cruéis, e não temos por que negar isso", finalizou o diretor do museu da família Ulma.









Cultura e conhecimento são ingredientes essenciais para a sociedade.

A cultura é o único antídoto que existe contra a ausência de amor.

Vamos compartilhar.





--pl via tradutor do google

Polska inauguruje muzeum w Markowej Aby uhonorować bohaterów, którzy ratowali Żydów.
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Rodzina Ulmów, którego osiem członkowie zostali zamordowani przez hitlerowców w 1944 roku za próbę zapisać grupę Żydów, nazwy muzeum otwarto ostatnio w Polsce, aby uczcić pamięć bohaterów, którzy zginęli w czasie II wojny światowej, aby pomóc swoim sąsiadom.

"Jest to pierwsze w Polsce muzeum, którzy pamiętają tych Polaków, którzy pomagali Żydom w czasie II wojny światowej," powiedział Efe jej dyrektor, Mateusz Szpytma, który zwrócił uwagę, że dzięki tym ludziom, między 30.000 a 40.000 Polaków religii hebrajskiej udało im się uciec nazistowskie prześladowania.

Szpytma koncentruje się na kontekście historycznym, z "Polska pod okupacją niemiecką, niezwykle okrutnej okupacji, które opuściły sześć milionów polskich zmarłych, połowa z nich Żydów."

W tej sytuacji ", mimo groźby śmierci, byli ludzie, którzy pomagali Żydom, prawdziwych bohaterów," powiedział.

Tylko w Europie Wschodniej władze hitlerowskie były rozważa karę śmierci za ich ukrywanie, podczas gdy w innych regionach, takich jak Francja czy Holandia, te kary były bardziej życzliwe.

Muzeum mieści się w Markowej, małej wiosce w polskim regionie Podkarpackie, gdzie do 1944 roku żył rodziny Ulmów, którego nazwisko zostało uwiecznione w tych obiektach.

W 1939 Markowa miała około 4400 mieszkańców, z nich 120 Żydów, w większości zamordowanych przez hitlerowców w 1942 roku.

Jednak dzięki chłopów w regionie, 21 z nich udało się uratować swoje życie i emigracji po wojnie Stany Zjednoczone, Kanada i Izrael.

Wśród tych chłopów Józefa i Wiktorii Ulmów, która wtedy miała sześcioro dzieci (w wieku ośmiu i dwa lata) i postanowili ukryć ośmiu Żydów w ich domu.

Nie jest jasne, w jaki sposób władze hitlerowskie podjęły pod uwagę fakt, ale na 24 marca 1944 roku niemieccy żandarmi stał na farmie ULMA i zamordowany ukrytych Żydów i wszystkich członków rodziny, w tym dzieci. Wiktoria była wtedy w ciąży z siódmym dzieckiem.

Rodzina Ulmów została wyróżniona tytułem Sprawiedliwych wśród Narodów Świata przez Instytut Yad Vashem w Izraelu, podobnie jak inne 6400 Polaków, którzy ryzykowali życie, by ratować Żydów.

Muzeum skupia się na historii, takich jak Ulma, wydarzyło się w prowincji podkarpackie i pokazuje bohaterstwo niektórych Polaków, ale także dylematy stanęli przed strachem przed utratą życia, pomagając innym.

Są również narażone na stosunki polsko-żydowskich przed wojną, jak okupacja niemiecka zmodyfikowana współistnienie, które do tej pory było spokojnie.
Muzeum było w trakcie budowy przez prawie osiem lat i znajduje się w budynku, który przypomina typowy chłop domu.

Jego "serce" to jasny pokój, który odgrywa domu do rodziny Ulmów, a nawet domy jakieś oryginalne meble, w tabeli Józef Carpenter i kilka fotografii wykonanych przez niego, fotografa amatora.

W muzeum został zbudowany z inicjatywy Podkarpackiego władz wojewódzkich i ma nadzieję być pierwszym wśród innych ośrodków pamiętać mało znaną historię Polaków, którzy ryzykowali swoje życie, aby uratować swoich kolegów Żydów.

Dziś w prawie nie ma śladów silnej obecności Żydów, która istniała jeszcze przed wojną, jak piękna synagoga z XVIII wieku Łańcucie i Leżajsku cmentarz, gdzie pochowany jest rabin cadyk Elimelech rodzic chasydyzmu.

Otwarcie muzeum zbiegło się z krytyką rządu polskiego historyka i Princeton profesor Jan Tomasz Gross, autor wielu esejów o tym, jak Polacy w niektórych przypadkach współudział w masakrze swoich sąsiadów religii hebrajskiej.

"Niemcy mordowali Żydów i Polaków, że socorriam, a mimo to nie byli Polacy, którzy ryzykowali życie, by im pomóc, choć konieczne jest również, aby pamiętać, że nie było sytuacje konfliktowe i okrutne, a my nie mamy powodu, by temu zaprzeczyć" skończył dyrektor muzeum rodziny Ulmów.







--in via tradutor do google
Poland inaugurates museum in Markowa to honor heroes who saved Jews.
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The Ulma family, whose eight members were murdered by the Nazis in 1944 for trying to save a group of Jews, names the museum opened its doors recently in Poland to honor the memory of heroes who died during the Second World War to help their neighbors.

"This is the first museum in Poland who remember these Poles who helped Jews during the Second World War," he told Efe its director, Mateusz Szpytma, who pointed out that, thanks to these people, between 30,000 and 40,000 Poles Hebrew religion They managed to escape Nazi persecution.

Szpytma focuses on the historical context, with a "Poland under German occupation, an extremely cruel occupation that left six million Polish dead, half of them Jews."

In this situation, "despite the threat of death, there were people who helped the Jews, real heroes," he said.

Only in Eastern Europe the Nazi authorities were contemplating the death penalty for hiding them, while in other regions, such as France or the Netherlands, the punishments were more benevolent.

The museum is located in Markowa, a small rural village in the Polish region of Sub-Carpathian, where until 1944 he lived the Ulma family, whose name was immortalized in these facilities.

In 1939 Markowa had approximately 4,400 inhabitants, of them 120 Jews, mostly murdered by the Nazis in 1942.

However, thanks to the peasants of the region, 21 of them managed to save their lives and emigrate after the war the United States, Canada and Israel.

Among these peasants were Jozef and Wiktoria Ulma, which then had six children (aged eight and two years) and they decided to hide eight Jews in their home.

It is unclear how the Nazi authorities have taken account of the fact, but on March 24, 1944 the German military police stood on the farm of Ulma and murdered the hidden Jews and all family members, including children. Wiktoria was then pregnant with her seventh child.

The Ulma family was distinguished with the title of Righteous Among the Nations by the Yad Vashem Institute of Israel, just as other 6,400 Poles who risked their lives to save Jews.

The museum focuses on stories such as the Ulma, happened in the province of Sub-Carpathia, and shows the heroism of some Poles, but also the dilemmas they faced before the fear of losing their lives by helping others.

They are also exposed the Polish-Jewish relations before the war and how the German occupation modified a coexistence that had hitherto been peaceful.

The museum was under construction for almost eight years and is in a building that resembles a typical peasant home.

His "heart" is a bright room that plays home to the Ulma family and even houses some original furniture, as Jozef Carpenter table and some photographs taken by him, amateur photographer.


The museum was built on the initiative of the Sub-Carpathian province authorities and hopes to be the first of other centers to remember the little-known story of Poles who risked his life to rescue his fellow Jews.

Today in almost no traces of the strong Jewish presence that existed even before the war, as the beautiful synagogue eighteenth century Lancut or Lezajsk cemetery where is buried Rabbi Tzadik Elimelech, a parent of Hasidism.

The opening of the museum coincided with the criticism of the Polish government to historian and Princeton professor, Jan Tomasz Gross, author of several essays on how the Poles were in some cases complicit in the massacre of their neighbors of Hebrew religion.

"The Germans murdered the Jews and the Poles that socorriam and, despite this, there were Poles who risked their lives to help them, although it is also necessary to remember that there was conflict and cruel situations, and we have no reason to deny it," He finished the museum's director of Ulma family.

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